SS6H1a.b. SS6H2a. Latin America. Standard: Standard: SS6H1: b. Explain the impact of the Columbian Exchange on Latin America and Europe in terms of the

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)


  • SS6H1a.b.SS6H2a.Latin America

  • Standard:SS6H1: b. Explain the impact of the Columbian Exchange on Latin America and Europe in terms of the decline of the indigenous population, agricultural change, and the introduction of the horse.

  • Before 1492Two very different ecosystemsTwo different disease pools Two sets of flora and fauna Two sets of culturally diverse peoples

  • ...all the trees were as different from ours as day from night, and so the fruits, the herbage, the rocks, and all things.

    -- Christopher Columbus

  • Two biological ecosystems interchanged to create a new world ecology.

  • According to historian Alfred Crosby, the exchange of plants, animals and pathogens between the two hemispheres was biologically the most spectacular thing that has ever happened to humans," and he coined the phenomenon the Columbian Exchange.

  • An Exchange of Pathogens The smallpox virusIn Mexico alone, the native population fell from roughly 30 million in 1519 to only 3 million in 1568.

  • The greatest impact of the Columbian Exchange was the exchange of different food crops.Sweet PotatosCassavaPotatos

  • The Exchange of Plants and AnimalsOriginally from the Western HemispherePotatoMaize (corn)Manioc (cassava, tapioca)Sweet potatoTomatoCacao (chocolate)SquashChili peppers PumpkinPapayaGuavaTobaccoAvocadoPineappleBeans (most varieties, including phaseolus vulgaris)PeanutsCertain cottonsRubberTurkeysOriginally from the Eastern HemisphereSugarOlive oilVarious grains (Wheat, rice, rye, barley, oats)GrapesCoffeeHorsesCattlePigsGoatsSheepChickensVarious fruit trees (pear, apple, peach, orange, lemon, pomegranate, fig, banana) Chick peas Melons RadishesA wide variety of weeds and grassesCauliflowerCabbage

  • The Columbian Exchange

  • Imagine Italian food without tomatoes, Mexican food with no rice and bean dish, the Irish without potatoes, chocolate without sugar.

  • Standard:SS6H1: a. The student will describe the encounter (an unexpected or casual meeting with someone or something) and consequences of the conflict between the Spanish and the Aztecs and Incas AND the roles of Cortez, Montezuma, Pizarro and Atahualpa.

  • Introduction to the Aztecs

  • Hernan CortesSpanish conquistador- In 1519, the Governor of Spain hired Cortes to lead an expedition into Mexico.He took 600 men, 16 horses, and 14 cannons with him into Mexico.

  • Cortes was concerned that some of his men would be frightened by the Aztec.To make sure that no one tried to escape back to home, Cortes had all the ships destroyed.

    Success or Death were their only options

  • Cortes Meets the Aztecs

  • Cortes in Mexico Cortes trained his men for several months He made friends with nearby Indians who did not like the AztecHe began to hear more rumors that there were Indians, the Aztecs, who lived further inland that had a lot of gold. By the time he marched on the Aztec capital city of Tenochtitlan, he had over 1,500 fighters. Over 1,000 were native people who wanted to fight the Aztec.

  • The ruler of the Aztec at this time was Montezuma II. Under his rule, the Aztecs controlled the area around their capital city of Tenochtitlan, now Mexico City.Their borders stretched from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific Ocean.They controlled lands as far south as present-day Guatemala.

  • Cortes meets the AztecsCortez used an interpreter who had once been an Aztec slave and spoke their language.

  • Cortes and the AztecsThe Aztecs had also heard rumors how these men were light skinned and had strange animals and weapons. Montezuma II thought that Cortes was the god, Quetzalcoatl, who was fair skinned and had promised to return one day. So he gave him gold and allowed him to enter the great city of Tenochtitlan.

  • While they were there, the Spanish tried to convert the Aztecs to Christianity because they were so offended by their religion.Even though they were greatly outnumbered, Cortes had horses and better weapons and armor. He captured Montezuma II and tried to rule through him. Cortes believed that he could control the Aztec by keeping their leader hostage.They seized the Aztec gold and destroyed their temples.

    Cortes seizes the Emperor

  • A fight had broken out between Cortes men and the Aztec while Cortes was away.When Cortes returned, battles had to be fought to win back Tenochtitlan.

  • In 1521, Cortes led a military victory over the AztecFrom this time forward, the Spanish sent more troops and settlers to Mexico.

  • Invisible WarriorAnother reason the Spanish were so successful in defeating the Aztecs: the invisible warrior. The Spanish brought with them diseases that the Aztecs did not have immunity for: smallpox and influenza were two of the deadliest.

  • End of the Aztec EmpireMontezuma was killed in 1520. Most believe he was killed by his own people when he tried to stop a rebellion.In 1521, the Spanish blocked traffic to and from the city and then burned Tenochtitlan to the ground and later built a new city, Mexico City, on the same site.Cortes became very wealthy and famous. In 1540 he returned to Spain .

  • Lets Summarize

  • Conflict # 1: Aztec Empire v. Spain1519-1521Southern Mexican Plateau (Near modern Mexico City)Montezuma IIHernan Cortes-The Spanish are victorious-They have superior weapons & use the neighbors of the Aztecs as allies-Montezuma II is KilledThe Spanish claimed Mexico as a part of their Empire & used its resources to gain wealth

    The people of the region developed Spanish Culture traits (Language-Spanish & Religion- Catholic)

    Spain ruled the area for the next 300 years.

    Time PeriodLocationLeadersAztec RulerSpanish Conquistador

    Result of ConflictHow did this change things?

  • Exit TicketHow did Hernan Cortes impact Latin America?

  • Warm-UpShare your response from yesterdays exit ticket.Watch video clip:


  • Standard:SS6H1: a. The student will describe the encounter (an unexpected or casual meeting with someone or something) and consequences of the conflict between the Spanish and the Aztecs and Incas AND the roles of Cortez, Montezuma, Pizarro and Atahualpa.

  • Francisco PizarroPizarro was born in Spain in 1475.He was a pig farmer as a boy.As a young man he joined a ship traveling for the New World.

  • In 1502, at the age of 27, he landed on the island of Hispaniola. He learned a lot about exploration and conquering the native people.He traveled with Vasco Nunez de Balboa on his famous exploration of Central America in which Europeans first sighted the Pacific Ocean.

  • In 1523, Pizarro led a voyage to explore the west coast of South America, south of Panama.He came across some Indian traders who told of a rich country to the south.He learned that these people were the Inca and that they lived in the area of what is now Peru.Over the next few years, Pizarro went back to Spain to get permission to invade and conquer the Incas.

  • The Spanish king gave Pizarro permission to take the Inca land and claim it as part of Spain.He made Pizarro viceroy (governor) over the lands stretching six hundred miles south from Panama.

  • The king also gave Pizarro three ships, about two hundred men, and three dozen horses to make his plan work. Pizarro began his mission in 1531

  • Introduction to the Incas

  • Atahualpa was the last ruler of the Inca empire He had just gained control of the empire from his brother when Pizarro showed up. Inca land stretched 2,000 miles along the Pacific Coast of South America

  • Atahulapa was considered to almost be a God.Each day, he was given new clothes to wear, never wearing the same clothes more than once.Even the walls of his palace were gold and silver.He wore gold jewelry and ate from gold plates and cups.He was carried by servants from place to place on a special chair.

  • How did the Spanish win?

  • Lets watch and see

  • Sneak Attack!!Pizarro arranged a meeting between him and Atahualpa in 1531.The two did not trust each other.Pizarro had men hiding in buildings around the Incan town. He was up to no good.


  • Remember the Colombian Exchange:The Spanish had four main advantages:


  • What do you think this did to the population ?How could this have been an advantage to the Spaniards? But worst of all the invisible weapon: Diseases

  • Atahualpa arrived with thousands of men.ButSneak Attack

  • Atahualpa walked into a trap.

    When Atahualpa came out, the Spanish began shooting their cannons and guns, which were unknown to the Inca.

    The Inca were scared of them and terrified of the horses the Spanish rode . This gave the