Work-related musculoskeletal disorders: Back to work report Work

  • View
    214

  • Download
    2

Embed Size (px)

Text of Work-related musculoskeletal disorders: Back to work report Work

  • Portada_informe_533.fh11 19/9/07 16:32 P gina 1

    Composici n

    C M Y CM MY CY CMY K

    ISSN 1830-5946

    ht

    tp

    :/

    /o

    sh

    a.

    eu

    ro

    pa

    .e

    u

    In order to improve the working environment,

    as regards the protection of the safety and health

    of workers as provided for in the Treaty and

    successive Community strategies and action

    programmes concerning health and safety at

    the workplace, the aim of the Agency shall be

    to provide the Community bodies, the Member

    States, the social partners and those involved

    in the field with the technical, scientific and

    economic information of use in the field of safety

    and health at work.

    Eu

    ro

    pe

    an

    A

    ge

    nc

    y

    fo

    r

    Sa

    fe

    ty

    a

    nd

    H

    ea

    lt

    h

    at

    W

    or

    k

    Gran Va 33, E-48009 BilbaoTel.: (+34) 94 479 43 60Fax: (+34) 94 479 43 83E-mail: information@osha.europa.euPrice (excluding VAT) in Luxembourg: EUR 25

    TE-78-07-300-EN-C

    E u r o p e a n A g e n c y f o r S a f e t y a n d H e a l t h a t W o r k

    EUROPEAN WEEK FOR SAFETY AND HEALTH AT WORKEN 3

    3EN

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders: Back to work reportEUROPEAN W

    EEK FOR SAFETY AND HEALTH AT WORK

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders:Back to work report

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders:Back to work report

    ISBN 978-92-9191-160-8

  • E u r o p e a n A g e n c y f o r S a f e t y a n d H e a l t h a t W o r k

    EUROPEAN WEEK FOR SAFETY AND HEALTH AT WORK

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders:Back to work report

    back_to_work_en.qxd 20/9/07 09:22 Pgina 1

  • Work-related musculoskeletal disorders: Back to work report

    Authors:

    European Agency for Safety and Health at Work:

    Zinta Podniece

    Topic Centre Working Environment:

    Andrew Pinder and Liz Yeomans, HSL, United KingdomSwenneke van den Heuvel, Birgitte Blatter, TNO, NetherlandsMarthe Verjans, Karen Muylaert, Veronique De Broeck, Lieven Eeckelaert, Prevent, BelgiumMarie-Amlie Buffet, EUROGIP, FranceNina Nevala, Anneli Kaukiainen, FIOH, Finland

    In co-operation with:

    Julia Lischka, Federal Chamber of Labour, AustriaFerenc Kudasz, FJNCPH/OMFI, HungaryMiroslav Kosina, CMKOS H&S Centre, Czech Republic

    A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet, and can beaccessed through the Europa server (http://osha.europa.eu).

    Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication.

    Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2007

    ISBN 978-92-9191-160-8

    European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, 2007Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.

    Printed in Belgium

    PRINTED ON WHITE CHLORINE-FREE PAPER

    back_to_work_en.qxd 20/9/07 09:22 Pgina 2

  • Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

    Executive summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

    1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    2. Workplace interventions improving return-to-work rates among workers with MSDs . . . . . . . . 15

    2.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

    2.2. The natural course of MSDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    2.3. Factors in prognosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    2.4. Intervention strategies at work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

    2.4.1. Intervention strategies for back pain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

    2.4.2. Intervention strategies for upper limb pain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

    2.4.3. Intervention strategies for lower limb pain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

    2.5. Discussion, summary and conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

    2.6. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

    3. Return-to-work policy initiatives regarding workers with MSDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

    3.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

    3.2. International and Europe-wide initiatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

    3.3. Austria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

    3.4. Belgium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

    3.5. Cyprus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

    3.6. Finland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

    3.7. Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

    3.8. Hungary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

    3.9. Ireland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

    3.10. Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

    3.11. Luxembourg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

    3.12. Malta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

    3.13. Netherlands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

    3.14. Portugal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

    3.15. Slovakia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

    3.16. Slovenia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

    3.17. Sweden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

    3.18. United Kingdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

    3.19. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

    3.20. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

    4. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

    TA

    BL

    E O

    F C

    ON

    TE

    NT

    S

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders: Back to work reportE

    UROPEANW

    EEKFOR

    SAFETY

    AND

    HEALTH

    ATWORK

    3

    back_to_work_en.qxd 20/9/07 09:22 Pgina 3

  • F O R E W O R D

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the most commonwork-related health problem in Europe, affectingmillions of workers. Across the EU27, 25% of workerscomplain of backache and 23% report muscular pains.

    MSDs are caused mainly by manual handling, heavyphysical work, awkward and static postures, repetition ofmovements and vibration. The risk of MSDs can increasewith the pace of work, low job satisfaction, high jobdemands, job stress and working in cold environments.MSDs are the biggest cause of absence from work inpractically all Member States. In some states, MSDsaccount for 40% of the co