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Unit 3The Rise of Absolutism and Constitutionalism
Spains Empire and European Absolutism
Unit 3, Notes 1A Powerful Spanish EmpireIn 1955, Charles V unwillingly agreed to the Peace of Augsburg, which allowed German princes to choose the religion of their territoryThe following year, Charles V divided his immense empire and retired to a monasteryCharles son, Philip II, inherited Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, and the American coloniesPhilip IIs EmpirePhilip was very hard working, suspicious, and did not trust easilyHe seized the Portugal kingdom because he was the nephew of the Portugal king when he died without an heir to the throne in 1580. He now had an empire that circled the globe (Portuguese, Africa, India, and East Indies)His empire gave him incredible wealth. By 1600, American mines had supplied Spain with nearly 340,000 pounds of gold. Spain unloaded roughly 16,000 tons of silver between the years of 1550 and 1650.The Spanish empireDefender of CatholicismPhilip believed it was his duty to defend Catholicism against the Muslims of the Ottoman Empire and the Protestants of Europe.In 1571, the pope called on all Catholic priests to take up arms against the mounting power of the Ottoman Empire.Philip responded by sending out more than 200 Spanish and Venetian ships and defeated a large Ottoman fleet in a battle near LepantoHe also launched the Spanish Armada in an attempt to punish Protestant England and its queen, Elizabeth I.The Spanish empire cont.Inflation and TaxesInflation a decline in the value of moneyThe Spanish Empire now experienced severe inflation coupled with a rise in the prices of goods and services.Two Main Causes1.) Spains population had been growing As more people demanded food and other goods, merchants were able to raise the prices on goods.2.) As silver bullion flooded the market, its value dropped People needed more amounts of silver to buy things.Also, when Spain expelled the Jews and Moors (Muslims) around 1500, it lost many valuable artisans and business people. In addition, Spains nobles did not have to pay taxes.Making Spains Enemies RichSpaniards bought much of what they needed from France, England, and the Netherland.To finance their wars, Spanish kings borrowed money from German and Italian brokers.The Dutch RevoltPhilip raised taxes in the Netherlands(1566) Angry Protestant mobs swept through Catholic churchesDutch fought the Spanish for another 11 years until the seven northern provinces of the Netherlands (Protestant) united and declared their independence from Spain.The spanish empire weakensDutch ArtHad not only the best banks, but the best artists in Europe.Rembrandt van RijnGreatest Dutch artist of the period. Painted portraits of wealthy middle-class merchants. Also produced group portraitsThe Night Watch a group of city guards. He was known for using sharp contrasts of light and shadow to draw attention to his focus.Dutch Trading EmpireThe stability of the government allowed the Dutch to concentrate on economic growth.The merchants of Amsterdam bought surplus grain and would eventually ship the grain to struggling harvests in southern Europe.The Dutch had the largest fleet of ships in the world approximately 4,800 ships.The independent dutch prosperThe Theory of Absolutism Absolute Monarchs kings or queens who held all of the power within their states boundaries.Their goal was to control every aspect of society.Divine Right the idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch acted as Gods representative on earth. An absolute monarch answered only to God, not to his or her subjects.Growing Power of Europes MonarchsThe decline of feudalism, the rise of cities, and the growth of national kingdoms all helped to centralize authority.In addition, the growing middle class usually backed monarchs, because they promised a peaceful, supportive climate for business.Church authority also broke down during the late Middle Ages and the Reformation.Crises Lead to AbsolutismReligious and territorial conflicts between states led to almost continuous warfare. This caused governments to build huge armies and levy heavier taxes on an already suffering population.In response, monarchs tried to impose order by increasing their own power.They created new government bureaucracies to control their countries economic life.Their goal was to free themselves from the limitations imposed by the nobility and by representative bodies such as Parliament Only with such freedom could they rule absolutely, as did the most famous monarch of his time, Louis XIV of France.Absolutism in eruopeThe Reign of Louis XIV
Unit 3, Notes 2Religious Wars and Power StrugglesHenry of NavarreInherited the throne. He became the first king of the Bourbon dynasty in France.He was athletics, attractive, and showed himself to be decisive, fearless in battle, and a clever politician.Many Catholics, including the people of Paris, opposed Henry.In 1598, Henry declared that the Huguenots could live in peace in France and set up their own houses of worship in some cities. This declaration of religious toleration was called the Edict of Nantes. Louis XIII and Cardinal RichelieuCardinal RichelieuTook two steps to increase the power of the Bourbon monarchy.1.) He moved against the Huguenots He believed that Protestantism often served as an excuse for political conspiracies against the Catholic king2.) He sought to weaken the nobles power Richelieu ordered nobles to take down their fortified castles. He increased the power of government agents who came from the middle class. The king relied on these agents, so there was less need to use noble officials. Writers Turn Toward SkepticismSkepticism the idea that nothing can ever be known for certain.These thinkers expressed an attitude of doubt toward churches that claimed to have the only way correct set of doctrines.Montaigne and DescartesMichel de Montaigne after the death of a dear friend, he developed a new form of literature, the essay a brief work that expressed a persons thoughts and opinions.Ren Descartes French writer and brilliant thinker. Examined the skeptical argument that one could never be certain of anything in his Meditations on First Philosophy. Descartes used his observations and his reasons to answer such arguments. In doing so, he created a philosophy that influenced modern thinkers and helped to develop the scientific method.Louis XIV Comes to PowerLouis XIV the most powerful ruler in French history.Louis, the Boy KingLouis became king in 1643 after the death of his father, Louis XIII. The ruler of France was Richelieus successor, Cardinal Mazarin.Many people in France, particularly the nobles, hated Mazarin because he increased taxes and strengthened the central government.In the end, the nobles rebellion failed for three reasons:1.) Its leaders distrusted one another even more than they distrusted Mazarin2.) The government used violent repression3.) Peasants and townspeople grew weary of disorder and fighting.Louis XIV Comes to Power Cont.Louis Weakens the Nobles AuthorityLouis took complete control of the government at age 22 when Mazarin died in 1661. He weakened the power of the nobles by excluding them from his councils.In contrast, he increased the power of the government agents called intendants, who collected taxes and administered justice.Economic GrowthJean Baptiste Colbert believed in the theory of mercantilism. Attempted to make France self-sufficient to prevent wealth from leaving the country. Placed emphasis on manufacturing its own goods rather than relying on imports.Expanded manufacturing by giving government funds and tax benefits to French companies.Protected Frances industries by placing high tariffs on goods from other countries.The French government also realized the importance of colonies; therefore, they encouraged people to migrate to Frances colony in Canada. Louis Fights Disastrous WarsAttempts to Expand Frances BoundariesLouis invaded the Spanish Netherlands in an effort to expand Frances boundaries Gained 12 towns, and he personally led an army into the Dutch Netherlands in 1672.Louis fought additional wars, but fell short of success. Weaker countries were able to match France by joining forces to fight.War of the Spanish SuccessionCharles II died in 1700 but promised the throne to Louis XIVs 16-year-old grandson Philip of Anjou.The two greatest powers in Europe, enemies for so long, were now both ruled by the French Bourbons.Other countries felt threatened by this increase in the Bourbon dynastys power.In 1701, England, Austria, the Dutch Republic, Portugal, and several German and Italian states joined together to prevent the union of the French and Spanish thrones. The long struggle that followed is known as the War of Spanish Succession.Louis Fights Disastrous Wars Cont.War of the Spanish Succession (1701)It was a costly war that dragged on until 1714. Under its terms, Louiss grandson was allowed to remain king of Spain so long as the thrones of France and Spain were not united.The big winner in the war was Great Britain. From Spain, Britain took Gibraltar, a fortress that controlled the entire Mediterranean. Spain also granted a British company an asiento, permission to send enslaved Africans to Spains American colonies this increased Britains involvement in trading enslaved Africans.Louiss Death and LegacyHe died in 1715. News of his death prompted rejoicing throughout FranceLouis left a mixed legacy to his country. During his reign, France was arguably one of the most powerful countries in the world. It ranked above all other European nations in art, literature, and statesmanship. France was also considered the military leader of Europe.However, constant warfare and the construction of the Palace of Versailles plunged France into a staggering debt. Also, resentment over the tax burden imposed on the poor and Louiss abuse of power would plague his heirs and eventually lead to revolution.
Central European Monarchs ClashUnit 3, Notes 3The Thirty Years WarBohemian Peasants RevoltThe future Holy Roman emperor, Ferdinand II, was head of the Hapsburg family and ruled the Czech kingdom of Bohemia.The Protestants in Bohemia did not trust Ferdinand because he was a foreigner and a Catholic. Some Protestants revolted after he closed some of the local Protestant churches. Several German Protestant princes took this chance to challenge their Catholic emperor, which began the Thirty Years War a conflict over religion and territory and for power among European ruling families.The war can be divided into two main phases: 1.) The phase of Hapsburg triumphs, and 2.) The phase of Hapsburg defeats.
The Thirty Years War Cont.Hapsburg TriumphsThe war lasted from 1618 to 1648. The Hapsburg armies from Austria and Spain crushed troops that were hired by the Protestant princes throughout the first 12 years of the war.They succeeded in putting down the Czech uprising. They also defeated the German Protestants who had supported the Czechs.Ferdinand II paid his army of 125,000 men by allowing them to plunder, or rob, German villages, and the army destroyed everything in their path.Hapsburg DefeatsThe Protestant Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden and his army shifted the tide of the war in 1630 when they drove the Hapsburg armies out of northern Germany; however, he was killed in battle in 1632.Cardinal Richelieu and Cardinal Mazarin of France dominated the remaining years of war.Although Catholic, these two cardinals feared the Hapsburgs more than the Protestants. They did not want European rulers to have as much power as the French king. Therefore, in 1635, Richelieu sent French troops to join the German and Swedish Protestants in their struggle against the Hapsburg armies.
The Thirty Years War Cont.Peace of WestphaliaThe war did great damage to Germany. Its population dropped from 20 million to about 16 million. Both trade and agriculture were disrupted, and Germanys economy was ruinedThe Peace of Westphalia (1648) ended the war. The treaty had these important consequences:Weakened the Hapsburg states of Spain and AustriaStrengthened France by awarding it German territoryMade German princes independent of the Holy Roman emperorEnded religious wars in EuropeIntroduced a new method of peace negotiation whereby all participants meet to settle the problems of war and decide the terms of peace. This method is still used today.Beginning of Modern StatesThe treaty abandoned the idea of a Catholic empire that would rule most of EuropeIt recognized Europe as a group of equal, independent states. This marked the beginning of the modern state system and was the most important result of the Thirty Years War.States Form in Central EuropeEconomic Contrasts with the WestThe economy of central Europe developed differently from that of western Europe. During the late Middle Ages, serfs in western Europe slowly won freedom and moved to towns. There, they joined middle-class townspeople who gained economic power because of the commercial revolution and development of capitalism.By contrast, the landowning aristocracy in central Europe passed laws restricting the ability of serfs to gain freedom to move to cities. These nobles wanted to keep the serfs on the land, where they could produce large harvests.Several Weak EmpiresThe landowning nobles in central Europe not only held down the serfs, but also blocked the development of strong kings. As a result, there was not a strong ruler who could form a unified state.In addition, the Holy Roman Empire was severely weakened by the Thirty Years War. No longer able to command the obedience of German states, the Holy Roman Empire had no real power.
States Form in Central Europe Cont.Austria Grows StrongerThe Austrian Hapsburgs took several steps to become absolute monarchs.1.) During the Thirty Years War, they reconquered Bohemia. The Hapsburgs wiped out Protestantism there and created a new Czech nobility that pledged loyalty to them.2.) After the war, the Hapsburg ruler centralized the government and created a standing army.3.) By 1699, Hapsburgs had retaken Hungary from the Ottoman Empire.In 1711, Charles VI became the Hapsburg ruler. Charless empire was a difficult one to rule because of the diverse people within its border Czechs, Hungarians, Italians, Croatians, and Germans.Maria Theresa Inherits the Austrian ThroneCharles VI spent his entire reign working to ensure that the Hapsburg continued to rule all of the land.With endless arm-twisting, he persuaded other leaders of Europe to sign an agreement that declared they would recognize his eldest daughter as the heir to all of Hapsburg territories.The heir was Maria Theresa. In theory, the agreement guaranteed Maria a peaceful reign, but rather she faced years of war and her main enemy was Prussia.Prussia Challenges AustriaThe Rise of PrussiaThe Hohenzollerns built up their state from a number of small holdings, beginning with the German states of Brandenburg and Prussia.In 1640, a 20-year-old Hohenzollern named Frederick William inherited the title of elector of Brandenburg. After witnessing the destruction of the Thirty Years War, Frederick William (the Great Elector) decided that having a strong army was the only way to ensure safety.The Great Elector and his descendants moved toward absolute monarchy to protect their lands. They built a force of 80,000 men, and it was paid for through permanent taxation.Frederick the GreatFrederick William worried that his son, Frederick, did not have enough military savvy to rule the country. The prince loved music, philosophy, and poetry.Frederick II, known as Frederick the Great, followed his fathers military policies when he came to power, however he did soften some of his fathers laws.War of the Austrian SuccessionIn 1740, Maria Theresa succeeded her father, just five months after Frederick II became king of Prussia. Frederick wanted the Austrian land of Silesia, which bordered Prussia.Frederick underestimated Marias strength. He believed because she was a woman that she would not be forceful enough to defend her lands. Theresa did stop Prussias aggression; however, she lost Silesia in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. With the acquisition of Silesia, Prussia became a major European power.The Seven Years WarMaria decided the French kings were no longer Austrias main enemies. She made an alliance with them. The result was a diplomatic revolution.Frederick then signed a treaty with Britain Austrias former ally.Now, Austria France, Russia, and others were allied against Britain and Prussia.Frederick attacked Saxony, an Austrian ally, which resulted in every great European power getting involved in the war. Fought in Europe, India, and North America, it lasted until 1763 and was called the Seven Years War.The British emerged as the real victors in the war. France lost its colonies in North America, and Britain gained sole economic domination of India.Peter the Great Comes to PowerPeter became sole ruler of Russia in 1696 and became known as Peter the Great, because he was one of Russias greatest reformers. He also continued the trend of increasing the czars power.Russia Contrasts with EuropeRussia was still a land of boyars (Russias landowning nobles) and serfs when Peter I first came into power. Russian landowners treated the serfs like property. When the landowner sold a piece of land, he sold the serfs with it.Religious differences also widened the gap between western Europe and Russia. The Russians had adopted the Eastern Orthodox branch of Christianity Western Europeans were mostly Catholic or Protestants. Peter Visits the WestPeter became the sole ruler of Russia in 1697 at the age of 24. He embarked on the Grand Embassy, a long visit to western Europe. His goals were to learn about European customs and manufacturing techniques.Inspired by his trip to the West, Peter resolved that Russia would compete with Europe on both military and commercial terms. He would westernize Russia by bringing the Russian Orthodox Church under state control.To westernize Russia, Peter also introduced the following: Potatoes, started Russias first newspaperRaised womens status by having them attend social gatheringsOrdered nobles to give up their traditional clothes for Western fashionsAdvanced education by opening a school of navigation and introducing schools for the arts and sciencesEnlightenment and RevolutionUnit 3, Notes 4The Scientific RevolutionThe Roots of Modern ScienceBefore 1500, scholars generally decided what was true or false by referring to an ancient Greek or Roman author or to the Bible. Few European scholars challenged the scientific ideas of the ancient thinkers or the church by carefully observing nature for themselves.The Medieval ViewDuring the Middle Ages, scholars believed that the earth was an immovable object located at the center of the universe.According to that belief, the moon, the sun, and the planets all moved in perfectly circular paths around the earth.This earth-centered view of the universe was called the geocentric theory. The idea came from Aristotle, the Greek philosopher of the fourth century B.C.The Scientific revolution cont.A New Way of ThinkingBeginning in the mid-1500s, a few scholars published works that challenged the ideas of the ancient thinkers and the church. As they replaced old assumptions with new theories, they launched a change in European thought that historians call the Scientific Revolution.The Scientific Revolution was a new way of thinking about the natural world that was based on careful observation and a willingness to question accepted beliefs.A combination of discoveries and circumstances during the Renaissance helped lead to the Scientific Revolution:Explorations to Africa, Asia, and the AmericasThe invention of the printing press (helped spread ideas)New research in astronomy and mathematics
A Revolutionary model of the universeThe Heliocentric TheoryNicolaus Copernicus was troubled that the geocentric theory did not accurately explain the movements of the sun, moon, and planets.After studying planetary movements for more than 25 years, Copernicus reasoned that indeed, the stars, the earth, and the other planets revolved around the sun heliocentric theory (sun-centered). However, his theory still did not completely explain why the planets orbited the way they did. He also knew that most scholars and clergy would reject his view because it contradicted their religious views. Therefore, Copernicus did not publish his findings, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies, until 1543, the last year of his life.Galileos DiscoveriesThe new Italian scientist, Galileo Galilei, built on the new theories.He published a small book called the Starry Messenger, which described his astonishing observations.He announced that Jupiter had four moons and that the sun had dark spots. He also noted that the earths moon had a rough, uneven surface.The scientific methodThe revolution in scientific thinking that Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo began eventually developed into a new approach to science called the scientific method which is a logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas.1.) Form a hypothesis2.) The hypothesis is then tested3.) Scientists analyze and interpret their data to reach a new conclusion. The conclusion either confirms or disproves the hypothesis.The Enlightenment in europeTwo Views on GovernmentThe Enlightenment started from key ideas established by two English political thinkers of the 1600s Thomas Hobbes and John Locke.Hobbess Social ContractThomas Hobbes expressed views in a work called Leviathan (1651). The horrors of the English Civil War convinced him that all humans were naturally selfish and wicked.Hobbes argued that to escape such a bleak life, people had to hand over their rights to a stronger ruler. In exchange, they gained law and order. Hobbes called this agreement, by which people created a government, the social contract.People acted in their own self-interestThe ruler needed total power to keep citizens under controlThe best government was one that had the awesome power of leviathan (sea monster).In Hobbess view, such a government was an absolute monarchy, which people could impose order and demand obedience.
The enlightenment in europe cont.Lockes Natural RightsJohn Lock wrote a political work called Two Treaties of Government (1690).He believed that before society was organized, humans lived in a state of equality and freedom rather than a state of war.In this state of nature, humans had certain natural rights rights to which they were born. These were rights to life, liberty, and property.Locke believed that problems existed in the state of nature. People found it difficult to protect their natural rights; therefore, they agreed to establish a government to ensure the protection of their rights.The contract between people and government involved mutual obligations. Government would protect the rights of the people, and the people would act reasonably toward the government. However, if a government broke that contract, the people might form a new government.To Locke, people meant the landholding aristocracy, not landless masses. Locke was not an advocate of democracy, but his ideas did prove to be important to both Americans and the French during the eighteenth century.These laws were used to support demands for constitutional government, the rule of law, and the protection of rights. Lockes ideas can be found in the American Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution.