Unitarian Universalist History The Unitarians: 0 c.e. – 1638 c.e.

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Unitarian Universalist History The Unitarians: 0 c.e. 1638 c.e. Slide 2 Rise of Christianity 1 st thru 3 rd Century Constant fighting Small Christian sects with differing views Persecution Slide 3 Rise of Christianity Roman Empire in 325c.e. Slide 4 Constantine the Great 272-337c.e. Rules from 306 to 337c.e. Born and lives a Pagan Issues Edict of Milan 311 and 313c.e. Issues Nicene Creed 325c.e. Dies a Christian Slide 5 Nicene Creed 325c.e. First Council of Nicaea Purpose to standardize Christianity Arius vs. Athanasius 318 out of 1,800 bishops come Nicene Creed issued after nearly a month of debate! Exile, banishment, and excommunication Slide 6 Arius - 256336c.e. Alexandria, Egypt Believed Christian theology was being too freely mixed with Greek pagan philosophy Son =/= Father (God) John 14:28: "the Father is greater than I". And also Colossians 1:15: "the firstborn of all creation." John 14:28Colossians 1:15 True first-born son Excommunicated (Palestine) Poisoned Slide 7 The Middle Ages 5 th -15 th Centuries Collapse of Western Roman Empire 476c.e. The Crusades 1095c.e. Black Death 1347 and 1350c.e. Joan of Arc 1412-1431c.e. Slide 8 Europe 1300c.e. Slide 9 A Tradition of Heresy Heretic comes from the Greek word hairesis Translation: to personally select or choose Slide 10 Roman Catholic Church Burning of the Templars, 1314 John Badby burned in a barrel, 1410 Ramihrdus of Cambrai (1076 or 1077) (lynched) Peter of Bruys ( 1130) (lynched) Gerard Segarelli ( 1300) Maifreda da Pirovano ( 1300) Andrea Saramiti ( 1300) Fra Dolcino ( 1307) (never tried by Catholic Church), Italy Sister Margherita ( 1307), Italy Brother Longino ( 1307), Italy Marguerite Porete ( 1310) Botulf Botulfsson ( 1311), the only known heretic executed in Sweden Jacques de Molay (12431314), burned after conviction by a tribunal under the control of King Philip IV of France, France Geoffroi de Charney ( 1314), burned with Jacques de Molay above, France. Guilhm Belibasta ( 1321), last Cathar Francesco da Pistoia ( 1337) Lorenzo Gherardi ( 1337) Bartolomeo Greco ( 1337) Bartolomeo da Bucciano ( 1337) Antonio Bevilacqua ( 1337) William Sawtre ( 1401) John Badby ( 1410) Jan Hus (13711415), impenitent/unrepentant heretic Jerome of Prague (13651416), relapsed heretic Joan of Arc at the stake, 1431 St. Joan of Arc (14121431), relapsed heretic, Rouen, France Thomas Bagley ( 1431) Pavel Krava ( 1433) Girolamo Savonarola ( 1498) Joshua Weick (14881498) Jean Vallire ( 1523) Hendrik Voes ( 1523), 1st martyr in the Seventeen Provinces Jan van Essen ( 1523), 1st martyr in the Seventeen Provinces Jan de Bakker ( 1525), 1st martyr in the Northern Netherlands Wendelmoet Claesdochter ( 1527), 1st Dutch woman burned as heretic Michael Sattler ( 1527) Patrick Hamilton ( 1528), St Andrews, Scotland Balthasar Hubmaier (14851528), relapsed heretic George Blaurock (14911529) Hans Langegger ( 1529) Giovanni Milanese ( 1530) Richard Bayfield ( 1531) James Bainham ( 1532) John Frith (15031533), England William Tyndale (14901536) Jakob Hutter ( 1536) Aefgen Listincx (d. 1538) Anneke Esaiasdochter (d. 1539) Francisco de San Roman ( 1540) Robert Barnes ( 1540), England Thomas Gerrard ( 1540), England Giandomenico dell' Aquila ( 1542) Maria van Beckum (d. 1544) Ursula van Beckum (d. 1544) George Wishart (15131546), St Andrews, Scotland Rogers' execution at Smithfield, 1555 John Rogers ( 1555), London, England Canterbury Martyrs ( 1555), England Laurence Saunders, (15191555), England Rowland Taylor ( 1555), England John Hooper ( 1555), England Robert Ferrar ( 1555), Carmarthen, Wales Patrick Pakingham ( 1555), Uxbridge, England Hugh Latimer (14851555), relapsed heretic, England Nicholas Ridley (15001555), England Bartolomeo Hector ( 1555) Paolo Rappi ( 1555) Vernon Giovanni ( 1555) Labori Antonio ( 1555) John Bradford ( 1555), London, England Thomas Cranmer (14891556), relapsed heretic, England Stratford Martyrs ( 1556), 11 men and 2 women, London, England Joan Waste (d. 1556), Derby, England Pomponio Angerio ( 1556) Nicola Sartonio ( 1557) Thomas von Imbroich ( 1558) (beheaded) Fra Goffredo Varaglia ( 1558) Gisberto di Milanuccio ( 1558) Francesco Cartone ( 1558) Antonio di Colella ( 1559) Antonio Gesualdi ( 1559) Giacomo Bonello ( 1560) Mermetto Savoiardo ( 1560) Dionigi di Cola ( 1560) Gian Pascali di Cuneo ( 1560) Bernardino Conte ( 1560) Giorgio Olivetto ( 1567) Luca di Faenza ( 1568) Thomas Szk (15221568) Bartolomeo Bartoccio ( 1569) Dirk Willems ( 1569), Netherlands Fra Arnaldo di Santo Zeno ( 1570) Alessandro di Giacomo ( 1574) Benedetto Thomaria ( 1574) Diego Lopez ( 1583) Gabriello Henriquez ( 1583) Borro of Arezzo ( 1583) Ludovico Moro ( 1583) Pietro Benato ( 1585) Francesco Gambonelli ( 1594) Marcantonio Valena ( 1594) Giovanni Antonio da Verona ( 1599) Fra Celestino ( 1599) Giordano Bruno (15481600), Rome, Italy Maurizio Rinaldi ( 1600) Bartolomeo Coppino ( 1601) Edward Wightman ( 1612), last person burned for heresy in England. Malin Matsdotter (16131676), for witchcraft, Sweden Kimpa Vita (16841706), Angola Maria Barbara Carillo (16251721), Madrid, Spain The book "Acts and Monuments" by John Foxe, commonly known as Foxe's Book of Martyrs lists many more than this. The Church in England Anne Askew (15211546) Joan Bocher ( 1550) George van Parris ( 1551) Matthew Hamont ( 1579) John Lewes ( 1583) Peter Cole ( 1587) Francis Kett ( 1589) Bartholomew Legate (15751612) Edward Wightman (15661612), relapsed heretic In Eastern Orthodox The baptism by fire of Old Believer leader Avvakum in 1682 Basil the Physician ( 1118), by Emperor Alexius I Comnenus; heresy Avvakum Petrovich (16201682), by Tsar Feodor III of Russia; combating the Starovery movement Quirinus Kuhlmann ( 1689), by Tsar Ivan V of Russia; considered politically dangerous Calvinist Church Michael Servetus (15111553) See also Solomon Molcho (15001532), apostate. tienne Dolet (15091546), apostate. Lucilio Vanini ( 1618), apostate. Gabriel Malagrida ( 1761), strangled.[1] List of people executed for witchcraft Forty Martyrs of England and Wales Slide 11 Katarzyna Weiglowa 1460-1539 Married to a Polish statesman Converted from Roman Catholicism Refused to recant imprisoned for 10 years Burned at the stake as a heretic Unitarian and Jewish martyr Bona Sforza presided over the burning ushered in a new era of tolerance Slide 12 Miguel Serveto 1510 - 1553 A true renaissance man Many books and readings on anatomy, physics, biology, theology, poetry, etc. University of Paris Jehan Chauvin no debate On the Errors of the Trinity 1531, and The Restitution of Christianity 1553 Slide 13 Michael Servetus Condemned by Catholics and Protestants Changes name: Michel de Villeneuve Correspondence with John Calvin Inquisition talks them out of it Inquisition Escape! 1553 Geneva for a debate? Burned at the stake as a heretic To kill a man is not to defend a doctrine, but to kill a man Slide 14 King John Sigismund 1540-1571 Father died when he was a baby Ruled from 1559-1571 Edict of Torda 1568 Francis David argued for the Unitarians, and won His beliefs were that faith is the gift of God and cannot be forced by power or fear Religious freedom for everyone Slide 15 Francis David 1510-1579 Successfully argued Unitarian stance in Torda Helped to found Unitarian Church of Transylvania When King John Sigismund died in 1571, succeeded by a Catholic king Francis David tried as an innovator in 1572 Failure to invoke Jesus Christ during prayer Non-virgin birth Defended by Sozzini Died in prison in 1579 Slide 16 Fausto Paolo Sozzini 1539-1604 Family of Antitrinitarians Views held: Christ not pre-extant no original sin rejects proprietary view of atonement predestination in question 1598c.e. Sozzini begins publishing in his own name Mob destroys his home Beats him severely Slide 17 The Polish Brethren Minor Reformed Church of Poland (Racw) 1565-1658 Non-trinitarian Protestant church Based on teachings of Arius and Sozzini The Racovian Academy 1602-1638 At least 1,000 students Approx. 1 in 5 Polish intellectuals Arian After expulsion from Poland, self-identified as Unitarians Slide 18 The Polish Brethren post-exile The Brethren were exiled in three directions, finding asylum in: Duchy of Prussia - founded new congregations there The Netherlands Transylvania - Unitarian Church of Transylvania and Unitarian College in Cluj. Slide 19 Other Heretics Jan Hus 1369-1415 John Wycliffe 1320-1384 Heretic comes from the Greek word hairesis Translation: to personally select or choose

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