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THE ROLE OF ERGONOMICS IN PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARD AT WORKPLACE

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Text of THE ROLE OF ERGONOMICS IN PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARD AT WORKPLACE

SEMINAR REPORT

SEMINAR REPORT(SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE AWARD OF DEGREE OF MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY)

ON

THE ROLE OF ERGONOMICS IN PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARD AT WORKPLACE

SESSION 2011-2012UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF

Prof (Dr).P.K.Bharti H.O.D.Mechanical engineering Department (Seminar Co-ordinator)

SUBMITTED BY

Syed Shauzab AbidiM.Tech II Year of Production And Industrial Engineering

INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY LUCKNOWPhone No.: 0522-2890812, 2890730, 3096117 Fax: 0522-2890809 Web: www.integraluniversity.ac.in

Submitted By: SYED SHAUZAB ABIDI

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CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that SYED SHAUZAB ABIDI has completed necessary Seminar work & prepared the bonafied report on THE ROLE OF ERGONOMICSIN PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARD AT WORKPLACE

in satisfactory manner as the partial fulfillment for the requirement of the degree of M.Tech (Production and Industrial Engineering) Of INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY, LUCKNOW under the guidance of his faculty within his time limit and his full effort to make his Seminar good.

Prof (Dr).P.K.Bharti H.O.D.Mechanical engineering Department (Seminar Co-ordinator)

Prof.Sirajul Haque Mechanical engineering Department

Submitted by: SYED SHAUZAB ABIDI

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI take the opportunity to express my sincere thanks to Prof. (Dr).P.K.Bharti(Department Of Production and Industrial engineering) and Mr.Abhishek Dirvedi for his valuable advice and guidance for the success of this seminar. I also thank to all other staff of the department for their kind co-operation extended to me. Also I am extending my gratitude to everyone who helped me in the successful presentation of this seminar. I am thankful to all my friends who helped me in completing my seminar a successful one. I am also thankful to all the people who were directly or indirectly involved me in helping to complete my seminar report.

Syed Shauzab Abidi M.Tech ( IInd Year ) ( Production &Industrial engineering)

Submitted by: SYED SHAUZAB ABIDI

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INDEX

SNO.1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.11 12 13 14

TOPICIntroduction Occupational Hazards Literature Review Prevention Strategies Case Study 1 Case Study 2 Conclusion Future Developments Reference

PAGE NO.6 7 12 12 23 24 25 25 26

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FIGUREPage No.

Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure

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1-IntroductionIt is an undeniable fact that ergonomics contributes to safety and health but its role in OSH legislation is not widely appreciated and has not received consistent attention. This report attempts to discuss the extent and effect of ergonomics influence in OSH legislation. Some current issues are highlighted. The outcome of the study is to highlight the importance of ergonomics on OSH and to propose possible areas for further research. Improving worker productivity, and occupational health and safety (OHS) are major concerns in industry, especially in developing countries. Some of the common problems are improper workplace design, ill-structured jobs, mismatch between worker abilities and job demands, adverse environment, poor humanmachine system design and inappropriate management programs. This leads to workplace hazards, poor workers health, mechanical equipment injuries, disabilities, and in turn reduces worker productivity and product/work quality, and increases cost. Ergonomics or human factors application has been found to improve worker productivity, occupational health, safety and satisfaction. This has both direct and indirect effects on overall performance. It would, therefore, be extremely difficult to attain a company objectives without giving proper consideration to ergonomics. Effective application of ergonomics in work system design can achieve a balance between worker characteristics and task demands. This can enhance worker productivity, provide worker safety and physical and mental well being, and job satisfaction. Many studies have shown positive effects of applying ergonomic principles to the workplace, in machine design, in job design, and in environment and facilities design ( Burri & Helander, 1991; Das, 1987; Das & Sengupta, 1996; Das & Shikdar, 1999; Hasselquist, 1981; Resnick & Zanotti, 1997; Ryan, 1989; Schanauber, 1986; Shikdar & Das, 1995). Studies in ergonomics have also produced data and guidelines for industrial applications. The features of ergonomic design of machines, workstations, facilities are well known ( Chapanis, 1979; Das & Grady, 1983; Grandjean, 1988; Konz, 1995; McLeod, 1995; Melamed, Luz, Najemson, Jucha, & Green, 1989; Murrel, 1965; Ryan, 1987; Salvendy, 1987; Sanders & McCormick, 1992; Wilson & Corlett, 1992). However, there is still a low level of acceptance and limited application in industry. The main concern of work system design is usually the improvement of machines and tools. Inadequate or no consideration is given to the work system as a whole. Therefore, poorly designed work systems are common place in industry ( Das, 1987; Konz, 1995). Neglect of ergonomic principles brings inefficiency and pain to the workforce. An ergonomically deficient workplace can cause physical and emotional stress, low productivity and poor quality of work ( Ayoub, 1990a,b). It is believed that ergonomic deficiencies in industry are a root cause of workplace health hazards, low levels of safety, and reduced worker productivity and quality. Although ergonomics applications have gained significant momentum in developed countries, awareness remains low in developing regions. Ergonomics technology, if properly applied, can eliminate or reduce OHS problems in the workplace and enhance performance. Lower injuries mean lower medical and compensation costs, Submitted by: SYED SHAUZAB ABIDI

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less loss of wages and workdays, and financial benefit to the company. The application of ergonomics in improving OHS needs to be explored for the oil industry in desert environments. Work in the oil industry involves diverse activities including work in rigs, workshops, and offices. Heat stress as a potential safety and health hazard has been recognized in the literature and guidelines for exposure have been formulated ( Hancock & Vasmatzidis, 1998). A significant proportion of workers in the oil industry in hot arid areas, such as the Arabian Gulf, are exposed to heat stress. As a standard schedule, an 8 h work shift is adopted in offices, while a 12 h work shift is adopted on rigs. The normal office work schedule is 8 a.m.4 p.m., 5 days a week; where as the schedule in the desert/rigs are from 6 a.m.6 p.m. and 6 p.m.6 a.m., shift work, with normal breaks. It is generally more effective to examine work conditions on a case-by-case basis when applying ergonomic principles to solve or prevent health and safety problems.

Occupational Hazards(37)A worker may be exposed to five types of hazards, depending upon his/her occupation: Physical Hazards Chemical Hazards Biological Hazards Mechanical Hazards Psychosocial Hazards Ergonomical Hazards

Physical Hazards1.Heat and Cold

In India, the most common physical hazard is heat. The direct effects of heat exposure are burns, heat exhaustion, heat stroke and heat cramps; the indirect effects are decreased efficiency, increased fatigue and enhanced accident rates. Many industries have local hot spots ovens and furnaces, which radiate heat. Radiant heat is the main problem in foundry, glass and steel industries, while heat stagnation is the principal problem in jute and cotton textile. High temperatures are also found in mines. Physical work under such conditions is very stressful and impairs the health and efficiency of the workers. For gainful work involving sustained and repeated effort, a reasonable temperature must be maintained in each work room. Important hazards associated with cold work are chilblains, erythrocyanosis, immersion foot, and frostbite as a result of cutaneous vasoconstriction. General hypothermia is not unusual. Submitted by: SYED SHAUZAB ABIDI

SEMINAR REPORT2. Light

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The workers may be exposed to the risk of poor illumination or excessive brightness. The acute effects of poor illumination are eye strain, headache, eye pain, lachrymation, congestion around the cornea and eye fatigue. The chronic effects on health include minerss nystagmus. Exposure to excessive brightness or glare is associated with discomfort, annoyance and visual fatigue. Intense direct glare may also result in blurring of vision and lead to accidents. There should be sufficient and suitable lighting, natural or artificial, wherever persons are working.

3. Noise

Noise is a health hazard in many industries. The effects of noise are of two types: (i) Auditory effects - which consist of temporary or permanent hearing loss

(ii) Non-auditory effects which consist of nervousness, fatigue, interference with communication by speech, decreased efficiency and annoyance. The degree of injury from exposure to noise depends upon a number of factors such as intensity and frequency range, duration of exposure and individual susceptibility.4. Vibration

Vibration, especially in the frequency range 10 to 500 Hz. May be encountered in work with pneumatic tools such as drills and hammers. Vibration usually affects the hands and arms. After some months or years of exposure, the fine blood vessels of the fingers may become increasingly sensitive to spasm (white fingers). Exposure to vib

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