The Relationship Between Organizational Culture, RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE, INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AND CHANGE READINESS Jakobus Smit, Faculty of Economics

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  • Association for Information SystemsAIS Electronic Library (AISeL)

    PACIS 2012 Proceedings Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems(PACIS)

    7-15-2012

    The Relationship Between Organizational Culture,Information Systems Management And ChangeReadinessJakobus SmitFaculty of Economics and Management, Utrecht University of Applied Science, Utrecht, Netherlands, kobus.smit@hu.nl

    Marielle DellemijnCRM Research, Utrecht, Netherlands, M.Dellemijn@crmexcellence.nl

    Gilbert SilviusFaculty of Economics and Management, Utrecht University of Applied Science, Utrecht, Netherlands, gilbert.silvius@hu.nl

    Follow this and additional works at: http://aisel.aisnet.org/pacis2012

    This material is brought to you by the Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS) at AIS Electronic Library (AISeL). It has beenaccepted for inclusion in PACIS 2012 Proceedings by an authorized administrator of AIS Electronic Library (AISeL). For more information, pleasecontact elibrary@aisnet.org.

    Recommended CitationSmit, Jakobus; Dellemijn, Marielle; and Silvius, Gilbert, "The Relationship Between Organizational Culture, Information SystemsManagement And Change Readiness" (2012). PACIS 2012 Proceedings. Paper 143.http://aisel.aisnet.org/pacis2012/143

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  • THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL

    CULTURE, INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AND

    CHANGE READINESS

    Jakobus Smit, Faculty of Economics and Management, Utrecht University of Applied Science,

    Utrecht, Netherlands, kobus.smit@hu.nl

    Marielle Dellemijn, CRM Research, Utrecht, Netherlands, M.Dellemijn@crmexcellence.nl

    Gilbert Silvius, Faculty of Economics and Management, Utrecht University of Applied

    Science, Utrecht, Netherlands, gilbert.silvius@hu.nl

    Abstract

    The role and impact of organizational issues on information systems and their management remains a

    topic of interest in scientific enquiry. This paper presents a description of a research project of which

    the main aim was to study the relationship between organizational culture and information systems

    management as well as change readiness and information systems management. Data for this study

    was collected through the use of a questionnaire distributed to customer relationship management

    practitioners in the Netherlands. The questionnaire was based on theory and models found in research

    literature. Building on previous research it was hypothesized that positive correlations exist between

    certain elements of organizational culture and elements of information systems management.

    The findings confirm that there is a relationship between certain organizational culture elements and

    information systems management elements. More specifically this research confirms the findings of

    earlier work and reveals the same pattern of correlations between the variables. In addition the

    findings suggest that there is also a relationship between change readiness and information systems

    management.

    Keywords: Organizational Culture, Change Readiness, Information Systems Management,

    Organizational Change.

    mailto:kobus.smit@hu.nlmailto:M.Dellemijn@crmexcellence.nl

  • 1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

    Considering the importance that is being ascribed to IT-business alignment by organizations (Chen,

    2010) it is becoming less debatable whether there is a relationship between organizational issues such

    as organizational culture (OC) and the ability of organizations to manage information technology (IT)

    and information systems (IS). Evidence from research on this topic supports the argument that this

    relationship exists (Gouliemos, 2003; Leidner & Kayworth, 2006; Lowry et al., 2010; Shih et al.,

    2010). The question that becomes more relevant is what the nature of this relationship is.

    This paper reports on a study of which the purpose was to investigate the relationship between specific

    elements of OC and Information Systems Management (ISM). In addition the relationship between the

    readiness of an organization to change and its ability to manage IS was also investigated. The goals of

    the project were to continue as well as extend previous research by Smit and Dellemijn (2011) by

    testing the relationship between the same variables using a different sample as well as by extending

    the focus area to include CR issues and how they may be related to ISM in this area.

    In order to provide some background it has to be mentioned that the original purpose of this project

    was to make a contribution to practice by generating an understanding of the OC, ISM and Change

    Readiness (CR) issues that may relate to, and influence the success of Customer Relationship

    Management (CRM) systems in the Netherlands. However the data that was collected also provided an

    opportunity to investigate the relationship between these concepts. It has to be noted at this point that

    for this study CRM systems is assumed to be a type of IS. Therefore for the remainder of the paper the

    terms IS and ISM are used.

    The first section reviews the literature on these topics and presents some research that precedes this

    investigation. This is followed by a description of the research process. The findings are presented and

    discussed and is followed by a concluding section that also offers some recommendations for practice

    and future research.

    In order to study the relationship between the various concepts one needs to use sound theoretical

    foundations to guide the thinking on these topics. The main concepts and the theoretical thinking

    behind them are briefly explored in the next section.

    2 LITERATURE

    This section firstly describes the theoretical basis of the three main concepts that were studied in this

    project namely OC, ISM and CR, and concludes with some reference to research on the relationship

    between the concepts

    2.1 Organizational culture

    As can be expected definitions of organization culture abound. Already in the 1950s Kroeber and

    Kluckhon (1952) commented on the big number of definitions and models. Some years later Ogbonna

    and Wilkinson (1990) suggested that there are as many definitions of culture as there are so-called

    experts on the subject

    These many definitions represent a broad range of views and perspectives on the topic. Nevertheless

    two themes emerge namely the distinction between observed or overt phenomena (such as behavior)

    and hidden or covert phenomena (such as beliefs). These two themes are succinctly summarized by

    Bower (1966) as well as Williams et al. (1994), as reported by Maull et al. (2001:305), who describes

    culture at its basic level as the way we do things around here" and "the way we think about things

    around here. Within the context of this project and for the purpose of this paper this is the definition

    of OC that is used.

  • Similarly a large number of authors have suggested several models related to OC. Examples are Deal

    & Kennedy (1982), Denison (1984; 1990), Denison & Neale (1996), Handy (1985), Hofstede (1980),

    Johnson (1988), Kotter & Heskitt (1992), Schein (2010), and Singh (2004).

    For the purpose of the study reported in this paper the X Model of Organisational Culture (Smit, et. al.,

    2008) is used as a part of the theoretical foundation to study the relationship between OC, ISM and CR.

    The main reason for using this model is that it has a strong theoretical basis in many existing models,

    including some of those mentioned above, as can be seen in the original publication of Smit et al,

    (2008). Secondly because this research aims to continue previous research where this model was used

    (Smit & Dellemijn, 2011).

    The X-Model suggests that the culture of an organization can be described in terms of 5 core elements

    namely, Leadership, Strategy, Adaptability, Coordination, and Relationships. Each of these core

    elements contains sub-elements that serve to explain the core elements in more detail.

    The core elements are defined as follows:

    Leadership: The ability of leaders in the organization to positively influence people to achieve organizational goals;

    Strategy: The extent to which an organization is clear about its strategic direction;

    Adaptability: The ability of an organization to stay in contact with change and respond to it;

    Coordination: The extent to which systems and processes in an organization are aligned to deliver excellent services and products;

    Relationships: The ability of different people, teams and groups in an organization to work together(Smit et al., 2008).

    This model has been used as the basis for the development of an OC diagnostic tool that has been

    validat

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