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THE CIVIL WAR THE CIVIL WAR

THE CIVIL WAR. Path to The Civil War ► closer-to-war#us-inches-closer-to-war

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  • THE CIVIL WAR

  • Path to The Civil Warhttp://www.history.com/videos/us-inches-closer-to-war#us-inches-closer-to-warLincoln elected has to decide what to do with Forts in the SouthLincoln resupplies Ft. Sumter south doesnt want it to happen North cannot hold the fortLincoln calls for volunteers

  • After Fort SumterAmericans begin choosing sidesFor Sumter was a Federal outpost in Charleston, South Carolina.Confederate forces asked for its surrender.Lincoln refused and sent ships with supplies.Confederate cannons began firing on April 12, 1861. Fort Sumter fell 34 hours later.The Civil War began. This started the War.

  • Reaction of Lincolns CallLincoln declared the South was in rebellion and asked state governors for 75,000 militiamen; Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and states north of them rallied.Slave states of the Upper SouthNorth Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and Arkansasseceded.Border statesDelaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouriwere slave states that did not join the Confederacy, but people were divided on the war.Western Virginia supported the Union and set up its own state government as West Virginia in 1863.

  • Introduction1861 representatives from 6 of the 7 Southern States met to form the Confederate States of AmericaConfederacy = SouthNorth views this as a traitorous act of rebellion against the USNo one could be neutral in this war

  • Intro Cont.Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee and North Carolina (border slave states) join ConfederacyWestern Virginia (how we got W.Virginia) and Maryland, Kentucky, Delaware and Missouri remain in the UnionThis war would divide friends, states and even families

  • Preparing for WarJefferson Davis- President of the SouthLincoln (North) calls for 75,000 volunteers to come forward to preserve the UnionBoth sides were confident that their side would win

  • Strengths and Weaknesses of the NorthStrengths22 million populationRicher, more technology manufacturing and banks in the northHad more small farms to provide foodHad iron, coal, gold copperControlled the seas as wellWeaknessesMilitary LeadershipStart of war 1/3 of nations military leaders resigned and returned to their homes in the South

  • Strengths and Weaknesses of the SouthStrengthsSouth was bigger in land sizeNorth would need larger navy to seal off southern coastal linesCould win simply by defending its territoryMilitary leadership Robert E. Lee

    WeaknessesIf Union controlled Mississippi the South would be split in 2Economy could not support long warHad few factories to produce suppliesNo railroads to haul goodsNot a lot of money

  • Lincoln Vs DavisLincolnNorths greatest strengthBorn in KY in 1809Poor, did not have much schoolingLoved to read; had many jobsLawyerPatient, thoughtful, tolerantGood sense of humorDavisBorn in KY like LincolnAttended West PointFought in Mexican WarFirm believer in States Rights; left Senate when south secededDid not enjoy politics, did it out of sense of duty

  • JEFFERSON DAVIS

  • Norths StrategySurround the South by land and sea to cut off its tradeDivide Confederacy into sections so that one rebel region could not help anotherCapture Richmond, Virginia (capital of Confederacy) and destroy the rebel governmentAnaconda Plan

  • Rose GreenhowMost northerners thought that simply capturing Richmond would win the warRose Greenhow watched these northerners closely and used her friendship with government officials to learn of the Unions plansShe then tried to sneak these plans to the Confederacy

  • ROSE GREENHOW

  • Women in the Civil Warhttp://www.history.com/shows/classroom/videos/women-during-the-civil-war#women-during-the-civil-war

  • Bull RunJuly 1861 troops march from Washington to RichmondSouth knew North was coming and stopped them at Manassas small town on way to RichmondAt first a Union win looked certain but the South did not waiverThomas Stonewall Jackson was in chargeSouth ended up smashing the North

  • Bull Runhttp://www.history.com/videos/first-battle-of-bull-run#first-battle-of-bull-run1st major land battle25 miles from DCUnion troops are raw may not be readyTerrible Union defeatPeople thought this would end quicklyThis battle proves it will not

  • Main Idea 1:Union and Confederate forces fought for control of the war in Virginia.First major battle of Civil War in Virginia, in July 1861Union army of 35,000 under General Irvin McDowellConfederate army of 22,000 under General Pierre G. T. BeauregardClashed at Bull Run Creek near ManassasAdditional 10,000 Confederates arrivedConfederate troops under General Thomas Stonewall Jackson held against Union advanceConfederates counterattackedUnion troops retreatedConfederates won First Battle of Bull Run, also known as the first Battle of Manassas

  • More Battles in VirginiaGeneral George B. McClellan was placed in charge of 100,000 soldiers, called the Army of the Potomac.McClellan launched an effort to capture Richmond called the Peninsular Campaign. Stonewall Jackson launched an attack towards Washington, preventing Union reinforcements.Confederate army in Virginia was under the command of General Robert E. Lee. Lee attacked Union forces in series of clashes called Seven Days Battles and forced Union army to retreat in June 1862.Jacksons troops stopped Popes army before it met up with the other Union army. The Second Battle of Bull Run, or Second Battle of Manassas, was fought in August 1862; Confederates again forced a Union retreat.Lincoln ordered General John Pope to march to Richmond.

  • Robert E. LeeBorn into wealthy Virginia family in 1807Graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West PointFought in Mexican-American War Lincoln asked Lee to lead Union army at start of Civil War.Lee declined and resigned from the Union Army to become a Confederate general.

  • Robert E. Leehttp://www.history.com/videos/robert-e-lee#robert-e-lee

  • Women Support The WarMen went off to war, women would take their places at homeWent to work on farms and factories or found jobs as nurses, teachers, and gov. workersHelped military by being messengers, guides, scouts, smugglers, soldiers and spiesDorthea Dix trained nursesGreenhow seen as hero in the SouthClara Barton founded the Red Cross, cared for soldiers on the battlefield

  • Now Complete Page 154 section 3 in your ISNEngineers of the 8th N.Y. State Militia, 1861.

  • Union Blockade1861 Union launched blockade of southern ports by end of year most southern ports were closed to foreign shipsAs blockade continued, south asked Britain for support but the British refused. South could not sell cotton to Europe nor could it import suppliesNorth goal in the west was to control the Mississippi

  • Dividing the Confederacy1862 Union tries to control MississippiDavid Farragut led 46 Union troops up the Mississippi and captured New OrleansCity surrendered without firing a shotGrant lead troops from Illinois to Mississippi he was able to gain most of Kentucky and TennesseeWould not accept anything than unconditional surrender

  • Attacking RichmondGeorge McClellan sent 100,000 men by ship to capture RichmondConfederate forces stopped the Union attack Richmond is saved again

  • AntietamLee (Confederate) sent his troops to Maryland (slave state that remained in the Union)Lee wanted to show the strength of Confederacy and try to win on Union soil to convince Europe to support the south1862 met at Sharpsburg along Antietam Creek

  • Antietam Cont.McClellan (north) pounded Lee (south) troops who were outnumberedFollowing day Lee pulled back to VirginiaUnion victory but could be a defeat for both sides2,100 Union troops killed and 10,300 wounded2,770 Confederate Troops killed and 11,000 woundedSingle day of fighting more Americans lost their lives than the 1812 War and Mexican War combinedBloodiest Day of the War

  • ANTIETAM BATTLEFIELD

  • Antietamhttp://www.history.com/videos/the-battle-of-antietam#the-battle-of-antietam

  • New Realities of WarImproved weapons made killing at a distance easierRifles had replaced musketsCannons and artillery made it easier to rain down death on opponentsSoldiers often refused medical care because how terrible hospitals wereMore soldiers died of diseases than wounds

  • Civil War Technologyhttp://www.history.com/videos/civil-war-tech#civil-war-tech

  • Medical CareNot as advanced as weaponsNo understanding of cause of diseaseOperated in tents with basic instrumentsMost did not wash hand between patientsHospital death rate was so high, many soldiers refused medical careMore soldiers died of diseases than wounds

  • Emancipation ProclamationInitially Lincoln said Purpose of War was to save Union not to either save or destroy slaveryFelt that freeing slaves would deprive the South from their workforceJan 1, 1863 issued Emancipation ProclamationFreed slaves, initially had no impact though because South ignored it

  • Emancipation ProclamationDemocratic Party opposedAbolitionists said war was pointless without freedom for African Americans. Some predicted it would anger voters.On September 22, 1862, Lincoln issued Emancipation Proclamation, freeing slaves only in areas controlled by Confederacy, effective January 1, 1863. Proclamation and ReactionReaction African Americans gave thanks.Abolitionists rejoiced.Some noted that system of slavery still existed.Encouraged many enslaved African Americans to escape when Union troops came near.Loss of slaves crippled the Souths ability to wage war.

  • Emancipation Proclamationhttp://www.history.com/videos/lincolns-legacy-of-emancipation#lincolns-legacy-of-emancipation

  • The DraftBoth sides began running out of volunteers to fill their armies1862 Confederate passed Nations first draft lawAll white men 18-35 could be called for 3 years of military serviceNorth passed same law in 1863 drafting men 20-45Could avoid the army by paying a sub to take place rich mans war but a poor mans fight

  • Gettysburg1863 Lee wanted to capture a Northern city to seek peaceMet on July 1, 1863 west of Gettysburg, PAUnion, 90,000 led by General MeadeUnion occupied Cemetery Ridge 4 miles of high groundMile to the west 75,000 Confederates gathered on Seminary Ridge

  • Gettysburg, Cont.July 2, 1863 Confederate try to find weak spot in Union lines but couldntJuly 3, 1863 Lee ordered attack at center of Union linesPickett leads charge up to Cemetery Ridge (farthest North the South gets) but are gunned down quicklyLee withdrew to Virginia

  • Gettysburg, Cont.Loses are staggering: 17.500 Union are killed and 23,000 Confederate killed in 3 daysLee would not attack the Union again.Turning point of war north knew they could win

  • First DayLees forces were gathered at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on July 1, 1863.Ran into Union forces under General George G. Meade, beginning the Battle of Gettysburg Union took up defensive positionsSecond DayLee ordered attack on Union troops on Little Round Top.Both sides fought viciously for control.Union forces held off Confederates.Battle of GettysburgThird Day Lee planned attack on center of Union line. General George Pickett led 15,000 men in Picketts Charge, a failed attack on Cemetery Ridge.Lee began planning retreat to Virginia.

  • Turning PointGettysburg AddressGettysburg was turning point of warLee would never again attack in the North.Some 23,000 Union and 28,000 Confederate casualtiesVictory came the day before the Union capture of Vicksburg.Britain and France refused to aid South after Gettysburg.Lincoln gave speech called Gettysburg Address at dedication of battlefield cemetery.He praised bravery of Union soldiers and renewed commitment to winning the war.Aftermath of Gettysburg

  • Gettysburghttp://www.history.com/videos/the-battle-of-gettysburg#the-battle-of-gettysburgPicketts Charge:http://www.history.com/videos/last-charge-at-gettysburg#last-charge-at-gettysburg

  • Opposition on the Union Home FrontA group of northern Democrats were more interested in restoring peace than in saving the Union or ending slaverySome opposed war because they were sympathetic to the Confederate causeLincoln suspends right of habeas corpus (no longer have right to trial before jail)Northerners were becoming disloyal

  • Draft RiotsSome northerners resented being forced to end slaveryRiot in NYC over the draft lawsNYCers burned draft offices and battled policeWent on for 4 days and ended when troops from Gettysburg were able to restore order

  • Main Idea 4:Life was difficult for soldiers and civilians alike. Civil War armies fought in ancient battlefield formations that produced massive casualties.Endless rows of troops fired directly at one another.Many men died to gain every inch of ground.Doctors and nurses saved many lives.They did not have medicines to stop infections.The biggest killer in the war was disease, such as typhoid, pneumonia, and tuberculosis.Military prisoners on both sides lived in misery.They had little shelter, food, or clothing.Starvation and disease killed thousands.

  • Gettysburg AddressLincoln goes to help dedicate a new cemetery to those who died thereSpoke of the bravery in the warHe was not the keynote speaker and many could not hear his speech but it is forever remembered

  • Gettysburg Address:http://www.history.com/videos/gilder-lehrman-gettysburg-address#gilder-lehrman-gettysburg-address

  • Vicksburg: A Besieged CityWar of many technological 1sts railroads to move troops, telegraphs, photographs, armor plated steamshipsMerrimac and the Monitor: early in war the Union left the Merrimac in a naval yard in VirginiaThe Confederacy takes the Merrimac and restores it with iron plates covering the sides

  • Merrimac and the MonitorThe US Navy builds iron clad ship called the MonitorFlat deck with 2 heavy guns in a revolving turretMerrimac was renamed the Virginia and these two ships meet and exchange shots for hoursNeither claim victory but neither is harmedProves wooden ships cant compete with iron clad shipsSouth is never able to add enough to their navy to break the Union Blockade

  • Control of the MississippiUnion wants to divide the south by taking Control of the MississippiThe Union control both cities on either end of the Mississippi: New Orleans and Baton RougeConfederates continued to control one key location Vicksburg, Mississippi

  • VicksburgLocated on a hairpin turn in the MississippiEasy to defend and difficult to captureNeeded an army to get up the hill to combat the ConfederatesGrant had an army they took to Vicksburg and the Union bombarded them from the seaTook over a month but soon the Confederacy surrenders Vicksburg

  • Vicksburghttp://www.history.com/videos/the-union-siege-of-vicksburg#the-union-siege-of-vicksburg

  • Problems on Confederate Home FrontLife becomes grimNo new imports; what was available was very expensiveFarmers couldnt sell their cash crops so they planted food cropsSoldiers were dressed in rags by the endPeople at home were starving

  • Civil War Foodhttp://www.history.com/videos/extreme-eating-civil-war-food#extreme-eating-civil-war-food

  • Fort Wagner: African Americans Join the War1862: Congress opens the door to black recruitsAbout 186,000 African Americans enlisted in the Union ArmyAnother 30,000 African Americans joined the Union navy

  • Massachusetts 54th RegimentMass. was one of the 1st states to organize an all black regimentMost famous was 54th regiment lead by Robert Gould ShawMen were paid less than white soldiers and when they learned this they refused to keep working and eventually Lincoln authorizes equal payFought at Ft Wagner in SC faced fear of death or slavery if they were captured

  • African Americans At WarTo reach the fort troops had to cross 200 yards of sandy beachImpossible mission, after losing half of their troops the men pulled back their bravery was praised166 regiments fought nearly 500 battlesSoldiers received little training, poor equipment and less pay than white solders

  • African Americans At Warhttp://www.history.com/videos/gilder-lehrman-massachussetts-54th#gilder-lehrman-massachussetts-54th

  • AppomattoxLincoln finally found a leader to fight the Confederates. General Grant.Grant mapped out a plan for ending the warHe would send a large force to capture RichmondSherman would lead troops to Georgia to take Atlanta

  • On To RichmondMay 1864 Grant invades Virginia with force of 100,000 menLoses a lot of men at first but keeps fightingAt one point he Grant lost more men than Lee had in his whole armyKept fighting until they got to Petersburg and there Grant was able to get more troops and Lee was not

  • Total WarGrant wanted to launch total war on the enemys ability to fight and their ability to support an armyOrdered Philip Sheridan to wage total war in VirginiaAt the same time Sherman left Tennessee for Georgia and set all of Atlanta on fire.

  • Reelection of LincolnMcClellan runs against Lincoln and promises an immediate end to the war if he is electedLincoln did not think he would be re-electedSheridans success in Shenandoah Valley and Shermans capture of Atlanta came just in time

  • Shermans March Through GeorgiaMarched to destroy any last supply basesFields were trampled and burnedHouses broken into and destroyed60 mile wide path was destroyed1864 Captures Savannah, GeorgiaMarched through North Carolina by 1865 and destroyed everything in his path

  • AppomattoxApril 1, 1865 Union forces break through Lees army at Petersburgh to RichmondGrants soldiers moved quickly to surround Lees armyApril 9- Lee arrived at Appomattox Courthouse to surrender to General Grant

  • http://www.history.com/videos/surrender-at-appomattox-courthouse#surrender-at-appomattox-courthouse

  • Terms of SurrenderConfederate Soldiers could go home if they no longer foughtTake with them what they needed for spring plowingOfficers keep their swords and weaponsGrant sent food to Lees menGrant was gracious and realized the war was over and they were again 1 country

  • Touched by FireIntense experience everyone was touched by the warForged a new country; country was different than the one beforeBillions spent on conflictEvery family had lost a family member or friendSouths crop lands and livestock had been destroyed

  • Civil WarFirst truly modern warRail roads, telegraphy, armored ships, more accurate and destructive weaponsSecession and slavery were gone but conflict over states rights and future of African Americans would continue into the future.

  • Effects of the War Civil War had deep and long lasting effects.Almost 620,000 Americans killedThe Souths defeat ended slavery.Majority of former slaves, however, had no homes or jobs.Southern economy was in ruins.Tremendous amount of hostility remained.Questioned how the United States could be united again.

  • Civil War Mythshttp://www.history.com/videos/civil-wars-greatest-myth#civil-wars-greatest-mythMyth: This was not a war about slavery. Some argue it isnt.It was both about states rights and slavery. If there was no slavery, would there have been a war?

  • Meaning of the Civil Warhttp://www.history.com/videos/meaning-of-the-civil-war#meaning-of-the-civil-war

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