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Text of YTK Project YTK team’s intereststkoyama/ytk/Download/PPT/2011_JALT...2011/11/20 3 By starting...

  • 2011/11/20

    1

    JALT2011:37th Annual International Conference on Language Teaching

    National Olympics Memorial Center, Tokyo2011/11/19-21

    1

    Emiko Yukawa, Ph.D. Ritsumeikan University<[email protected]

    ‘Uniqueness’ of the Japanese situation*‘unique’ and hesitant (Enever, 2010)

    *Asia TEFL in 2007 (Seinan University, Fukuoka)

    “Elementary school EFL education in Japan: Teachers' conceptions of instructional goals and assessment of their attainment”

    (Yukawa, Takanashi, & Koyama, 2007)

    2

    YTK Project

    3

    YTK team’s interests1. Assessing pupils’ communication

    abilities and attitude

    2. Considering the significance of their achievement and how to realize continuity from elementary to secondary schools

    4

    Overview1) Introduction -the Japanese situation and

    framework2) Basic understanding of YL and our stance 3) A quick glance at elementary school English ) q g y g

    teaching4) Listening abilities5) Conversational abilities6) Transition from elementary schools to junior

    high schools5

    1)

    1) Introduction -the Japanese situation and framework

    2) Basic understanding of YL and our stance2) Basic understanding of YL and our stance 3) A quick glance at elementary school English

    teaching4) Listening abilities5) Conversational abilities6) Transition from elementary schools to junior

    high schools 6

  • 2011/11/20

    2

    Framework of English education in Japan

    In 2002-2010 optional “activities” within Period for Integrated StudiesGrades 3~6

    From 2011 obligatory only for 5th and 6th graders From 2011 obligatory only for 5 and 6 gradersonce a week (40-45 minutes per time)

    Goals: “to form the foundation of pupils’ communication abilities through foreign languages”

    7

    • No specific linguistic goals• Emphasis on : engaging in communicative

    activities, nurturing positive attitudes toward nurturing positive attitudes toward

    communication as well as language and cultural awareness

    (MEXT, 2008 http://www.mext.go.jp/component/a_menu/education/micro_detail/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2009/06/16/1234931_012.pdf) 8

    2)1) Introduction -the Japanese situation and framework

    2) Basic understanding of YL and our stance

    3) A quick glance at elementary school English teaching

    4) Listening abilities5) Conversational abilities6) Transition from elementary school to junior high

    school 9

    2.1. Younger is not necessarily quicker. Larsen-Freeman & Long (1991, p.155) Hyltenstam & Abrahamsson (2003, p.546)Muñoz (2009) –Barcelona Project

    #older Ss quicker after 416 hrs#After that younger learners slowing caught up

    Nikolov (2009) many variables

    10

    2.2. Early starters are not necessarily automatically better.

    Reasons for mixed results on effects of early language learning (Butler,2004-5):

    1) Lack of curriculum continuity1) Lack of curriculum continuity2) Doubtful validity of the test used3) Sampling problem of the participants

    11

    2.3. Instruction at the elementary school level is desirable all the same.

    • use more background knowledge• literacy,

    analytical skills andolder

    lolder

    l

    Johnstone (2002) and Nikolov (2009):

    12

    • analytical skills and• better learning skills.

    learnerslearners

    • relative ease of acquiring the sound system and unanalyzed wholes,

    • higher motivation and lower anxiety.

    young learners

    young learners

  • 2011/11/20

    3

    By starting younger

    take advantages of bothboth of these learner characteristics

    13

    2.4. MEXT’s stress on oral English and nurturing positive attitudes toward English- sensible

    2 5 N t i ti ti d l i2.5. Nurturing motivation, developing minimum language skills-inseparable

    (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2009; Yashima,2002; 2009a; 2009b)14

    3)1) Introduction -the Japanese situation and framework2) Basic understanding of YL and our stance

    3) A quick glance at elementary school English teaching

    4) Listening abilities5) Conversational abilities6) Transition from elementary school to junior high

    school15

    3.1 Themes and commonly taught words/expressions

    16

    3.2 Activities

    17

    4)1) Introduction -the Japanese situation and

    framework2) Basic understanding of YL and our stance3) A quick glance at elementary school English3) A quick glance at elementary school English

    teaching

    4) Listening abilities5) Conversational abilities6) Transition from elementary school to junior high

    school 18

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    19

    YTK Listening Test37 questionsI. words and sentences   48points /80II. teacher’s commands 

    (classroom English) 10/80III. letter‐sound correspondence            

    14/80IV. story comprehension   8 /80

    total: 80 points20

    YTK Listening TestThemes and word categories

    days of the week months time

    foods animals classroom English

    weather number countries colors Sports

    school subjects directions shapes ordering at a shop occupations

    21

    湯川笑子・高梨庸雄・小山哲春(2007). 「中学校進学前の生徒の英語リスニング力」小学校英語教育学会紀要第8号 29-36頁

    湯川笑子・高梨庸雄・小山哲春・川中尚(2008). 湯川笑子 高梨庸雄 小山哲春 川中尚(2008). 「小学校英語活動における評価ツールの活用」小学校英語教育学会紀要第9号 55-70頁

    Available from

    22

    湯川笑子・高梨庸雄・小山哲春(2009). 「小学校英語で身につくコミュニ

    ケーション能力」三省堂

    [Yukawa, E., Takanashi, T. & Koyama, T. (2009). (Communicative competence expected to be ( p plearned in elementary English Education)]. Tokyo: Sanseido.¥2500

    YTK Project papers available from

    23

    YTK Listening Test(AY2006 ~ 2011)

    YTK Listening Original N M (%)

    SD (average)

    Max Min

    Elementary

    Total (17) 1528 63.09 (78.86) 11.50 80 21

    Junior TotalJuniorHigh

    Total (5) 795 67.26 (84.08) 8.43 80 28

    Total 22 schools 2323 64.52 (80.64) 9.96 80 21

    YTK Listening 2 N M (%) SD (average)

    Max Min

    J.H. All (6) 738 80.42 80.42 12.56 100 19

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    5

    342

    520496

    AY2006-AY2011:Elementary Schools17 schools (4private / 13 public)

    N: 1528  (5th & 6th)Average: 63.09 (78.86%)SD:  8.87 (average)Max: 80Min: 21

    0‐ 10‐ 20‐ 30‐ 40‐ 50‐ 60‐ 70‐80

    0 0 531

    134

    0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

    0 0 0 4 17

    86

    175

    239

    AY2006-AY2011:Elementary Schools

    N: 521M: 67.12 (83.90%)SD:  7.98 (average)Max/Min: 80/36

    4 private Schools

    0‐ 10‐ 20‐ 30‐ 40‐ 50‐ 60‐ 70‐80

    0 0 5 27

    117

    256

    345

    257

    0‐ 10‐ 20‐ 30‐ 40‐ 50‐ 60‐ 70‐80

    N: 1007M: 61.00 (76.25%)SD:  9.31 (average)Max/Min: 80/21

    13 public Schools

    0 0 0 011 12

    43

    28

    0 0 0 1 314 14

    31

    2007-2008 (2nd phase): 4 schools

    N: 63 M: 65.32 (81.65%)

    I (public)N: 94 M: 63.24 (79.06%)

    K (public)

    0 0 0 0 0 3 4

    32

    0 0 0 0 29

    24

    38N:  73 M: 68.55 (85.68%)

    L (private)

    N: 39 M: 73.97 (92.47%)

    M (public)

    279

    375

    AY2006-AY2011:Junior High Schools5 schools (4 private / 1 public)

    N: 795  (1st)Average: 67.26 (84.08%)SD:  8.43 (average)Max: 80Min: 28

    0‐ 10‐ 20‐ 30‐ 40‐ 50‐ 60‐ 70‐80

    0 0 1 719

    114

    82

    142

    129

    4 schools (private): 2009

    N: 454  (1st)Average: 79.66 (%)SD:  14.34Max: 100Min: 20

    YTK Listening 2 (Max = 100)

    0‐ 10‐ 20‐ 30‐ 40‐ 50‐ 60‐ 70‐ 80‐ 90‐100

    0 0 2 49

    34

    52

    7480

    90

    2 schools (private): 2010

    N: 284  (1st)Average: 81.64 (%)SD:  11.66Max: 100Min: 19

    YTK Listening 2 (Max = 100)

    0‐ 10‐ 20‐ 30‐ 40‐ 50‐ 60‐ 70‐ 80‐ 90‐100

    0 1 1 03

    10

    25

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    Findings and Limitation of YTK Listening Test

    1. Overall performance high2. Distribution pattern uniform

    across schools3 This sample- schools that taught3. This sample schools that taught

    English more than 20 hours per year from the 3rd grade: 28% of all the schools(calculated from the survey result conducted in 2007* by MEXT http://www.pref.tottori.lg.jp/secure/296303/tyousa-syou.pdf)

    31

    5)1) Introduction -the Japanese situation and

    framework2) Basic understanding of YL and our stance3) A quick glance at elementary school English3) A quick glance at elementary school English

    teaching4) Listening abilities

    5) Conversational abilities6) Transition from elementary school to junior high

    school32

    5.1 YTK Speaking Test (i.e., “Let’s Talk”)1. A 3-5 minute conversation with an

    adult English speaking stranger

    2. Testing alone - too threatening Luoma g g(2004: pp.33-39) → testing in pairs

    3. Test with scaffolding-(Cameron, L. (2001: p.217), citing Vygotsky,1962; Wertsch,1998)

    33

    Components of Communicative Competence

    Canale (1983)

    Grammatical competence

    Sociolinguistic competence

    Discourse competence

    Strategic competence

    Language Ability

    Language knowledge

    Organizational knowledge

    G ti l T t l

    Pragmatic knowledge

    Ill ti l S i li i ti

    Bachman and Palmer(1996)

    Grammatical knowledge

    Textual knowledge

    Illocutionalknowledge

    Sociolinguistic knowledge

    35

    Strategic competence

    Goal setting assessment Planning

    Bachman and Palmer(1996)

    Interpersonal Communication Competence

    Conversational

    AdaptabilityConversational

    InvolvementConversational

    Management

    Canale, Cody, & Manusov (2000) etc.

    SocialComposure

    Articulation Responsive‐ness

    Attentive‐ness

    Turn‐takingTurn‐yielding

    Back‐channeling

    Spitzberg (1995) etc. (Conversational Skill Rating Scale)

    Altercentrism Composure Expressiveness Interaction Management

  • 2011/11/20

    7

    Five different criteria with four levels each 

    1. Phonology Whether they can speak in natural English pronunciation that is easy to understand.

    2. Syntax + Vocabulary

    Whether they know the necessary vocabulary words and can use grammatically correct English.

    3. Attentiveness Whether they can concentrate, listen and d d d i   h   i

    4 :the highest level  ~ 1:the lowest level

    3. Attentiveness understand during the conversation.

    4. Expressiveness Whether they can actively communicate what they want to convey using verbal and non‐verbal means.

    5. Management

    Whether they recognize their role in the conversation as either the speaker or the listener and contribute to the conversation so it progresses smoothly.

    four different levels for each criterion(1:lowest, 4:highest score)

    Actively expresses what s/he wants to convey making use of verbal (English words), and non-verbal (gestures or facial expressions) means of communication all the time.

    Expressiveness

    p )

    Expresses what s/he wants to convey most of the time, although at times s/he could not make use of either one or both of verbal and non-verbal expressions.

    2Can actively express what s/he wants to convey making use of both means of communication half of the time.

    1Does not actively express what s/he wants to convey using either verbal or nonverbal means of communication.

    38

    5.3 Participants in YTK Speaking Test (Academic Years of 2006 to 2010)

    Academic Year Type of School Number of participants 

    20063 private and 

    1 public schools236

    39

    2007 1 public school 53

    2008 2 public schools 89

    2009 3 public schools 140

    2010 4 public schools 216

    Total 734

    • Yukawa, E., Koyama, T. & Takanashi, T. (2009‐2010).  What does ‘Let’s Talk’ tell us?: elementary school students’ speaking performance variability and its relation to instructional content. JASTEC Journal 29, 1‐15.

    Available from 

    • Koyama, T. & Yukawa, E.(2011). Validity of the YTK speaking test: construct validity of a performance‐based English y p gspeaking test for elementary school students in Japan. (to appear in Bulletin of Kyoto Notre Dame University, March ,2012).

    • 小山哲春 (2009)「小学校外国語活動で可能な「評価」:YTKスピーキングテスト(Let’s Talk)の試み」『英語教育』第58巻第4号, pp.30‐31.

    40

    5.4 Study 1: Findings from the initial trial (AY2006)1. Able to manage the conversation

    2. Very good pedagogical tool, especially for th il h h d t h d hthe pupils who had not had such an opportunity before

    3. Scores vary depending on the pedagogical policy of each school

    41

    Let’s Talk(full mark= 4 

    points, Total=20 points)

    YTK Listening Test(full mark=80 points)

    Total Mean S.D.

    Table 5.4.1 Results of Let’s Talk in 2008

    42

    A School  15.97 62.89 9.84

    B School 15.44 64.42 11.13

    C School 14.17 68.85 7.88

    D School 15.68 71.78 5.94

    j School 12.38 62.42 8.75

  • 2011/11/20

    8

    5.5 Study 2: Instructional intervention to improve conversation performance

    Research question 1:

    Does an instruction specifically designed for communication gmanagement skills improve the performances in Let’s Talk?

    (Yukawa, Koyama & Takanashi, 2009-2010)

    43

    Instructional  intervention:

    InterventionAY 2007Let’s  TalkAY 2008Let’s  Talk

    (1) To be able to ASK questions rather than simply wait for being talked to and

    (2)To give back‐channeling (“Me, too.” “Nice.” “I see.“  “Interesting.” “Oh, no.”)

    44

    total phonologyvocabulary

    and syntax

    attentiveness expressiveness

    conversationalmanagement

    fullmark (20) (4) (4) (4) (4) (4)

    RQ1  The performances of Let’s Talk in AY2007 and AY 2008

    45

    fullmark (20) (4) (4) (4) (4) (4)

    AY2007mean 12.38 2.77 2.27 2.75 2.33 2.27

    s.d 2.39 .58 .56 .68 .65 .69

    AY2008mean 13.63 2.73 2.44 3.08 2.69 2.69

    s.d 2.41 .49 .58 .45 .75 .78

    t(98) 2.58* .37 1.45 2.85** a 2.58* 2.85**

    N = 52(2007 March), N = 48 (2008 March); * p 

  • 2011/11/20

    9

    Putting all the assessment results altogether

    What can 6th gradersWhat can 6th graders achieve through

    elementary school English?

    49

    1. Pupils learn most words/expressions at the receptive level- helpful training wheels for secondary school English

    2. The most valuable learning- the experience of having used English for communication and knowing that they are capable to do it

    50

    6)1) Introduction -the Japanese situation and

    framework2) Basic understanding of YL and our stance3) A quick glance at elementary school English3) A quick glance at elementary school English

    teaching4) Listening abilities5) Conversational abilities

    6) Transition from elementary school to junior high school

    51

    6.1 Do JHS 1st year students’ motivation decline?

    JHS students’ motivation for learning English declines in the middle of their first yearthe middle of their first year(Koizumi & Matsuo,1993; Yamamori, 2004; Benesse, 2009)

    52

    Koizumi and Matsuo (1993)Decline by June or October, and then stabilize

    Yamamori (2004)“Motivated students” 96% 61% over a yearyear

    Benesse (2009, p.54) The most motivated period- beginning of the 1st

    year Started to feel English is difficult- latter half of

    the 1st year53

    Do JHS 1st year students’ motivation decline?Mixed results:

    K School - declineF School - keep or go upS School - slight decline?H School - keep

    54

  • 2011/11/20

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    4

    4.5Practicality of English

    Desire for acquiring practical English skillsInternational posture

    Confidence in English

    1st year September

    1st year March

    K School(Public)

    55

    2

    2.5

    3

    3.5

    2010. Sep. 2011. Mar.

    g

    Desire for doing well in EnglishSatisfaction with English lessonsSmooth transition of positive imageStudy behavior

    4

    4.5 Practicality of English

    Desire for acquiring practical English skillsInternational posture

    Confidence in English

    F School  (Private)

    1st year July

    1st year December

    1st year March

    562

    2.5

    3

    3.5

    2010 Jul. 2010 Dec. 2010 Mar.

    g

    Desire for doing well in EnglishSatisfaction with English lessonsSmooth transition of positive imageStudy behavior

    Self assessment of achievement

    4.0 

    4.5 

    5.0 Practicality of English

    Desire for acquiring practical English skillsInternational posture

    1st year April

    1st year July

    1st year September 1

    st year December

    S School(Private)

    (Yoshida, 2011)

    2.0 

    2.5 

    3.0 

    3.5 

    2010 Apr. 2010 Jul. 2010 Sep. 2010 Dec.

    Confidence in English

    Desire for doing well in EnglishSatisfaction with English lessonsSmooth transition of positive image

    4.0 

    4.5 

    5.0 

    Goal of learning English (n=106)

    1st year April

    1st year July 1st year

    December

    1st year March

    H School(Private)

    2.0 

    2.5 

    3.0 

    3.5 

    2009 Apr 2009 Jul. 2009 Dec. 2009 Mar.

    Desire for doing well in English (n=96)

    Smooth transition of positive image (n=61)

    58(Yukawa, Koyama & Sugimoto, 2010)

    ConclusionI discussed today only the following:1. Assessing pupils’ communication

    abilities and attitude

    2. Considering the significance of their achievement and how to realize the continuity from elementary to secondary schools

    59

    Conclusion: Summary 1Assessing pupils’ communication abilities and

    attitude

    Pupils are developing formal Pupils are developing formal knowledge to the extent that we should not ignore;

    Pupils can converse in English if scaffolding is provided

    60

  • 2011/11/20

    11

    Conclusion: Summary 2Considering the significance of their achievement

    and how to realize a good transition from elementary to secondary schools

    Pupils’ experience of language use and their feeling of accomplishment is valuable

    Good transition is possible, but we need more work and research

    61

    Only a few pieces of a big puzzleBut

    Hope they were helpful

    62

    Thank you!

    Contact: [email protected]

    YTK Project papers & plenary slides available at 

    ReferencesBachman, L.F., & Palmer, A. S. (1996). Language testing in practice. Oxford: Oxford University

    Press.Cameron, L. (2001). Teaching languages to young learners. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Canale. M. (1983). From communicative competence to communicative language pedagogy. In J. C.

    Richards & R. W. Schmidt (Eds), Language and communication. (pp.2-27). Essex, UK: Longman.Canale, M., Cody, M., & Manusov, V. (2000). Interpersonal communication: A goals-based approach

    (2nd ed.). New York: St. Martin’s Press.Dörnyei, Z., & Ushioda, E. (Eds.). (2009). Motivation, language identity, and the L2 self. Bristol, UK:

    Multilingual Matters. Enever, J. (2010). “A global revolution? Teaching English at primary school” A British Council

    seminar delivered on November 5th, 2010. Retrieved November 11. 2011 from http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/seminars/a-global-revolution-teaching-english-primary-school

    Hyltenstam, K. & Abrahamsson, N. (2003). Maturational constraints in SLA. In: C. J. Doughty & M. H. Long (Eds.), The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition (pp.539-588). Oxford: Blackwell.

    Johnstone, R. (2002). Addressing “The Age Factor”: Same Implications for languages Policy. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

    Koizumi, R., & Matsuo, K. (1993). A longitudinal study of attitudes and motivation in learning English among Japanese seventh-grade students. Japanese Psychological Research, 31, 1, 1-11.

    Koyama, T. & Yukawa, E. (2011). Validity of the YTK speaking test: construct validity of a performance-based English speaking test for elementary school students in Japan. (to appear inBulletin of Kyoto Notre Dame University, March, 2012).

    63

    Larsen-Freeman, D. & Long, M. H. (1991). An introduction to second language acquisition research. New York: Longman.

    Luoma, S. (2004). Assessing speaking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Muñoz, M. (2009). Input and long-term effects of early learning in a formal setting. In M. Nikolov

    (Ed.), The age factor and early language learning. (pp.141-160). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Nikolov, M. (2009). The age factor in context. In M. Nikolov (Ed.), The age factor and early language

    learning. (pp.1-38). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Spitzberg, N. H.(1995). Conversational skills rating scale: An instructional assessment of interpersonal

    competence. Annandale, VA: Speech Communication Association.Vigotsky, L. S. (1962). Thought and language. New York: Wiley.Wertsch, J.V.(1998). Mind as action. New York: Oxford University Press.Yamamori, K. (2004). Durability of the will to learn English: A one-year study of Japanese seventh

    graders. Japanese journal of Educational Psychology, 52, 71-82.Y hi T (2002) Willi i i d l Th J M dYashima, T. (2002). Willingness to communicate in a second language: The Japanese context. Modern

    Language Journal, 86,55-66.Yashima, T. (2009b). International posture and the ideal L2 self in the Japanese context. In

    Dörnyei, Z., and E. Ushioda, E. (Eds.), Motivation, language identity, and the L2 self .(pp.144-163). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

    Yoshida, H. (2011). Japanese Seventh Graders’ English Language Achievement and Motivation. On Language and Language Education –An anthology of selected research papers submitted in the academic year of 2010 to the graduate school of language education and information science, Ritsumeikan University, 4, 107-141.

    Yukawa, E., Koyama, T., & Takanashi, T. (2009-2010). What does 'Let's Talk' tell us?: elementary school students' speaking performance variability and its relation to instructional content. JASTECJournal, 29, 1-15.

    Yukawa, E., Koyama, T., & Sugimoto, M. (2010). An exploratory study on junior high school students’ affective state and their perceived success in class. Paper presented at Asia TEFL, Hanoi, Vietnam, August 5-9, 2010.

    64

    日本語文献

    小山哲春 (2009) 小学校外国語活動で可能な「評価」:YTKスピーキングテスト(Let’s Talk)の試み『英語教育』第58巻第4号, pp.30-31

    バトラー後藤裕子 (2004-2005) 小学校英語:評価をめぐる課題『日本児童英語教育学会 (JASTEC)研究紀要』第24号, pp.1-18

    ベネッセ教育研究開発センター (2009)「第1回中学校英語に関する基本調査報告書【教員調査・生徒調査】」http://benesse.jp/berd/center/open/report/chu_eigo/hon/pdf/data_06.pdf より2011年11月11日ダウンロード

    文部科学省 (2007)「平成19年度小学校英語活動実施状況調査のまとめ」http://www.pref.tottori.lg.jp/secure/296303/tyousa-syou.pdfより2011年11月11日ダウンロード

    文部科学省 (2008)「小学校学習指導要領解説 外国語編」http://www.mext.go.jp/component/a_menu/education/micro_detail/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2009/06/16/1234931_012.pdfより2011年11月11日ダウンロード

    文部科学省 (2009a)『英語ノート1』文部科学省文部科学省 (2009b)『英語ノ ト2』文部科学省文部科学省 (2009b)『英語ノート2』文部科学省八島智子 (2009a) 動機づけからみた小学校の英語活動 湯川笑子・バトラー後藤裕子(編著)『小学校英語活動必修化

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