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PACIS 2012 Proceedings Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems(PACIS)
The Relationship Between Organizational Culture,Information Systems Management And ChangeReadinessJakobus SmitFaculty of Economics and Management, Utrecht University of Applied Science, Utrecht, Netherlands, firstname.lastname@example.org
Marielle DellemijnCRM Research, Utrecht, Netherlands, M.Dellemijn@crmexcellence.nl
Gilbert SilviusFaculty of Economics and Management, Utrecht University of Applied Science, Utrecht, Netherlands, email@example.com
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Recommended CitationSmit, Jakobus; Dellemijn, Marielle; and Silvius, Gilbert, "The Relationship Between Organizational Culture, Information SystemsManagement And Change Readiness" (2012). PACIS 2012 Proceedings. Paper 143.http://aisel.aisnet.org/pacis2012/143
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL
CULTURE, INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AND
Jakobus Smit, Faculty of Economics and Management, Utrecht University of Applied Science,
Utrecht, Netherlands, email@example.com
Marielle Dellemijn, CRM Research, Utrecht, Netherlands, M.Dellemijn@crmexcellence.nl
Gilbert Silvius, Faculty of Economics and Management, Utrecht University of Applied
Science, Utrecht, Netherlands, firstname.lastname@example.org
The role and impact of organizational issues on information systems and their management remains a
topic of interest in scientific enquiry. This paper presents a description of a research project of which
the main aim was to study the relationship between organizational culture and information systems
management as well as change readiness and information systems management. Data for this study
was collected through the use of a questionnaire distributed to customer relationship management
practitioners in the Netherlands. The questionnaire was based on theory and models found in research
literature. Building on previous research it was hypothesized that positive correlations exist between
certain elements of organizational culture and elements of information systems management.
The findings confirm that there is a relationship between certain organizational culture elements and
information systems management elements. More specifically this research confirms the findings of
earlier work and reveals the same pattern of correlations between the variables. In addition the
findings suggest that there is also a relationship between change readiness and information systems
Keywords: Organizational Culture, Change Readiness, Information Systems Management,
1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
Considering the importance that is being ascribed to IT-business alignment by organizations (Chen,
2010) it is becoming less debatable whether there is a relationship between organizational issues such
as organizational culture (OC) and the ability of organizations to manage information technology (IT)
and information systems (IS). Evidence from research on this topic supports the argument that this
relationship exists (Gouliemos, 2003; Leidner & Kayworth, 2006; Lowry et al., 2010; Shih et al.,
2010). The question that becomes more relevant is what the nature of this relationship is.
This paper reports on a study of which the purpose was to investigate the relationship between specific
elements of OC and Information Systems Management (ISM). In addition the relationship between the
readiness of an organization to change and its ability to manage IS was also investigated. The goals of
the project were to continue as well as extend previous research by Smit and Dellemijn (2011) by
testing the relationship between the same variables using a different sample as well as by extending
the focus area to include CR issues and how they may be related to ISM in this area.
In order to provide some background it has to be mentioned that the original purpose of this project
was to make a contribution to practice by generating an understanding of the OC, ISM and Change
Readiness (CR) issues that may relate to, and influence the success of Customer Relationship
Management (CRM) systems in the Netherlands. However the data that was collected also provided an
opportunity to investigate the relationship between these concepts. It has to be noted at this point that
for this study CRM systems is assumed to be a type of IS. Therefore for the remainder of the paper the
terms IS and ISM are used.
The first section reviews the literature on these topics and presents some research that precedes this
investigation. This is followed by a description of the research process. The findings are presented and
discussed and is followed by a concluding section that also offers some recommendations for practice
and future research.
In order to study the relationship between the various concepts one needs to use sound theoretical
foundations to guide the thinking on these topics. The main concepts and the theoretical thinking
behind them are briefly explored in the next section.
This section firstly describes the theoretical basis of the three main concepts that were studied in this
project namely OC, ISM and CR, and concludes with some reference to research on the relationship
between the concepts
2.1 Organizational culture
As can be expected definitions of organization culture abound. Already in the 1950s Kroeber and
Kluckhon (1952) commented on the big number of definitions and models. Some years later Ogbonna
and Wilkinson (1990) suggested that there are as many definitions of culture as there are so-called
experts on the subject
These many definitions represent a broad range of views and perspectives on the topic. Nevertheless
two themes emerge namely the distinction between observed or overt phenomena (such as behavior)
and hidden or covert phenomena (such as beliefs). These two themes are succinctly summarized by
Bower (1966) as well as Williams et al. (1994), as reported by Maull et al. (2001:305), who describes
culture at its basic level as the way we do things around here" and "the way we think about things
around here. Within the context of this project and for the purpose of this paper this is the definition
of OC that is used.
Similarly a large number of authors have suggested several models related to OC. Examples are Deal
& Kennedy (1982), Denison (1984; 1990), Denison & Neale (1996), Handy (1985), Hofstede (1980),
Johnson (1988), Kotter & Heskitt (1992), Schein (2010), and Singh (2004).
For the purpose of the study reported in this paper the X Model of Organisational Culture (Smit, et. al.,
2008) is used as a part of the theoretical foundation to study the relationship between OC, ISM and CR.
The main reason for using this model is that it has a strong theoretical basis in many existing models,
including some of those mentioned above, as can be seen in the original publication of Smit et al,
(2008). Secondly because this research aims to continue previous research where this model was used
(Smit & Dellemijn, 2011).
The X-Model suggests that the culture of an organization can be described in terms of 5 core elements
namely, Leadership, Strategy, Adaptability, Coordination, and Relationships. Each of these core
elements contains sub-elements that serve to explain the core elements in more detail.
The core elements are defined as follows:
Leadership: The ability of leaders in the organization to positively influence people to achieve organizational goals;
Strategy: The extent to which an organization is clear about its strategic direction;
Adaptability: The ability of an organization to stay in contact with change and respond to it;
Coordination: The extent to which systems and processes in an organization are aligned to deliver excellent services and products;
Relationships: The ability of different people, teams and groups in an organization to work together(Smit et al., 2008).
This model has been used as the basis for the development of an OC diagnostic tool that has been