World Geography Chapter 9 PPT Geography Chapter 9 PPT

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  • Welcome to Presentation Plus!

    Presentation Plus! Glencoe World Geography

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  • Splash Screen

  • Contents

    Chapter Introduction

    Section 1Population Patterns

    Section 2History and Government

    Section 3Cultures and Lifestyles

    Chapter Summary & Study Guide

    Chapter Assessment

    Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.

  • Intro 1

  • Intro 2

    Explain how geography, economics, and cultural diversity affect the population of Latin America.

    Discuss how Latin Americas history continues to affect the regions politics today. Describe how Latin American culture
    is affected by religion, the arts, and cultural diversity.

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    Chapter Objectives

  • Intro 3

    As you read this chapter, use your journal to list and describe the cultural influences that have shaped life in Latin America. Note how both native and imported cultures have formed a uniquely Latin American way of life.

  • End of Intro

  • Section 1-1

    Population Patterns

    Identify the ethnic groups that make up the population of Latin America.

    Explain how geography and economics have influenced the distribution of Latin Americas population. Discuss the effects of migration on the Latin American culture region. Describe the ways Latin Americas cultural diversity presents both benefits and
    challenges for its people.

    Objectives

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  • Section 1-2

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    dialect patois urbanization megacity primate city

    Terms to Know

    indigenous

    Population Patterns

  • Section 1-3

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    Peru Bolivia Guyana Buenos Aires

    Caracas Santiago Patagonia Rio de Janeiro Barbados

    Ecuador

    Places to Locate

    Population Patterns

  • Section 1-4

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  • Section 1-5

    About 9 percent of the population of present-day Mexico is considered indigenous. This number includes everyone over the age of five who speaks an indigenous language. However, the actual percentage of Mexicans descended from the Aztec, Inca, Maya, and other ancient peoples is much higher. Since the conquering Spaniards freely intermarried with the indigenous people, most modern Mexicans are of mixed heritage.

  • Section 1-6

    A Blending of Peoples The ancestors of Native Americans were the first people to settle Latin America, followed by Europeans in the 1400s, enslaved Africans in the 1500s, and Asians in the 1800s.

    Human Characteristics

    Over the centuries there has been a blending of these different ethnic groups throughout Latin America.

    (pages 211213)

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  • Section 1-7

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    Human Characteristics (cont.)

    Spanish is the primary language of most countries in the region, but Portuguese, French, English, and many local dialects also are spoken.

    Language Language helps bring together the diverse ethnic groups of Latin America.

    (pages 211213)

  • Section 1-8

    Why is Spanish the primary language in Latin America?

    Possible answer: Spain was the first European country to conquer Mexico and South America, and the Spaniards imposed their language and culture on the region.

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    Human Characteristics (cont.)

    (pages 211213)

  • Section 1-9

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    Where Latin Americans Live

    Relatively few South Americans live in the continents inland areas.

    (pages 213215)

    South Americas Populated Rim Most South Americans live on the continents coastal edges, the populated rim that provides favorable climates, fertile land, and access to transportation systems.

  • Section 1-10

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    Where Latin Americans Live (cont.)

    (pages 213215)

  • Section 1-11

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    One important factor in a countrys population density is its area. For example, most South American countries are large and their population densities are low, but the Caribbean islands are small and much more densely populated.

    Population Density Population densities vary greatly within Latin American countries.

    Where Latin Americans Live (cont.)

    (pages 213215)

  • Section 1-12

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    Where Latin Americans Live (cont.)

    (pages 213215)

  • Section 1-13

    How does a countrys area affect its population density?

    Possible answer: A larger country has much more area for its population, whereas smaller countries, such as the Caribbean countries, pack a large population into a very small area.

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    Where Latin Americans Live (cont.)

    (pages 213215)

  • Section 1-14

    Migrating North In addition to immigrants settling in Latin America from other countries, many Latin Americans migrateboth legally and illegallyto the United States, looking for economic opportunities, improved living conditions, political freedom, or escape from political unrest.

    Migration

    (pages 215216)

  • Section 1-15

    Internal Migration As in many other parts of the world, many Latin Americans from the rural areas migrate to cities in search of better jobs or because of a shortage of fertile land to farm.

    Migration (cont.)

    (pages 215216)

  • Section 1-16

    What effect do Latin American migration patterns have on the United States and on Latin American cities?

    Possible answer: Cities become crowded, services such as education and health care cannot meet the needs of the growing populations, and there are not enough places for people to live. One effect Latin American immigration has had on the United States is that Spanish is spoken by a growing number of people.

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    Migration (cont.)

    (pages 215216)

  • Section 1-17

    Growth of Cities

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    Mexico City is the largest urban area in the region, with 18 million people. Other large cities include Caracas, Venezuela; Montevideo, Uruguay; Santiago, Chile; So Paolo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Buenos Aires, Argentina; and Havana, Cuba.

    The Urban Setting Today most Latin Americans live in urban areas.

    (pages 216217)

  • Section 1-18

    Resources in cities are strained by population growth.

    Urban Challenges Immigrants seeking a better life for themselves have overcrowded cities, and living conditions are poor for many people.

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    Growth of Cities (cont.)

    (pages 216217)

  • Section 1-19

    Since living conditions in many overcrowded cities of Latin America are poor, why do you think most people stay there rather than returning to the country?

    Possible answers: Most people stay there because living conditions are often no better in rural areas, farmland is in short supply, and few other means of employment exist. Life in the cities offers hope of a better economic future for many.

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    Growth of Cities (cont.)

    (pages 216217)

  • Section 1-20

    Checking for Understanding

    __ 1.local form of a language used
    in a particular place or by a
    certain group

    __ 2.cities with more than 10 million
    people

    __ 3.native to a place

    __ 4.dialects that blend elements of
    indigenous, European, African, and Asian languages

    __ 5.the movement of people from rural areas into cities

    __ 6.a city that dominates a countrys economy, culture, and government and in which population is concentrated; usually the capital

    A.indigenous

    B.dialect

    C.patois

    D.urbanization

    E.megacity

    F.primate city

    Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column.

    E

    A

    C

    B

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    F

    D

  • Section 1-21

    Critical Thinking

    Analyzing Cause and Effect What factors account for the differences in the way Spanish is spoken in various Latin American countries?

    The blending of peoples and cultures throughout the region results in different Spanish dialects and forms of patois. The language spoken today also is greatly influenced by colonial settlers.

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  • Section 1-22

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    Critical Thinking

    Drawing Conclusions Develop a hypothesis describing probable population patterns in Latin America in the year 2050. Defend your hypothesis, using present trends as evidence.

    Possible answer: The population patterns will be more densely urbanized with population distribution in roughly the same areas as today.

  • Section 1-23

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    Critical Thinking

    Making Inferences In what ways might physical geography influence the development of megacities in Latin America?

    Possible answer: Elevation and proximity to water could affect transportation and growth of industries.

  • Section 1-24

    Analyzing Maps

    Region Study the language map on the right. What is the most widely spoken language in Central America?

    Spanish is the most widely spoken language in Central America.

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  • Section 1-25

    Applying Geography

    Population Density Consider the physical geography of Latin America. Write a paragraph suggesting suitable locations for constructing new cities to relieve population pressures in Latin Americas existing cities. Consider the kinds of resources required to sustain large populations.

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    Possible answer: Suitable locations might include planned cities patterned after Braslia that are farther inland and linked by highways or rivers to existing coastal cities.

  • Section 1-26

    Close

    Include the terms in Places to Locate on page 211 of your textbook as you write a sentence about the human characteristics, population and migration patterns, and urban growth for each of these places.

  • End of Section 1

  • Section 2-1

    History and Government

    List the contributions Latin Americas indigenous empires have made to the regions cultural development.

    Explain how colonial rule influenced Latin Americas political and social structures. Discuss how most Latin American nations made the transition from colonialism to democracy. Identify the political and social factors that continue to challenge the Latin American culture region.

    Objectives

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  • Section 2-2

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    chinampas quipu conquistador viceroy caudillo

    Terms to Know

    glyph

    History and Government

  • Section 2-3

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    Tikal Tenochtitln Cuzco Haiti Cuba

    Mexico

    Places to Locate

    History and Government

  • Section 2-4

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  • Section 2-5

    The center of the Inca empire was at Cuzco in the Andes mountain ranges of Peru. The Inca built on 800 years of Andean civilization, achieving notable skills in architecture and engineering. Weakened by years of civil war, the Inca Empire fell to Spanish conquerors under Francisco Pizarro in the 1530s. Pizarro set up a capital city at Lima, Peru. The Spanish ruled there until 1821.

  • Section 2-6

    Native American Empires

    They built many cities and based their economy on agriculture and trade. The Maya also were skilled in mathematics and had a system of picture writing called glyphs. The Maya mysteriously abandoned their cities, and archaeologists are continuing to search for more information about
    the Mayan civilization.

    The Maya The Maya dominated southern Mexico and northern Central America from about A.D. 250 to 900.

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    (pages 220222)

  • Section 2-7

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    Native American Empires (cont.)

    The Aztec had a highly structured class system headed by an emperor and military officials.

    The Aztec The Aztec civilization arose in central Mexico in the 1300s, with their capital in Tenochtitln, today the site of Mexico City.

    (pages 220222)

  • Section 2-8

    Gifts to the Worlds Tables Several foods grown by the Aztec, such as corn, tomatoes, and cacao beansused to make chocolatehave become worldwide favorites.

    Native American Empires (cont.)

    (pages 220222)

  • Section 2-9

    The Inca During the time of the Aztec, the Inca established a civilization in the Andes Mountains that stretched from present-day Ecuador to central Chile.

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    The Inca were skilled terrace farmers who built roads, temples, and forts, but they had no written language. Storytelling was used to pass on knowledge to each generation.

    Native American Empires (cont.)

    (pages 220222)

  • Section 2-10

    What do these three empires have in common?

    These empires each built cities, had central governments, and had agricultural economies.

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    Native American Empires (cont.)

    (pages 220222)

  • Section 2-11

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    Empires to Nations

    The Portuguese settled on the coast of Brazil. Later, Britain, France, and the Netherlands colonized in the Caribbean area. As a result of these conquests, European colonies arose throughout Latin America. The Roman Catholic Church became the major unifying institution in both Spanish and Portuguese colonies.

    European Conquests Spanish conquistadors defeated the Aztec and Incan empires.

    (pages 222224)

  • Section 2-12

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    Some Spanish settlers prospered from the mining of silver and gold. European plantations grew coffee, bananas, and sugarcane for export to Europe. Native Americans and Africans were forced to work on plantations and ranches.

    Colonial Economies The European colonies were economically
    prosperous.

    Empires to Nations (cont.)

    (pages 222224)

  • Section 2-13

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    Haiti gained its independence from France in 1804. In 1821 Mexico won its freedom from Spain. By the mid-1800s, most Latin American countries had achieved independence. A few Caribbean islands still remain under foreign control today.

    Gaining Independence In the late 1700s, resentment against European rule spread through Latin America.

    Empires to Nations (cont.)

    (pages 222224...