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Page 1: Abstract Volume Symposium

16-19th June, 2003

Universidad de Alicante

Alicante, Spain

Excmo. Ayuntamiento de Pinoso

SYRPHIDAE

II INTERNATIONALSYMPOSIUM ON THE

BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION

MINISTERIODE CIENCIAY TECNOLOGÍA

SECRETARÍADE ESTADOPOLÍTICA CIENTÍFICAY TECNOLOGÍA

DIRECCIÓNGENERALDE INVESTIGACIÓN

Vicerrectorado de Extensión UniversitariaFacultad de Ciencias

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PROGRAMME AND ABSTRACTS

II INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM

ON THE SYRPHIDAE

BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION

Alicante, Spain16-19th June, 2003

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ORGANIZED BY:• CIBIO. Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad.

Universidad de Alicante.

FINANCIAL SUPPORT:• Fundación Biodiversidad.

• Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología. Secretaría de

Estado, Política Científica y Tecnología.

EDITED BY:• CIBIO. Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad.

Universidad de Alicante. ISBN: 84-933249-0-6

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SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE

Dr. Mª Ángeles Marcos-García, CIBIO

Dr. Santos Rojo, CIBIO

Dr. Celeste Pérez-Bañón, CIBIO

ORGANISING COMMITTEE

ChairmanMª Ángeles Marcos-García

SecretariesSantos Rojo

Celeste Pérez-Bañón

Members of the CommitteeSantiago Bordera

Luis Cadahia

Mª Carmen Cartagena

Ana Juan Gallardo

Estefanía Hernández-Rodríguez

Anabel Martínez-Sánchez

Ximo Mengual

Estefanía Micó

Salima Pérez-Moreno

Santiago Peñarrubia

Vicente Urios

José Ramón Verdú

Jorge Zamora

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CONTENTS

Preface ................................................................................................................7

Programme .......................................................................................................11

Session I: Biodiversity/Conservationa MARTIN C.D. SPEIGHT - Identification of priorities in conservation of

European saproxylic syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae) - Plenary session.....19

a Oral contributions ....................................................................................21

a Posters......................................................................................................33

Session II: Ecology/Biologya GRAHAM E. ROTHERAY - Explaining syrphid diversification: the role of

shifts in breeding site (Diptera: Syrphidae) - Plenary session..................53

a Oral contributions ....................................................................................55

a Posters......................................................................................................67

Session III: Integrated Pest Managementa FRANCIS GILBERT - Specialisation in syrphid predators (Diptera:

Syrphidae) - Plenary session ....................................................................77

a Oral contributions ....................................................................................79

a Posters......................................................................................................91

Session IV: Systematics/Phylogeny/Evolutiona GUNILLA STÅHLS - Generating DNA sequence characters for syrphid

phylogenetics: possibilities and future directions (Diptera: Syrphidae) -

Plenary session ......................................................................................105

a Oral contributions ..................................................................................107

a Posters....................................................................................................121

List of Participants ........................................................................................131

Index of Authors.............................................................................................137

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Preface

This volume contains the abstracts of oral contributions, plenary sessions and posters

submitted to the II International Symposium on Syrphidae – Biodiversity and

Conservation, held at Alicante, Spain, in June 2003.

The Organising Committee would like to thank all pre-registered participants

for their suggestions. The syrphidologist team from the Centro Iberoamericano de la

Biodiversidad (CIBIO) of the Alicante University (Spain) are pleased to be

Coordinators of the Second International Symposium on Syrphidae. We would like

this meeting to be an established feature of the scientific calendar, covering as many

items relating to Syrphidae as possible. We should also like to take this opportunity to

express our great appreciation to the Organising Committee of the First International

Workshop on Syrphidae held in July at Stuttgart (Ulrich Schmid, Francis Gilbert,

Graham Rotheray & Gunilla Ståhls).

The interest in the Symposium was far greater than attendance. The lack of

money for travel was evident from many letters received from interested colleagues

around the world looking for travel funds. We have made every effort to assist as

many people as possible and it therefore gives us great pleasure to note that some of

these difficulties have been solved.

Sessions will take place in the Campus of the University of Alicante, where an

assembly room for workshops, a hall for posters, a classroom with optical material,

restaurants, banks and other services, provide desirable conditions and a pleasant

setting. We are greatly indebted to the financial support we received from the

Government of Spain (Dirección General de Investigación, Ministerio de Educación y

Ciencia) and the Fundación Biodiversidad; and the support from the University of

Alicante.

Abstracts are arranged in four different sessions: Biodiversity/Conservation,

Biology/Ecology, Systematic/Phylogeny/Evolution and Integrated Pest Management.

The names of all authors appear in the Author Index. We have also added a list with

the complete addresses of the participants. We have tried to check the style of the

abstracts, including species names and due to this, any errors or omissions are our

responsibility.

Alicante 6th June, 2003

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SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME

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II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 1116-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

MONDAY, 16TH JUNE

9:30-11:30 Registration

11:30-12:00 Opening and welcoming

12:00-13:00 Opening conference: Flower fly taxonomy: Where are we and how

much more is there to be done?

F. CHRISTIAN THOMPSON (Systematic Entomology Lab., ARS-USDA,

Washington, USA)

13:00-14:30 Lunch

SESSION I: BIODIVERSITY/CONSERVATION

14:30-15:30 Plenary session: Identification of priorities in conservation of

European saproxylic syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae).

MARTIN C.D. SPEIGHT (Research Branch, National Parks & Wildlife

Service, Ireland)

15:30-16:30 Oral contributions: Biodiversity/Conservation (I)Chair: Martin C.D. Speight

a FRANK DZIOCK. Species traits, functional groups and environmental

constraints a case study on the hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in the

river Elbe floodplain.

a G IOVANNI B URGIO & DANIELE SOMMAGGIO. Syrphidae as

bioindicators in Italy : data available and new perspectives.

a TOM GITTINGS, PAUL S. GILLER & JOHN O'HALLORAN. Factors

affecting hoverfly (Diptera: Syrphidae) biodiversity in Irish plantation

forests.

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16:30-17:00 Break

17:00-18:00 Oral contributions: Biodiversity/Conservation (II)a LUCIANE MARINONI & F. CHRISTIAN THOMPSON. An overview of the

flower-flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) of Southeastern Brazil - Project of

Survey of Syrphidae Fauna in Paraná.

a SULEYMAN SARIBIYIK. The evaluation of the works on Syrphidae

(Diptera) Fauna in the Western Blacksea Region.

a ROGER K.A. MORRIS & STUART BALL. Recent changes in the range of

Volucella zonaria and V. inanis in England (Diptera: Syrphidae).

18:00-19:00 Posters

TWESDAY, 17TH JUNE

SESSION II: ECOLOGY/BIOLOGY

9:30-10:30 Plenary session: Explaining syrphid (Diptera: Syrphidae)

diversification: the role of shifts in breeding site.

GRAHAM E. ROTHERAY (Department of Natural History, National

Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh, U.K.)

10:30-11:30 Oral contributions: Ecology/Biology (I)Chair: Graham E. Rotheray

a PAVEL LÁSKA & VÍTEZSLAV BICÍK. Influence of temperature on

mimicry in Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae).

a G.F. MIRANDA & LUCIANE MARINONI. Survey of Syrphidae (Diptera)

in two areas: edge and interior of a forest in Vila Velha State Park,

Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil.

a YVONNE GOLDING & MALCOLM EDMUNDS. A novel method to

investigate the pollen diets of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae).

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11:30-12:00 Break

12:00-13:00 Oral contributions: Ecology/Biology (II)a BRIGITTE HOWARTH, MALCOLM EDMUNDS & FRANCIS GILBERT.

Does the abundance of hoverfly mimics (Diptera: Syrphidae) depend

on the numbers of their hymenopteran models?

a AXEL SSYMANK. Hoverfly (Diptera: Syrphidae) communities in

vegetation complexes of river valleys.

a STUART BALL & ROGER K.A. MORRIS. Climate change and its effect

on the phenology of some British hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae).

13:00-14:30 Lunch

SESSION III: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

14:30-15:30 Plenary session: Specialisation in syrphid predators (Diptera:

Syrphidae).

FRANCIS GILBERT (School of Life & Environmental Sciences,

Nottingham University, U.K.)

15:30-16:30 Oral contributions: Integrated Pest Management (I)Chair: Francis Gilbert

a NICOLAS VANHAELEN, ERIC HAUBRUGE, CHARLES GASPAR &

FRÉDÉRIC FRANCIS. Influence of aphid host plant chemistry on

behaviour and performances of Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera:

Syrphidae).

a P ETER H ONDELMANN & HANS-MICHAEL POEHLING. Genetic

structure in Episyrphus balteatus populations (Diptera: Syrphidae).

a MIGUEL LOUIS-MALDONADO & OSCAR ALOMAR. Attractiveness of

flowering plants to aphidophagous hoverflies (Diptera, Syrphidae):

suitability as insectary plants to enhance biological control.

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16:30-17:00 Break17:00-18:00 Oral contributions: Integrated Pest Management (II)

a FRÉDÉRIC FRANCIS, NICOLAS VANHAELEN, PIERRE COLIGNON &

ERIC HAUBRUGE. Study of the genetic variation of aphidophagous

syrphid populations (Diptera: Syrphidae).

a PAVEL LÁSKA. Syrphinae (Diptera: Syrphidae) larvae on cabbage in

Central Europe and their effectiveness as natural enemies.

a SANTOS ROJO, F RANCIS GILBERT, Mª ANGELES MARCOS-GARCÍA,

JUAN M. NIETO & M. PILAR MIER. Presentation of the book “A world

review of predatory hoverflies (Diptera, Syrphidae: Syrphinae) and

their prey”

18:00-19:00 Posters

WEDNESDAY, 18TH OF JUNE

SESSION IV: SYSTEMATICS/PHYLOGENY/EVOLUTION

9:30-10:30 Plenary session: Generating DNA sequence characters for syrphid

phylogenetics: possibilities and future directions (Diptera: Syrphidae).

GUNILLA STÅHLS (Entomology Department, Finnish Museum of

Natural History, University of Helsinki, Finland)

10:30-11:30 Oral contributions: Systematics/Phylogeny/Evolution (I)Chair: Gunilla Ståhls

a DANIELE SOMMAGGIO, ANTONIO MASETTI, ANDREA LUCHETTI,

G IOVANNI B URGIO & B ARBARA M ANTOVANI. The genus

Chrysotoxum: problems and advance in its taxonomy (Diptera:

Syrphidae).

a A NATOLII BARKALOV. When and where Cheilosia (Diptera:

Syrphidae) appeared?

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a LIBOR MAZÁNEK, PAVEL LÁSKA & VÍTEZSLAV BICÍK. Present status

of the World revision of the genus Eupeodes (Diptera: Syrphidae).

11:30-12:00 Break

12:00-13:00 Oral contributions: Systematics/Phylogeny/Evolution (II)a LUCIANE MARINONI. On the Phylogeny of Syrphini (Diptera:

Syrphinae, Syrphidae) using adult morphological data.

a ANTE VUJIC. Concept of the species of the genus Pipiza Fallen, 1810

(Diptera: Syrphidae) on the Balkan Peninsula.

a MARINA KRIVOSHEINA. Larval morphology of some xylobiont

Syrphidae: adaptation or evolution?

a CELESTE PÉREZ-BAÑÓN, SANTOS ROJO, GUNILLA STÅHLS, & Mª

ANGELES MARCOS-GARCÍA. Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Palaearctic

Eristalinus (Diptera: Syrphidae).

13:00-14:30 Lunch

14:30 Final remarksF. Christian Thompson

Closing of “II International Symposium on the Syrphidae-

Biodiversity and Conservation”

20.00 Closing dinner

THURSDAY, 19TH OF JUNE

9:00 Field trip to Natural Park of Albufera de Valencia

20:00 Return to Alicante

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SESSION IBIODIVERSITY / CONSERVATION

Oral Contributions

Posters

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BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Plenary session

Identification of priorities in conservation of European saproxylicsyrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae)

Martin C.D. SpeightResearch Branch, National Parks & Wildlife Service, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

e-mail: [email protected]

During the last 20 years European Syrphidae have become more accessible, due to

considerable improvement in identification literature, a significant increase in data on

the larvae and, more recently, the establishment of a database enabling analysis and

interpretation of species lists. But, although use of syrphids in environmental

interpretation is now occurring in various parts of Europe, most work continues to

focus upon species of supposed economic interest in pest control. In particular, little

has yet been done to consider the European syrphid fauna holistically.

Invertebrates associated with "old-growth-forests" are a recognised cause for

concern in Europe, saproxylic Coleoptera, especially, now being the subject of serious

investigative studies, mostly related to improvement in "biodiversity maintenance" in

commercially-managed forests. To-date, Diptera have been almost entirely neglected

in such studies.

In this presentation, an attempt is made to consider Europe's saproxylic

syrphids, to see if they can help to identify conservation priorities in forest

biodiversity management. Information about the species coded into the StN database

is used to examine the representation of 92 European syrphid species with saproxylic

larvae among various groupings of forest habitats and microhabitats. It is

demonstrated that species associated with micro-habitats occurring almost exclusively

on damaged or senescent, but still-living trees predominate among European

saproxylic syrphids, especially in deciduous forests, and that these species show a

narrower ecological amplitude than those associated with dead wood. It is further

demonstrated that this subgroup of European saproxylic syrphids is, in general, more

threatened than the species that can live in dead wood microhabitats, highlighting the

need to develop methods for their protection.

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It is concluded that efforts to maintain or increase quantities of dead wood

("coarse woody debris" or CWD) in European forests are largely irrelevant to

conservation of most European syrphids with saproxylic larvae, but that priorities vary

according to location. In parts of Europe where deciduous forest is largely absent or its

associated saproxylics already mostly extinct, protection of CWD-associated species

may be more important.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Oral contribution

Species traits, functional groups and environmental constraints a casestudy on the hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in the river Elbe floodplain

Frank DziockUFZ-Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Conservation Biology,

04318 Leipzig (Germany). e-mail: [email protected]

25 years ago, Grime (1977) and Southwood (1977) published the first habitat templets

to describe relationships between environmental parameters and life history strategies.

This has subsequently lead to a changing worldview of ecology in forcing ecologists

to study the organism-in-its-environment and not as a closed system (Korfiatis &

Stamou 1999, Statzner et al. 2001). I am interested in exploring relationships between

biological traits of hoverflies and the environmental constraints that have lead to their

evolution and test the application of this knowledge for environmental assessment.

This study aims to:

1. explore the relationship between life history traits and environmental

variables in hoverflies.

2. group species of hoverflies to functional groups with similar life history

traits. The aim in forming functional groups is to represent the ecological

structure of a fauna, and perhaps to use that structure to make predictions at

a level that is more practicable and more general than the level of individual

species, but that enables better prediction than the level of all the species.

3. make suggestions for the use of hoverfly functional groups for

environmental assessment Investigations are carried out at a study site in

the floodplain of the river Elbe in central Germany.

Using Malaise traps, 35 sites were surveyed in 1998, 1999, 2002 and 2003. The

environmental parameters recorded on the same sites were: height above sealevel (as

an approximation of inundation frequency), macrohabitats, microhabitats (e.g.

structures like dead wood or ant nests), distance from the course of the Elbe and

relevant habitats and soil parameters. Life history trait information is taken from the

“Syrph the Net-Database of European Syrphidae” (Speight et al. 2001).

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22 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

Data analysis uses explorative multivariate statistics (CA, PCA, Co-inertia) and

Monte-Carlo-Procedures. First results are presented and these are discussed using the

concepts of functional groups and habitat templet theory.

Keywords: Bioindication, environmental assessment, functional groups, multivariate statistics,

Syrphidae, habitat templet.

ReferencesGRIME, J.P. (1977): Evidence for the Existence of Three Primary Strategies in Plants

and its Relevance to Ecological and Evolutionary Theory. - American Naturalist 111, 1169-1194. KORFIATIS, K.J. & STAMOU, G.P. (1999): Habitat Templets and the ChangingWorldview of Ecology. - Biology and Philosophy 14, 375-393. SOUTHWOOD, T.R.E. (1977):Habitat, the Templet for Ecological Strategies. - Journal of Animal Ecology 46, 337-365.SPEIGHT, M.C.D., CASTELLA, E., OBRDLIK, P. & BALL, S. (eds., 2001): Syrph the Net: thedatabase of European Syrphidae. Vols. 27 to 32. - Syrph the Net Publications, Dublin. ISSN1393-4546. STATZNER, B., HILDREW, A.G. & RESH, V.H. (2001): Species Traits andEnvironmental Constraints: Entomological Research and the History of Ecological Theory. -Annual Review of Entomology 46, 291-316.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Oral contribution

Syrphidae as bioindicators in Italy: data available and new perspectives*Giovanni Burgio & **Daniele Sommaggio

*DiSTA, Alma Mater Università di Bologna, 40127 Bologna (Italy).

e-mail: [email protected]

**Biostudio, Via Riello, 4. 36010 Velo d'Astico (VI) (Italy) e-mail: [email protected]

Despite other European countries, Italian Syrphidae received small attention during

the second half of 1900. The authors will discuss the recent researches developed to

increase the knowledge of Syrphidae Italian fauna and to use hoverflies as

bioindicators in rural landscape in Northern Italy. In particular a field experiment is

presented, with the aim to compare Malaise trap and hand net in collecting hoverflies.

These methods appear selective and complementary, and the use of both in

environmental analysis is suggested. In addition seventeen sites, including forests and

farms, are compared according Syrphidae fauna; cluster analysis shows that landscape

management strongly effects hoverfly community. Syrphidae communities can be

effective as landscape indicators in rural landscape; the necessity to sample a species

spectrum including all larval trophic categories is underlined, with particular attention

to rare species, belonging to saproxylic habitus. Authors underline the need to increase

the data available about the distribution of Italian species and their biology. Several

sites, both in rural and in natural habitats, will be studied since 2003, both in North

and south Italy. The main goal of these studies is to increase the data available about

Italian Syrphidae in order to apply also in Italy the use of Syrphidae as bioindicators.

Keywords: Bioindicators Northern Italy Catching methods.

ReferencesBIRTELE, D., SOMMAGGIO, D., SPEIGHT, M.C.D. & TISATO M. (2002): Syrphidae. In F.

Mason, P. Cerretti, A. Tagliapietra, M.C.D. Speight, A. Zapparoli (eds.). Invertebrati di unaforesta della Pianura Padana Bosco della Fontana, 115-118. BURGIO, G. & SOMMAGGIO, D.(2002): Diptera Syrphidae caught by Malaise trap in Bologna province and new record ofNeoascia interrupta in Italy. Bul. of Insectology 55, 43-47. SOMMAGGIO, D. & BURGIO, G. (inpress): Role of Diptera Syrphidae as landscape indicators: analysis of some case studies inNorth Italy. IOBC Bull. SPEIGHT, M.C.D., CASTELLA, E., OBRDLIK, P. & BALL, S. (eds, 2000):Syrph the Net: the database of European Syrphidae. - Syrph the Net Publications, Dublin.

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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Oral contribution

Factors affecting hoverfly (Diptera: Syrphidae) biodiversity inIrish plantation forests

Tom Gittings, Paul S. Giller & John O’HalloranDepartment of Zoology and Animal Ecology, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Prospect

Row, Cork (Ireland) e-mail: [email protected]

Objectives: We investigated hoverfly biodiversity as part of a large-scale project with

the objective of developing appropriate indicators (structural, compositional,

functional) of Irish plantation forest biodiversity. Methods: We used malaise traps to

sample hoverflies in 38 sites representing four age-classes of three forest types: Sitka

(Picea sitchensis), ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and Sitka-ash mixes. We recorded habitat

details using the “Syrph The Net” habitat classification (Speight et al., 2001). We used

the predicted habitat associations in Speight et al. (2001) to exclude species from

subsequent analyses that obviously did not breed within the forest habitat at each site.

Our co-workers carried out concurrent surveys of plant, spider and bird biodiversity in

the same sites and collected GIS data for a 5 km. radius around each site.

Results: In older forests (tree height greater than 10 m), the total number of

hoverfly species was negatively correlated with tree height and positively correlated

with clearing area. This relationship also applied to the number of species in most

functional groups, except dead wood/saproxylic species. The biodiversity of dead

wood/saproxylic species in the Sitka forests was positively related to the occurrence of

standing and fallen timber. In the younger forests, hoverfly assemblages reflected the

pre-planting habitat type.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Indicators, Plantation forests, Picea sitchensis, Fraxinus excelsior.

ReferencesSPEIGHT, M.C.D., CASTELLA, E., OBRDLIK, P. & BALL, S. (2001): Macrohabitat

preferences of European Syrphidae (Diptera), 2001. In M.C.D., Speight, E. Castella, P. Obrdlik& S. Ball (eds..) Syrph the Net, the database of European Syrphidae. Vol. 28. - Syrph the NetPublications, Dublin

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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Oral contribution

An overview of the flower-flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) of SoutheasternBrazil - Project of Survey of Syrphidae Fauna in Paraná.

*Luciane Marinoni & **F. Christian Thompson*Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba (Brazil). e-mail: [email protected]

** Systematic Entomology Lab., ARS, USDA.Washington, D.C. (USA).

e-mail: [email protected]

Brazil has an extremely rich and diverse entomofauna. This fauna is poorly known and

very little has been done to assess its biodiversity especially concerning flower-flies.

To fill this void, entomofaunal surveys have been carried out in Paraná, Brazil. From

1986 to 1988, the project “Survey of the Entomological Fauna in Paraná”

(PROFAUPAR) was carried out in eight localities of the state with different floristic

and geomorphological conditions. Malaise trapping collected 1,617 specimens of

Syrphidae in the first year and 1,642 specimens in the second. In the first year, 111

species were sorted out. Names were found for 85 including 8 new species, but 26

others could not be matched with named concepts and are of poorly known groups

where new species descriptions would only add to existing confusion (Marinoni &

Thompson, in press). In the second year 96 morphospecies were preliminary

identified. Toxomerus was the most abundant genus in both years, with 393 and 789

specimens collected respectively. The species Toxomerus tibicen (Wiedemann, 1830),

Microdon mitis Curran, 1940 and Leucopodella gracilis (Williston, 1891) were the

most abundant in the first year (Marinoni & Bonatto, 2002) and in the second

Toxomerus procrastinatus Metz, 2001, T. tibicen, Paramicrodon flukei (Curran,

1936), and Microdon mitis. The genera Ocyptamus, Copestylum and Microdon were

the most diverse genera. In the first year, five known species were for the first time

registered for Brazil and 43 species for Paraná. With these partial results the need of

more studies on the Syrphidae taxonomy, especially in Neotropical areas, become

evident. From this material, collected during two years, much more information can be

obtained including seasonality analysis of the most abundant species.

Keywords: Syrphidae, Neotropical, Survey, Malaise.

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ReferencesMARINONI, L. & THOMPSON, F.C. (In press.): Flower Flies of Southeastern Brazil

(Diptera: Syrphidae). Part I. Introduction and New species. Studia Dipterologica. MARINONI,R.C. & DUTRA, R.R.C. (1993): Levantamento da fauna entomológica no Estado do Paraná. I.Introdução. Situações climática e florística de oito pontos de coleta. Dados faunísticos deagosto de 1986 a julho de 1987. Rev. bras. Zool. 8(1/2/3/4): 31-73.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Oral contribution

The evaluation of the works on Syrphidae (Diptera) Fauna in theWestern Blacksea Region

Suleyman SaribiyikG.U. Kastamonu Egitim Fakultesi, Gazi University, Kastamonu (Turkey)

e-mail: [email protected]

In this study, the works on Syrphidae family in Western Blacksea region between

1996-2001 have been investigated. Until now 104 species of the Syrphidae family

(Syrphinae and Milesiinae) have been recorded in this region. Also a general review

on Turkish Syrphids has been made.

Keywords: Diptera, Syrphidae, Fauna, Western Blacksea Region, Turkey.

ReferencesAKTAS, M. & SARIBIYIK, S. (1996): Contribution to the Syrphidae fauna of Turkey

(Diptera: Syrphidae) (II), Milesiinae. Journal of the Institue of Science and Technology of GaziUniversity 9(1), 15-27 [in Turkish]. AKTAS, M. & SARIBIYIK, S. (2001): New Records ofSyrphinae (Diptera: Syrphidae) from Turkey. J. Ent. Res. Soc. 3(1-2), 41-46. BISCHOF, J.(1902): Ergebnisse einer naturwissenschaftlichen Reise zum Erdschias Dagh (Kleinasien).Annales des k. naturhistorischen Hofmuseums 20, 1-9. SARIBIYIK, S. & HASBENLI, A. (1997):New Records for fauna of Turkish Syrphidae, (Diptera). Turkish journal of entomology 21(3),225-232 [in Turkish]. SARIBIYIK, S. & ÖZGÜR, A.F. (2000): New Records of Milesiinae(Diptera: Syrphidae) from Turkey. J. Ent. Res. Soc. 2(3), 5-13. SARIBIYIK, S. (1999a):Syrphinae Fauna of the West Blacksea Region, (Diptera: Syrphidae). Gazi University,Kastamonu Education Journal 7(1), 185-194 [in Turkish]. SARIBIYIK, S. (1999b): MilesiinaeFauna of the West Blacksea Region, (Diptera, Syrphidae). Gazi University, KastamonuEducation Journal 7(1), 195-204 [in Turkish]. SARIBIYIK, S. (2000a): Fauna of Syrphidae inIlgaz and Isik Mountains and their vicinity (Diptera-Syrphinae). Journal of the Institute ofScience and Technology of Gazi University 13(1), 55-70 [in Turkish]. SARIBIYIK, S. (2000b):Two new records for the Turkish Milesiinae Fauna (Diptera: Syrphidae). Bitki Koruma Bülteni40(3-4), 179-181. SARIBIYIK, S. (2001): New Records of the Subfamily Milesiinae (Diptera:Syrphidae) from Turkey. J. Ent. Res. Soc. 3(3), 43-51.

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BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Oral contribution

Recent changes in the range of Volucella zonaria and V. inanis in England(Diptera, Syrphidae)

Roger K.A. Morris & Stuart BallBritish Hoverfly Recording Scheme (United Kingdom). e-mail: [email protected]

Volucella zonaria is the largest British hoverfly. It is a recent arrival, that became

established in the 1940's and has since spread across southern and eastern England. It's

rapid expansion in range in the late 1990's prompted detailed examination of the

historic records, revealing clear associations between its distribution and climate. It is

an exemplar of a species associated with urban heat island effects. This study

prompted further examination of the expansion in the range of its near-relative V.

inanis, which has revealed remarkable contractions in its western range and

expansions to the north. This latter species’ range change raises questions about the

possible impact of shifts in the Atlantic Conveyor that heralded a period of

exceptionally cool conditions in the 1960’s. These studies combine to illustrate the

importance of detailed data collection that can be used in studies long after the data

were first collected.

Keywords: Volucella zonaria, V. inanis, climate change, range change, urban heat island.

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BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Poster

The Syrphidae (Diptera) of contrasting grassland farms in Ireland.1,2,*Helen Sheridan, 1N. Culleton & 2G. O’Donovan

1Teagasc, Johnstown Castle, Co. Wexford. (Ireland)2Department of Environmental Resource Management, Faculty of Agriculture,

University College Dublin. (Ireland)

*e-mail: [email protected]

The Rural Environmental Protection Scheme (the REPS) was initiated in Ireland in

1994 as the Irish governments response to the EU Agri-environmental Regulation

2078/92. However, despite the time span involved, a paucity of base line data

regarding levels of biological diversity and potential biological indicators continues to

exist. In view of their many desirable attributes as biological indicators, the Syrphidae

were chosen for this study. Study sites included two contrasting grassland farms. The

first, a drystock farm in Co. Longford, has been a participant of the REPS for five

years. Mature internal and external hedgerows, bog, setaside, conifer stands, grazed

and silage grounds were among the many habitats found to be present. The second site

was a dairy farm in Co. Wexford where internal hedgerows had been removed and

swards comprised principally of Lolium perenne. Collecting of Syrphids species was

initiated in May 2002 using malaise traps. These were installed at a level of one per

habitat type, facing in a south-easterly direction or along insect flight lines, where

possible. Thirteen traps were installed on site one and a further six on site two. Trap

heads containing 70% ethanol were changed every three weeks, until October 2002.

All samples were sorted and syrphids identified to species level. Preliminary results

yielded a total presence of 64 species on site one and 34 on site two. These results

combined with abundance, floral presence and meteorological data collected over the

sampling period, are presented here.

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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Poster

Biodiversity monitoring of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae)in protected areas.

1 Smiljka Simic, 2Ante Vujic & 3Snezana RadenkovicDepartment of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad,

21000 Novi Sad (Serbia and Montenegro)1e-mail: [email protected] 2e-mail: [email protected] 3e-mail: [email protected]

Several invertebrate - based systems of bioevaluation have been developed (Castella et

al., 1994). Some of well-investigated groups of insects, such as hoverflies (besides the

carabid beetles), have been used as a very important bioindicator for environmental

assessment during past decade. The Balkan Peninsula, with numerous glacial refuges,

is the area rich in species and endemes of many groups of organisms. National Parks

and Wilderness Areas, as protected areas and highly preserved parts of nature, present

the centers of biodiversity. Therefore, one of the widely accepted strategies of

conservation biology is the preservation of biodiversity by exploring and active

protection of certain areas, centers of endemism, rich in species. Two National Parks

and one Strict Nature Reserve (protected by Ramsar Convention) from Serbia have

been chosen for biodiversity monitoring during three years long project (2002-2004),

because of high anthropogenic pressure and degradational changes in ecosystems.

Inventorying the biodiversity is based on studying the endangered, endemic, rare,

relict and internationally significant species. Measures and activities in biodiversity

protection on species and ecosystems levels have been established, as a condition for

efficient national and global biodiversity protection. This paper points to the

monitoring of rare, endangered species and their habitats, that need special attention in

protection and application of additional conservation measures.

Keywords: Biodiversity, monitoring, hoverflies, protected areas, Balkan Peninsula.

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ReferencesCASTELLA, E., SPEIGHT, M.C.D., OBRDLIK, P., SCHNEIDER, E. & LAVERY, T. (1994): A

methodological approach to the use of terrestrial invertebrates for the assessment of alluvialwetlands. Wetlands Ecology and Management 3(1), 17-36. RADENKOVIC, S., VUJIC, A., SIMIC,S. & RADISIC, P. (2002): Hoverflies (Insecta: Diptera: Syrphidae) as bioindicator for theenvironmental assessment (Voivodina, Serbia). 6th International Symposium InterdisciplinaryRegional Research Hungary Romania-Yugoslavia, Novi Sad. Proceedings, 0135. VUJIC, A.,SIMIC, S., RADENKOVIC, S., KOSIC, J. & STEFANOVIC, A. (2002): Monitoring biodiverzitetaosolikih muva (Diptera: Syrphidae) u Nacionalnom parku " Fruska gora". Ekoloska istina, Xnaucno-strucni skup o prirodnim vrednostima i zastiti prirodne sredine. Donji Milanovac.Zbornik radova, 29-32. VUJIC, A., SIMIC, S., RADENKOVIC, S. (in press): New data abouthoverflies diversity (Insecta: Diptera: Syrphidae) on the mountain Fruska gora (Serbia).Zbornik Matice srpske za prirodne nauke. VUJIC, A., SIMIC, S., RADENKOVIC, S. (in press):Endangered species of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) on the Balkan Peninsula. Actaentomologica serbica.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Poster

Genus Chrysotoxum Meigen, 1803 (Diptera: Syrphidae)on the Balkan Peninsula

1Ante Vujic, 2Snezana Radenkovic & 3Smiljka SimicDepartment of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad,

21000 Novi Sad (Serbia and Montenegro)1e-mail: [email protected] 2e-mail: [email protected] 3e-mail: [email protected]

Genus Chrysotoxum belongs to the subfamily Syrphinae, with carnivorous larvae

found in ant nests and feeding on aphids. Peck (1988) listed 23 supposedly distinct

European species. Until now, 11 species have been registered in Serbia and

Montenegro, 14 in Bulgaria and 12 in Romania (Vujic and Simic, 1994). The

identification of many species is difficult because of very similar male terminalia and

great intraspecific variation. The species concepts operating at present are reflected by

unpublished work of Claus Claussen (pers. comm.). Here are presented the taxa with

unsolved taxonomic status: species related to Chrysotoxum intermedium Meigen,

1822, a new undescribed species related to C. arcuatum L. and C. vernale Loew, 1841

and group of species related to C. elegans Loew, 1941 and C. octomacularum Curtis,

1837 based on the material from the Balkan Peninsula. The paper also presents the

distinguishing key for the Balkan Chrysotoxum species.

Keywords: Chrysotoxum, Balkan Peninsula.

ReferencesPECK, L.V. (1988): Syrphidae. In: A. Soos, L. Papp, Eds., Catalogue of Palaearctic

Diptera 8: Syrphidae - Conopidae, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, pp 11-238. VUJIC, A. &SIMIC, S. (1994): Syrphidae (Insecta: Diptera) Vrsackih planina. - Monographs of Vrsac hills,Matica srpska, 163pp. Novi Sad.

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BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Poster

Genus Platycheirus Le Peletier et Serville, 1828 (Diptera: Syrphidae) onthe Balkan Peninsula

1Snezana Radenkovic, 2Ante Vujic & 3Smiljka SimicDepartment of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad,

21000 Novi Sad (Serbia and Montenegro)1e-mail: [email protected] 2e-mail: [email protected] 3e-mail: [email protected]

The genus Platycheirus Le Peletier et Serville, 1828 is predominantly holarctic and

markedly boreal. In the Palaearctic Region there are 55 known species of which about

30 occur in the boreal zone (Vockeroth, 1990). The number of species known from

central Europe is 35, until now (Doczkal et al., 2002). The genus Platycheirus is

referred to the tribe Melanostomatini of the subfamily Syrphinae. The Platycheirus

species are with completely black head and scutellum, characterised by distinctive

hairs or bristles on male legs (especially front ones) and often have modified front

tarsus and femur. Described larvae have been reported to be aphid predators and few

ones to feed at least partly on decaying plant material as well (Vockeroth, 1990).

Vockeroth (1990) divided genus in five groups of species and eight sub-groups,

mainly based on characteristics of the male legs. Female identification for many

species is still uncertain. Many authors use this division on species groups and two

sub-genera Pachysphyria Enderlein, 1938 and Platycheirus. This paper presents

summarised available data on Platycheirus species from the Balkan Peninsula, with

the distribution records. Until now, there are published data of 11 species registered in

Serbia and Montenegro, 17 in Romania and 7 in Bulgaria (Vujic & Simic, 1994). Re-

determination and determination of the material from the Balkan Peninsula confirm

the existing of previously registered species and enlarged the fauna list.

Keywords: Platycheirus, Balkan Peninsula.

ReferencesVOCKEROTH, J.R. (1990): Revision of the Nearctic species of Platycheirus (Diptera,

Syrphidae). Can. Ent. 122, 659-766. DOCZKAL, D., STUKE, J.-H., GOELDLIN DE TIEFENAU, P.(2002): The species of Platycheirus scutatus (Meigen) complex in central europe, with

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description of Platycheirus speighti spec. nov. from the Alps (Diptera, Syrphidae). Volucella 6,23-40. VUJIC, A., SIMIC, S. (1994): Syrphidae (Insecta: Diptera) Vrsackih planina.Monographs of Vrsac hills, Matica srpska, 163 pp. Novi Sad.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Poster

A check list of Iranian Hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae)Hussein Sadeghi

Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad,

Mashhad (Iran). e-mail: [email protected]

While in many parts of the world, people talk about endangered syrphid species, in

Iran many parts of the country nearly unworked in terms of syrphid fauna. Only in

recent years a few studies very superficially have explored some parts of Iran.

However, the following list is the results of two years investigation of author and other

Iranian colleagues on syrphid fauna of Iran.

So far, the reported species are as follow: 1-Allograpta sp., 2-Chrysogaster sp.,

3-Chrysotoxum bacterianum, 4-Ch. parmense R., 5-Ch. intermedium M., 6-

Dasysyrphus albostriatus F., 7-Episyrphus balteatus, 8-E. auricollis M., 9-Eristalis

tenax, 10-Eristalis arbustorum L., 11-Eristalinus aeneus S., 12-E. megacephalus R.,

13-E. quinquelineatus F., 14-E. sepulchralis L., 15-E. taeniops W., 16-Eumerus

sogdianus S., 17-E. strigatus F., 18- Eupeodes nuba W., 19-E. corollae P., 20-

Helophilus parallelus H., 21-H. pendulus L., 22- Ischiodon aegyptius W., 23-I .

scutellaris F., 24-Mesembrius peregrinus, 25-Metasyrphus latifasciatus M., 26-M.

luniger, 27-Melanostoma mellinum L., 28-Merodon pruni R., 29-Myathropa florea L.,

30-Neoascia podagrica R., 31-Paragus bicolor, 32-P. haemorrhous F., 33-P. tibialis

F., 34-P. quadrifasciatus, 35-P. compeditus W., 36- P. antoinettae, 37- P. azureus

H.,38-P. aegyptius, 39-Platycheirus fulviventris M., 40-Scaeva pyrastri L., 41-S.

albomaculata, 42-S. rossica, 43-S. dignota A., 44-S. selenitica, 45-Sphaerophoria

bengalensis M., 46-S .scripta, 47-S. scutellari, 48-S. taeniopa, 49- S. rueppelli W., 50-

S. turkemenica B., 51-Syrphus ribesii L., 52-S. torvus, 53-S. vitripennis, 54-Syritta

pipiens L., 55-S. flaviventris M., 56-S. vittata, 57-Vollucella zonaria P., 58-

Xanthogramma sp., 59-X. pediseqquum H., 60- X. maculipennis, 61-Xylota segnis.

Keywords: Fauna, Hoverflies, Iran.

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ReferencesDOUSTI, A., HOJAT, S.H. SOLEYMAN NEJADIAN, E. (2000): A faunistic survey of

Syrphidae (Diptera) in Ahvaz Region. The Proc. of 14th Iranian Plant Protection Congress,Isfahan University of Technology 5-8 Sept. 2000. SADEGHI,H., KAYVANFAR, N. &MOJTEHEDZADEH K. (2002): Hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) fauna of Mashhad. TheProceding of 15th Iranian Plant Protection Con. 7-11 Sept. 2002. Kermanshah Iran.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Poster

A new edition of “British Hoverflies” (Diptera: Syrphidae)Alan E. Stubbs

Peterborough, PE1 4DS, (United Kingdom)

Stubbs & Falk, 1983, has been the mainstay of hoverfly identification in the UK

for nearly 20 years. Since it was first published an additional 20 species have been

added to the British list and knowledge of the distribution and biology has advanced

considerably. The book has not stood still and two supplements and an update have

been produced. In 2001 it was clear that yet another update was required. It was

decided to undertake a full revision, incorporating revised keys, updated text, a much

expanded bibliography and additional plates of male genitalia of Cheilosia and

Sphaerophoria.

ReferencesSTUBBS, A.E. & FALK, S.J. (2002): British Hoverflies (2nd ed. updated and revised).

British Entomological and Natural History Society, Reading.

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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Poster

A new European species of genus Eristalis Latreille, 1804 (Diptera: Syrphidae)

1*Ante Vujic, 2*Snezana Radenkovic, 3**Tore R. Nielsen & 4*Smiljka Simic*Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad,

21000 Novi Sad (Serbia and Montenegro)

** Sandvedhagen 8, NO-4318 Sandnes, Norway1e-mail: [email protected] 2e-mail: [email protected] 3e-mail: [email protected]

4email: [email protected]

Eristalis Latreille, 1804 is moderately large genus, widely distributed over the

Palaearctic, but also occurs in the Nearctic region. The adults closely resemble to bees

and bumble bees by their colour patterns. The larvae are aquatic saprofagous with

characteristic long breathing tube (“rat-tailed maggots”). Peck (1988) listed 46 species

from the Palaearctic, and Telford (1970) 25 for the Nearctic region. The recent

comprehensive study of West Palaearctic species (Hippa et al., 2001) has resolved

many nomenclatural and taxonomic problems. It contains discussion on the identity of

20 West Palaearctic species, their diagnostic characters and key, establishment of new

synonyms and designation of lectotypes and neotypes. Until now, 11 Eristalis species

were recorded from the Balkan Peninsula (Simic & Vujic, 1990). Review of the

hoverflies collection from the Macedonian Museum of Natural History (Skopje,

Former Republic of Yugoslavia Macedonia) and comparison with published data on

the hoverflies in Macedonia (Glumac, 1968) has discovered one very distinct,

undescribed species, closely related to E. interrupta (Poda, 1761). The morphological

characteristics of this species with figures of male genitalia and diagnostic characters,

are given. The check list of Eristalis species from the Balkan Peninsula is presented

also.

Keywords: Eristalis, new species, FRY Macedonia.

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ReferencesG LUMAC, S. (1968): Sirfide (Syrphoidea, Diptera) u Makedoniji.- Godisnjak

Filozofskog fakulteta u Novom Sadu 11(2), 845-880. HIPPA, H., NIELSEN, T.R. & STEENIS, J.V.(2001): The West Palaearctic species of the genus Eristalis Latreille (Diptera, Syrphidae). -Norw. J. Entomol. 48, 289-327. SIMIC, S. & VUJIC, A. (1990): Vrste roda Eristalis Latreille,1804 (Diptera: Syrphidae) iz zbirke Instituta za Biologiju u Novom Sadu. - GlasnikPrirodnjackog muzeja u Beogradu B 45, 115-126. TELFORD, H.S. (1970): Eristalis (Diptera:Syrphidae) from America North of Mexico. - Ann. Ent. Soc. America 63(5), 1201-1210.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Silent Abstract

Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) of the!Ramsar locality NNR Parískemoiare [Paris wetlands] (Southern Slovakia)

Adrianna KrálikováDepartment of environmentalism and zoology, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources,

Slovak Agricultural University, 949 76 Nitra, (Slovak Republic)

e-mail: [email protected]

The reservation Paríske moiare (Paris wetlands), located at the territory of Southern

Slovakia, is the important biocentre within the network of wetlands of Slovakia. In

1990 this reservation was included into the list of the wetlands according to the

conditions of the Ramsar convention.

We have used a Malaise trap to study changes in a!population density of

hoverflies. The trap was being exposed during the season of the year 2001. There were

found 35 species. The females of the genus Sphaerophoria were not determined. We

chose eudominant species: Platycheirus fulviventris, Anasimyia lineata, Lejops vittata,

Syrphus vitripennis, to evaluate their flight activity.

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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Silent Abstract

Eumerini (Diptera: Syrphidae) of the Crimean PeninsulaGrigory Popov

Donetsk Botanical Gardens Nat. Ukr. Acad. Sci, 83059 Donetsk, (Ukraine)

e-mail: [email protected]

The Crimean Peninsula (Ukraine) is situated not so far from geographical line

distinguishing Europe and Asia under the subboreal climatic conditions, although the

Crimean Mountains are of the cause of existence the submediterranean vegetation as

well as the steppes and the nemoral forests. All of these are of great importance for

relatively diverse Eumerini fauna existence in the Peninsula (30 species, 15,8% out of

190 total fauna species).

There are: Eumerus amoenus Loew, 1848, E. argyropus Loew, 1848, E. basalis

Loew, 1848, E. clavatus Becker, 1921, E. funeralis Meigen, 1822, E. ornatus Meigen,

1822, E. pauper Becker, 1921, E. pulchellus Loew, 1848, E. sabulonum (Fallén,

1817), E. sogdianus Stackelberg, 1952, E. strigatus (Fallén, 1817), E. sulcitibius

Rondani, 1868, E. tauricus Stackelberg, 1952, E. tricolor (Fabricius, 1798), Merodon

albifrons Meigen, 1822, M. armipes Rondani, 1843 (?), M. avidus (Rossi, 1790), M.

constans (Rossi, 1794), M. crassifemoris Paramonov, 1925, M. crymensis Paramonov,

1925, Merodon equestris (Fabricius, 1794), M. femoratoides Paramonov, 1925, M.

loewi van der Goot, 1964, M. longicornis Sack, 1913, M. nanus (Sack, 1931), M.

nigritarsis Rondani, 1845, M. pruni (Rossi, 1790), M. rufus Meigen, 1838, M. tener

Sack, 1913, M. tricinctus Sack, 1913. The most of them are marginal for their areas.

Keywords: fauna, Eumerini, Eumerus, Merodon, Crimean Peninsula.

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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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SESSION IIECOLOGY / BIOLOGY

Oral Contributions

Posters

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ECOLOGY–BIOLOGY // Plenary session

Explaining syrphid diversification: the role of shifts in breeding site(Diptera: Syrphidae)Graham E. Rotheray

Department of Natural History, National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh, EH1 1JF (U.K.)

e-mail: [email protected]

About 180 genera are currently employed in syrphid taxonomy. The extent to which

these genera are valid and comparable in phylogenetic rank i.e. that they represent

single, monophyletic chains of species within which no further monophyletic groups

are recoverable is examined.

Many syrphid genera considered valid by this criterion are underpinned by an

impressive range of data involving adult and early stage morphology and biological

features. In addition, genera are usually associated with a particular breeding site such

that all constituent species breed in the same type of substrate. Few exceptions have

been found to this evident pattern. However, caution is required because such a

finding is sensitive to assessments of how genera and breeding sites are defined and

characterised. Despite this, a repeated congruence of breeding sites with generic limits

is nonetheless apparent and not without significance. It suggests that a predominant

mode of diversification in syrphids involves bursts of speciation following shifts in

breeding sites.

Bursts of speciation usually occur along the axis of unexploited units of a

breeding site or a breeding site is partitioned. In either case, there is relatively little

associated innovation. In constrast, shifts in breeding site nearly always involve high

levels of morphological and biological innovation. Phylogenetic analysis of predatory

syrphines and saprophagous volucellines reveals one further associated feature.

Derived genera within these lineages contain species that have not only shifted to

novel breeding sites but have also invaded breeding sites occupied by more

plesiomorphic genera. They are conspicuous exceptions to the above noted pattern of

all species in a genus breeding in the same substrate. Furthermore, such species are

characterised by greater levels of innovation in larvae than adults. Although, at some

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point, flexible behaviour must be present in ovipositing females for such a pattern to

exist. The more derived a genus is within these lineages the more its constituent

species are large, morphologically complex and probably more adaptable and

competitively superior. In occupying diverse breeding sites, these species may

represent incipient genera at an early stage of diversification. Species with flexible

oviposition behaviour and innovative, competitively superior larvae may characterise

shifts in breeding sites across the entire length of these lineages. Species with such

characteristics may lie at the origin of many valid syrphid genera.

Keywords: Adult, derived, genus, larva, morphology, partitioning.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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ECOLOGY–BIOLOGY // Oral contribution

Influence of temperature on mimicry in Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae)1Pavel Láska & 2Vítezslav Bicík

Dept. of Zoology and Anthropology, Natural Science Faculty, Palacky University,

771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic).1e-mail: [email protected] 2 e-mail: [email protected]

We found several times in Syrphini that the ratio of black and yellow is dependent on

temperature during the development of puparia. Specimens of the genera Eupeodes,

Episyrphus, Sphaerophoria and some other syrphids had darker abdomen in lower

temperature and lighter under warmer conditions. In extreme cold conditions the

abdomen can be fully black and in extreme warm conditions fully yellow.

A physiological process is taking place irrespectively of the resulted mimicry.

Some Syrphini can live for many generations with black or yellow abdomens. The

selective pressure in vespiforme mimics is probably weak and evolution of distinct

black-and-yellow colouration can be very slow. Nevertheless more adapted species or

genera to determinate climatic conditions have developed distinct combination of

black and yellow colouration. Eupeodes curtus is adapted to cold conditions in arctic

area and the combination of black and yellow colouration is secured. Similarly some

groups originating from a warm climate have developed in higher temperature both

yellow and black colour, e.g. Ischiodon, Simosyrphus, Dideopsis. It means that they

evolved much longer than e.g. Eupeodes corollae in South Africa, where it is lighter

and was described as another species, E. cognatus. Some central European

Sphaerophoria from Greenland are mainly black, but they are yellow in subtropic

areas. It means that a very long evolution in the same conditions has influenced the

ratio between yellow and black to be approximately 1:1 (yellow bands or spots cover

approximately 50% of the surface of the tergites). So the black-and-yellow colouration

may indicate the length of evolution in warm climate. Explanation and confirmation of

this theory will be possible after collecting a larger amount of material from various

climatic zones where both the elevation above sea level and temperature before

collecting will be known.

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Keywords: colour variability, evolution, vespiforme mimicry, Syrphinae, Eupeodes,

Sphaerophoria.

ReferencesDUSEK, J. & LÁSKA, P. (1974): Influence of temperature during pupal development on

the colour of adult syrphids (Syrphidae, Diptera). Folia Fac. Sci .Univ. Purk. Brun. 15, Biol.43(1), 77-81. MAZÁNEK, L., LÁSKA, P., BICÍK, V. & NIELSEN, T.R. (1999): Key to males ofNorwegian species of Eupeodes (Diptera, Syrphidae). Dipterologica bohemoslovaca 9, 143-152. KOMÁREK, S. (2000): Mimicry, aposematism and related phenomenon. Mimetism innature and evolution of knowledge about it. Praha, Vesmír, 186 pp. [in Czech].

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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ECOLOGY–BIOLOGY // Oral contribution

Survey of Syrphidae (Diptera) in two Areas: edge and interior of a forestin Vila Velha State Park, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil

G.F. Miranda & Luciane MarinoniUniversidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba (Brazil). e-mail: [email protected]

To characterize the local insect fauna, weekly samples were obtained from

September/1999 to August/2000 through Malaise traps installed on the edge and

within a forest in Vila Velha State Park, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil. The Syrphidae

were sorted out and morphospecies defined. A temporal analysis between the

Syrphidae species collected approximately fifteen years ago in the same local within

the forest was made. Also, the abundance and diversity between the areas were

analyzed and the influence of climate on the seasonality was tested using correlation

analysis.

The family was more abundant in the forest edge (n=682 individuals) than in

the forest interior (n=103), as it was the number of species (61 and 30 species

respectively). Comparing the current data with the data obtained in 1986/1987

(Marinoni & Dutra, 1993, Marinoni & Thompson, in press) a decrease in the local

diversity was registered. In both areas a significant correlation between seasonality

and temperature was observed, but the correlation was negative in the edge and

positive in the interior of the forest. Syrphinae was the most abundant subfamily. Both

areas had the following species in common: Mixogaster polistes Hull, Copestylum

selectum (Curran), Toxomerus tibicen (Wiedemann), T. procrastinatus Metz, T. pictus

(Macquart), Syrphus phaeostigma Wiedemann, Leucopodella gracilis (Williston) and

Allograpta neotropica Curran. The genus Ocyptamus Macquart (33 specimens) was

the most abundant in the trap located in the forest interior and Toxomerus Macquart

(253 specimens) was the most abundant in the trap located in the forest edge. The

genus Ocyptamus Macquart was the most diverse in both areas.

Keywords: Syrphidae, Neotropical, Brazil, Malaise trap.

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ReferencesMARINONI, L. & THOMPSON, F.C. (In press.): Flower Flies of Southeastern Brazil

(Diptera: Syrphidae). Part I. Introduction and New species. Studia Dipterologica. MARINONI,R.C. & DUTRA, R.R.C. (1993): Levantamento da fauna entomológica no Estado do Paraná. I.Introdução. Situações climática e florística de oito pontos de coleta. Dados faunísticos deagosto de 1986 a julho de 1987. Rev. bras. Zool. 8(1/2/3/4): 31-73.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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ECOLOGY–BIOLOGY // Oral contribution

A novel method to investigate the pollen diets of hoverflies(Diptera: Syrphidae)

*Yvonne Golding & 1**Malcolm Edmunds*School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT (UK).

e-mail: [email protected]

*Department of Biological Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (UK)1Present address: Department of Environmental Management, University of Central Lancashire,

Preston PR1 2HE (UK) e-mail: [email protected]

In this paper we describe a novel method to investigate the pollen diets of hoverflies.

The method dispenses with the need for dissection skills or the use of hazardous

chemicals thus making it particularly useful for school, college or undergraduate

projects and for amateurs. It utilises the properties of the indigestible pollen coat or

exine which enables pollen to pass through the gut of a hoverfly intact and remain

identifiable, even when defecated. Importantly it does not require the harvesting of

insects making it particularly useful for work with rare species. We tested the method

on 11 Episyrphus balteatus individuals caught foraging in one area of a meadow; we

found they had been feeding on 9 different plant species. We also used the method to

compare the pollen diets of hoverflies found foraging with honeybees but it could

equally be used to investigate other aspects of syrphid ecology.

Keywords: hoverflies, pollen-feeding.

ReferencesHOLLOWAY, B.A. (1976): Pollen-feeding in hoverflies (Diptera:Syrphidae). New

Zealand Journal of Zoology 3, 339-350. MOORE, P.D. & WEBB, J.A. (1978): An illustratedguide to pollen analysis. London: Hodder & Stoughton. HASLETT, J.R. (1983): A photographicaccount of pollen digestion by adult hoverflies. Physiological Entomology, 8, 167-171.

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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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ECOLOGY–BIOLOGY // Oral contribution

Does the abundance of hoverfly mimics (Diptera: Syrphidae) depend onthe numbers of their hymenopteran models?

1*Brigitte Howarth, 2*Malcolm Edmunds & **Francis Gilbert*Department of Biological Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (UK)

1Present address: Al Ain English Speaking School, P.O. Box 17939, Al Ain, (United Arab Emirates)

e-mail: [email protected] address: Department of Environmental Management, University of Central Lancashire,

Preston PR1 2HE (UK) e-mail: [email protected]

**School of Life & Environmental Sciences, Nottingham University, Nottingham NG7 2RD,

(UK) e-mail: [email protected]

We tested the prediction that, if hoverflies are Batesian mimics, this may extend to

behavioural mimicry such that their numerical abundance at each hour of the day (the

daily activity pattern) is related to the numbers of their hymenopteran models. After

accounting for site, season, microclimatic responses and for general hoverfly

abundance at three sites in north-west England, the residual numbers of mimics were

significantly correlated positively with their models 9 times out of 17, while 16 out of

17 relationships were positive, itself a highly significant non-random pattern. Several

eristaline flies showed significant relationships with honeybees even though some of

them mimic wasps or bumblebees, perhaps reflecting an ancestral resemblance to

honeybees. There was no evidence that good and poor mimics differed in their daily

activity pattern relationships with models. However, the common mimics showed

significant activity pattern relationships with their models, but the rarer mimics did

not. We conclude that many hoverflies show behavioural mimicry of their

hymenopteran models.

Keywords: Batesian mimicry, hoverflies, Hymenoptera, Syrphidae, GLM analysis.

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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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ECOLOGY–BIOLOGY // Oral contribution

Hoverfly (Diptera: Syrphidae) communities in vegetation complexesof river valleysAxel Ssymank

Bundesamt für Naturschutz (Federal Office for Nature Conservation), Konstantinstrasse 110,

53179 Bonn (Germany) e-mail: [email protected]

Objectives: For a number of methodical and practical reasons it is very difficult to

assess the hoverfly community of a landscape. Important questions are: Which

parameters are suitable for describing hoverfly communities and how stable are they at

a local or regional level? Which ecological unit is fitting the “needs” of hoverflies best

and can be used to predict or assess hoverfly communities in a landscape? While the

knowledge on macro- and microsite features is constantly growing (Syrph-The-Net-

Database of Speight et al. 2000), the distribution and behaviour of hoverfly

communities in landscapes remains largely unknown. The following results will

contribute to answer these questions. The Drachenfelser Ländchen is a cultural

landscape near Bonn (Germany) with semi-natural small river systems, where a long

term research project provides the necessary background for detailed data analysis and

comparism between predicted hoverfly communities and field data.

M e t h o d o l o g y : A very detailed vegetation analysis including a

phytosociological mapping of linear vegetation complexes of river valleys is

differentiating 5 types (10 subtypes) of vegetation complexes with a distinct pattern of

plant communities in this landscape. 45 transects were chosen to sample the

vegetation complexes for hoverflies in the year 1999.

Main results/Conclusion: 71 species with a total of 4187 observations were

recorded on the transects. The main types of vegetation complexes had clearly

different syrphid assemblages. The results are compared with predicted data on the

basis of a regional checklist, respecting the phenological period of sampling using

Syrph-The-Net. Frequency and Constancy of hoverfly assemblages in the vegetation

complexes of river systems will be discussed.

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Furthermore questions of the “ideal” unit for assessing hoverfly communities in

terms of level of hierarchy (biotope types or associations versus syntaxa or vegetation

complexes) and factors determining hoverfly diversity will be discussed using

comparative data from grid mapping from the same region (Ssymank, 2001).

Keywords: hoverfly communities, river valleys, vegetation complexes, species diversity, site

evaluation.

ReferencesSPEIGHT, M.C.D., CASTELLA, E. & OBRDLIK, P. (2000): Use of the Syrph the Net

database 2000. In M.C.D., Speight, E. Castella, P. Obrdlik & S. Ball (eds.) Syrph the Net, thedatabase of European Syrphidae. Vol. 25, 99 pp. - Syrph the Net Publications, Dublin.SSYMANK, A. (2001): Vegetation und blütenbesuchende Insekten in der Kulturlandschaft. -Pflanzengesellschaften, Blühphänologie, Biotopbindung und Raumnutzung von Schwebfliegen(Diptera, Syrphidae) im Drachenfelser Ländchen sowie Methodenoptimierung undLandschaftsbewertung. - Bundesamt f. Naturschutz, Bonn -Bad Godesberg.- Schriftenreihe fürLandschaftspflege und Naturschutz, Heft 64, 513 S.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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ECOLOGY–BIOLOGY // Oral contribution

Climate change and its effect on the phenology of some British hoverflies(Diptera, Syrphidae)

Stuart Ball & Roger K.A. MorrisBritish Hoverfly Recording Scheme (United Kingdom). e-mail: [email protected]

If our climate is indeed warming up, one of the predicted effects on our hoverfly fauna

is that they should emerge earlier in the spring and remain active later in the autumn.

Data collated by the British Hoverfly Recording Scheme has been investigated to see

whether such an effect is evident. Epistrophe eligans is a widespread and abundant

spring hoverfly in England and Wales which clearly demonstrates a tendency to

emerge increasingly early over the last three decades. A general investigation of the

data showed that this trend is shared by many other species for which we have

adequate data. However, there are very few species which are active exclusively in the

autumn, making it very difficult to investigate whether activity is indeed persisting

later in the season.

Keywords: Epistrophe eligans, climate change, phenology.

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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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ECOLOGY–BIOLOGY // Poster

Life history strategies and prey specialization. A study on the generaMelanostoma and Platycheirus (Diptera: Syrphidae)

Frank DziockUFZ-Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Conservation Biology,

04318 Leipzig (Germany). e-mail: [email protected]

Life history strategies are the result of the coordinated evolution of all the life history

traits together under the action of selective forces. They may be summarized by a

relatively small number of traits, e.g. reproduction, body size, growth rate, and

migration. Life history strategies summarize how evolution has shaped organisms in

order to cope with their environment. In predatory insects, prey specialization is a

major component of the life history strategy. Knowledge on the relationship between

prey specialization and life history traits is essential for example for the use of a

species in biological control.

The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between prey

specialization and life history strategies in four hoverfly species feeding mainly on

aphids (Melanostoma mellinum, M. scalare, Platycheirus clypeatus, P. fulviventris).

These four species can be grouped along a gradient of increasing prey specialization

and increasing aphid defense mechanisms: M. mellinum (generalist with 32 known

prey species) --> P. clypeatus (12) --> M. scalare (10) --> P. fulviventris (specialist, 3

known prey species). In laboratory experiments and in the field, the main components

of life history in these species were recorded: reproductive strategies, size and life

span, biomass investment, and phenology and migration. Major differences between

the species life history traits could be found in clutch size, egg size, egg number, prey

defense mechanisms and size. Trade-offs seem to occur between egg size and egg

number and between clutch size and egg size. To my own results, literature records of

Platycheirus and Melanostoma biology were added. Three major life history strategies

could then be identified in these genera: generalists, one-egg-specialists, many-egg-

specialists. Results are being discussed in the context of predator-prey theory and the

habitat templet theory.

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Keywords: life history strategies, prey specialization, reproduction, clutch size, egg size, egg

cannibalism, Syrphidae.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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ECOLOGY–BIOLOGY // Poster

Colouration of third-instar larvae of the genus Epistrophe(Diptera: Syrphidae)

1Libor Mazánek 1Pavel Láska & 2Vítezslav BicíkDept. of Zoology and Anthropology, Natural Science Faculty, Palacky University,

771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic)1e-mail: [email protected] 2e-mail: [email protected]

Colour photographs are presented of larvae of the genus Epistrophe Walker, 1852,

obtained during a study of the third-instar larvae and puparia of Central European

species. Part of the material was obtained from aphid colonies in the field, and part

was reared in the laboratory from eggs laid by gravid females. Females were placed in

separate containers with small plants of Vicia faba infested by the aphid

Acyrthosiphon pisum . Diapausing larvae were put in fridges into decreasing

temperatures at the end of summer (minimum -5°C). In the middle of January larvae

were then placed into increasing temperatures and in a 13L:11D photoperiod (later

16L:8D). The colouration of the live larva was photographed, and the posterior

respiratory process of the puparium or of the lyophilised larva was photographed by

SEM. In spite of the fact that the most specific character for distinguishing the larvae

of many species is their colour patterns, the colour photographs could not be published

in black and white scientific journal (Mazánek et al., 2001a). The colour patterns were

published in colour only in a Czech popular journal (Mazánek et al., 2001b), and

therefore we decided to present them as a poster.

Colour photographs of third-instar larvae of seven Central European species of

this genus are presented here: E. diaphana (Zetterstedt, 1843); E. cryptica Doczkal &

Schmid, 1994; E. melanostoma (Zetterstedt, 1843); E. eligans (Harris, 1780); E. flava

Doczkal & Schmid, 1994; E. nitidicollis (Meigen, 1822); and E. grossulariae

(Meigen, 1822). The ground colour of the larvae is usually greenish with a whitish

mid-dorsal stripe and dispersed whitish flecks. The green colour can change during

diapause, usually towards an orange-brownish colour, especially in E. grossulariae

larvae. Only the larva of E. cryptica is completely without green pigmentation, and the

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structure of the dorsal integument is also unique among species of the genus. This

autapomorphy is probably an adaptation to some unknown special natural biotope.

Keywords: Larval morphology, aphidophagous larvae, laboratory preeding.

ReferencesMAZÁNEK, L., LÁSKA, P., BICÍK, V., NOVOTN, R., (2001a): Descriptions with key to

third larval stage and puparia of the genus Epistrophe s. str. (Diptera: Syrphidae). - Acta Univ.Carolinae Biologica 45, 115-128. MAZÁNEK, L., LÁSKA, P., BICÍK, V. (2001b): M˚icoıravélarvy pestenek. [Aphidophagous Larvae of Hover Flies from the genus Epistrophe]. iva 5: 224.[in Czech only].

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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ECOLOGY–BIOLOGY // Poster

Bombus (Hymenoptera: Apidae) mimicry in British Syrphidae (Diptera)David Iliff

Editor of UK Hoverfly Newsletter, GL52 9HN Cheltenham, (United Kingdom)

[email protected]

Of all British Syrphidae, those species that mimic Bombus show a greater range of

different colour forms than those that do not. This is true of the majority of Bombus

mimics even though they belong to several different (often not closely related) tribes.

In a number of cases a single Syrphid species has forms that mimic two or more

different species of Bombus. Although it might be expected that the frequency of

occurrence of a particular form of mimic would mirror the frequency of occurrence of

the Bombus species that it resembles, this does not appear to be the case in the UK; for

example black haired species with white tail hairs (without any yellow hairs) are

relatively common among the British Syrphidae (e.g Eristalis intricarius and

Criorhina ranunculi); Bombus exhibiting this colour scheme are relatively uncommon.

Also, in at least two of the mimic species, particular colour forms seem to be confined

to one sex only.

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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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ECOLOGY–BIOLOGY // Poster

Diet and pollen transport of Merodon aberrans Egger, 1860(Diptera: Syrphidae)

Predag Radisic, J. Papadopoulos, 1Ante Vujic & 2Smiljka SimicDepartment of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad,

21000 Novi Sad (Serbia and Montenegro)1e-mail: [email protected] 2e-mail: [email protected]

Merodon aberrans Egger, 1860 belongs to clavipes group of species of genus

Merodon (Hurkmans, 1993). The range of this species extends from the central and

south Europe to the Caucasus, Turkey and Lebanon. It has been recorded on the whole

territory of the Balkans. Adults of this species were registered on flowers of Stenactis

annua (L.) Ness 1832 (Glumac, 1959), but their behaviour is relatively unknown.

The aim of this paper is to obtain new data on biology of species M. aberrans

acc. qualitative and quantitative analysis of the registered spectrum of pollen

integument and diet of individuals.

The specimens of M. aberrans were collected in the area of Vrsac hills (Serbia)

during July 1988. The pollen was collected from 58 samples (36 males and 22

females). The permanent preparations were made in glycerine-gelatine with fuchsine.

The qualitative and quantitative analysis of registered pollen spectrum from the

integument and diet are presented. The species was found on blossoms of Conium

maculatum L. 1753. It is interesting that no sample was observed on linden flowers,

while the pollen collected from the integument and gut predominantly belong to Tilia

spp. and C. maculatum.

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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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SESSION IIIINTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

Oral Contributions

Posters

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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Plenary session

Specialisation in syrphid predators (Diptera: Syrphidae)Francis Gilbert

School of Life & Environmental Sciences, Nottingham Univers., Nottingham NG7 2RD, (UK)

e-mail: [email protected]

The syrphid literature is surveyed for instances where a range of predator species has

been recorded from the colonies of a range of different aphid species. There are

relatively few such studies in the literature, but these show common features that

suggest that all species are selective to a greater or lesser extent in their oviposition

choices, even so-called ‘generalist’ species. These data are then compared with data

on the oviposition preferences of gravid females, and also with evidence that some

aphids are toxic at least to the neonate larvae of syrphids. More work is needed on this

last point, since older larvae do not seem to show the same sensitivity, and probably

many of the reasons for selectivity are being missed. A further complication is that

particular aphids may not be toxic under all circumstances, but instead may only be

toxic on certain plant species, or particular individual plants (since plants vary in

toxicity). A new level of complexity is therefore required in studies of food specificity

in predatory syrphids.

A series of measures of performance are reviewed. Many authors use one or

perhaps two components of fitness (eg survival, or development time), but fitness

components are not necessarily correlated and the use of only one component can be

misleading. It is concluded that only “individual fitness” includes all the appropriate

components of survival, development time and reproduction. An experimental study

of the relative fitness during development of two generalist species (Syrphus ribesii

and Episyrphus balteatus) on a range of aphid species is described. Relative fitness is

then compared with the observational data. I conclude that even generalists choose

among aphids on the basis of expected fitness. More studies are needed that include all

the components of fitness into one composite measure of performance, “individual

fitness”, and then compare fitness across different aphid species.

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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Oral contribution

Influence of aphid host plant chemistry on behaviour and performances ofEpisyrphus balteatus (Diptera: Syrphidae)

1Nicolas Vanhaelen, 2Eric Haubruge, 3Charles Gaspar & 4Frédéric FrancisDepartment of pure and applied zoology, Faculté des sciences agronomiques de Gembloux,

Gembloux Agricultural University, B-5030 Gembloux (Belgium)1e-mail: [email protected] 2e-mail: [email protected]

3e-mail: [email protected] 4e-mail: [email protected]

The role of aphid species in oviposition choices of female Episyrphus balteatus has

clearly been established. Little attention was given to role of the host plant of the prey

even if they could have an influence on the volatiles used by the predator. This impact

may be direct trough the alteration of attractive compounds emitted by the plant or

through modification of aphids odours. The comparison of eggs laid according to

aphids host plant demonstrated this hypothesis. Furthermore, the oviposition

preferences were correlated to offspring performances. The latter were related to the

predators ability to detoxify the host plant metabolites sequestrated or transformed in

more toxic compounds by the aphid prey. These results confirm the importance of

oviposition preferences of the syrphid but also underline the co-evolutionary process

of tri-trophic interactions between host plant, aphids and predator.

Keywords: tri-trophic interactions, oviposition preferences, detoxification.

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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Oral contribution

Genetic structure in Episyrphus balteatus populations (Diptera: Syrphidae)1Peter Hondelmann & 2Hans-Michael Poehling

Institute of Plant Protection, University Hannover, 30419 Hannover (Germany)1e-mail: [email protected]

2e-mail: [email protected]

There are many indications that the syrphid Episyrphus balteatus has two

overwintering strategies in Europe: Local overwintering in Central Europe and long-

range migrations that lead to Mediterranean Europe. Nevertheless migrations are still

discussed controversial, because clear evidence is still missing (e.g. Salveter 1996). In

order to elucidate migration further, different populations were analysed by means of

PCR-RFLP: Possible polymorphic DNA-regions (from mtDNA and nDNA) were

amplified with universal primers and sequenced. After developing specific primers

from DNA-sequences, the PCR-amplified DNA was used for RFLP-analysis.

Aims of the study were: 1. Detection of genetic variability within populations 2.

Detection of genetic variability between populations 3. Detection of gene flow

between populations As result altogether eight haplotypes were found, many

populations consist of only one common haplotype. Genetic variation between and

within populations as well as genetic distances between populations were low, gene

flow very high. These results indicate that in Europe all E. balteatus populations are

genetically similar and connected by migration/gene flow, which are traits of

panmictic populations.

Keywords: Episyrphus balteatus, migration, PCR-RFLP, population structure.

ReferencesSALVETER, R. (1996): Populationsaufbau aphidophager Schwebfliegen (Diptera:

Syrphidae) in der Agrarlandschaft [Population build-up of aphidophagous hoverflies in theagrarian landscape; Phd thesis University Berne.

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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Oral contribution

Attractiveness of flowering plants to aphidophagous hoverflies (Diptera,Syrphidae): suitability as insectary plants to enhance biological control

1Miguel Louis-Maldonado & 2Oscar AlomarDep. Protecció Vegetal, Institut de Recerca i Tecnología Agroalimentàries (IRTA),

E-08348 Cabrils, Barcelona (Spain)1e-mail: [email protected]

2e-mail: [email protected]

Insectary plants are increasingly being used in Conservation Biological Control to

enhance predators in crops. In this study, attractiveness of plant species to

aphidophagous hoverflies has been evaluated in an experimental field. Plant species

were selected according to published results of previously examined plants, flowering

time, and commercial availability of the same or similar species. Attractiveness of

flowering plants was assessed by conducting timed observations of visit frequencies

and also recording the observed behaviour on each plot. Plants were also inspected for

aphids and syrphid larvae.

Keywords: Insectary plants, floral attraction, aphidophagous hoverflies, biological control.

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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Oral contribution

Study of the genetic variation of aphidophagous syrphid populations(Diptera: Syrphidae)

1Frédéric Francis, 2Nicolas Vanhaelen, 3Pierre Colignon & 4Eric HaubrugeDepartment of pure and applied zoology, Faculté des sciences agronomiques de Gembloux,

Gembloux Agricultural University, B-5030 Gembloux (Belgium)1e-mail: [email protected] 2e-mail: [email protected]

3e-mail: [email protected] 4e-mail: [email protected]

The dispersion of predators such as aphidophagous hoverflies have important

consequences in terms of efficacy in aphid control over large areas. The predator

dispersion at the field scale is not really understood due to the difficulty in identifying

the origins of predators. To quantify the genetic diversity within the species and

monitor the spatial foraging, populations were sampled in Belgium and analysed based

on PCR technique using SSR primers to assess the DNA variation. The polymorphism

generated and pairwise distances were calculated between populations according to

Nei and Li, then used to construct a radial neighbour-joining dendrogram and examine

intra- and inter-population variance coefficients, by analysis of molecular variation

(AMOVA). This study shows that SSR analysis can be a valuable technique for

studies of inter-population genetic variations in predators. The SSR technique provide

a tool in the molecular ecology of aphidophagous predators such as hoverfly species.

Keywords: SSR, molecular ecology, predator dispersion.

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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Oral contribution

Syrphinae (Diptera: Syrphidae) larvae on cabbage in Central Europe andtheir effectiveness as natural enemies

Pavel LáskaDept. of Zoology and Anthropology, Natural Science Faculty, Palacky University,

771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic). e-mail: [email protected]

Syrphid larvae were often observed on cabbage plants with Brevicoryne brassicae in

our experimental fields. During our biological studies of syrphine larvae (Dusek &

Láska 1974) we collected larvae of the following species: Syrphus ribesii, Syrphus

vitripennis, Eupeodes luniger, Scaeva pyrastri, Episyrphus balteatus, Sphaerophoria

scripta, Sphaerophoria rueppellii, Platycheirus scutatus, Platycheirus peltatus and

Melanostoma mellinum. Ten cabbage plants were sampled every 15 days over three

years to monitor the community during the course of the vegetative season. Each larva

was identified and its size measured individually to estimate the number of aphids

consumed each day (Láska 1959). This number of aphids was defined as the potential

daily capacity. The real capacity takes into account only larvae with sufficient aphids

as food, not those starving from a shortage of aphids (Láska 1984). At the same time

the biomass of aphids was weighed. Larvae of Sphaerophoria represented 71% of the

number of syrphid larvae. As to capacity, the two species of Sphaerophoria

represented 49% of the total real capacity of syrphid larvae. The occurrence of aphids

during a season has two peaks, one in July and the second at the end of September,

with a minimum in between in August. The density of syrphid larvae follows this

course with a time delay. The ratio between the number of aphids and syrphid larvae

was lowest during August. If we take into account all the natural enemies including

other predators and the parasitoid Diaretiella rapae, the real capacity of all the

syrphids was 76.5 % of all the aphids destroyed by natural enemies. This means that

syrphid larvae were the most important and noteworthy natural enemies in the cabbage

fields we observed.

Keywords: Aphidophagous larvae, Brevicoryne brassicae, aphid predators.

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ReferencesLÁSKA, P. (1959): Contributions to the knowledge of aphidophagous hoverflies,

especially to the food ecology of larvae. Bohemia centralis, A-1(6), 321-344. [in Czech withEnglish abstract]. DUSEK, J., LÁSKA, P. (1974): Overwintering and spring emergence of somecommon species of aphidophagous syrphids (Syrphidae, Diptera). (IIIrd Meeting ofCzechoslovak dipterists). - Folia Fac. Sci. nat. Univ. Purk. Brun. 15, Biol. 43(1), 71-75 [2 tab,in English]. LÁSKA, P. (1984): A method of comparing the role of aphid parasitoids andpredators exemplified by the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae. - Acta Ent. Bohemoslov.81, 81-89 [5 tabs, in English, Russian abstract].

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Oral contribution

Presentation of the book “A world review of predatory hoverflies (Diptera,Syrphidae: Syrphinae) and their prey”

1*Santos Rojo, **Francis Gilbert, 2*Mª Ángeles Marcos-García,

***Juan M. Nieto & ***M. Pilar Mier*CIBIO (Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad), Universidad de Alicante,

Alicante 03080 (Spain). 1e-mail: [email protected] 2e-mail: [email protected]

**School of Life & Environmental Sciences, Nottingham University, Nottingham NG7 2RD,

(United Kingdom). e-mail: [email protected]

***Departamento de Biología Animal, Universidad de León, León 24071-Spain.

e-mail: [email protected]

There is a CD including among the documentation of this Symposium. The CD carries

a special commemorative issue of the book “A world review of predatory hoverflies

(Diptera, Syrphidae: Syrphinae) and their prey”. This consists in a database of the

book saved in two formats (autoexe SirfiGest 1.0, and FileMakerPro ©). We have

reviewed most of the available literature (about 1000 references) but of course it is not

an absolutely complete list.

There have been several collations of such prey records before this one.

Fulmek’s (1957) list is full of errors, has incomplete information, and does not provide

a reliable dataset. The monumental work of Thompson & Simmonds (1965) is reliable

but very out of date, and is awkward to use. Finally Okuno (1967) and Ghorpade

(1981) provided excellent lists of prey records, but are limited in geographical scope

to Japan or India and surrounding countries respectively.

There are dangers in collating records from the literature. One cannot certain

about the accuracy of identifications of predator, prey or host plant, and usually there

is no information on the relative frequencies with which the larvae of individual

species feed on particular prey. Each record must then be treated as of equivalent

worth, even if actually it is derived from an oviposition mistake by one gravid female.

The collated lists then run the risk of concealing more than they reveal, since

specialised species can seem to be much more generalised than they actually are. Thus

theses lists should be interpreted with caution. Here we have evaluated every record

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for the plausibility of both prey-hostplant and syrphid-prey relationships, making

changes where deemed necessary. We have also included information where present

on the hostplant and location of the observation, so as to begin to look for

geographical variation in the spectrum of prey taken.

We have made every effort to modernise the taxonomy of most of the names.

For plant genera we used Mabberley (1997), and the most up-to-date local floras for

the species; the Aphididae names come from Remaudière & Remaudière (1997); the

Coccoidea, the Adelgidae and Phylloxeridae names have been reviewed by courtesy of

Dr I. Foldi (France) and Dr A. Binazzi Casa (Italy); the syrphid names are updated

from F.C. Thompson’s electronic database of names and synonyms (currently

available on the Web at http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/diptera/biosys.htm)

ReferencesFULMEK, L. (1957): Insekten als Blattlausfeinde. [Insects as aphid predators]. Annalen des

Naturhistorischen Museums Wien 6, 110-227. GHORPADE, K.D. (1981): Insect prey of Syrphidae(Diptera) from India and neighbouring countries: A review and bibliography. Tropical PestManagement 27(1), 62-82. MABBERLEY, D.J. (1997): The plant book: a portable dictionary of thevascular plants, 2nd ed. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. 874 pp. OKUNO, T. (1967): Onthe syrphid larvae attacking the aphids in Japan (Diptera). Mushi 41, 123-141. REMAUDIÈRE,G. & REMAUDIÈRE, M. (1997): Catalogue des Aphididae du monde. Catalogue of the world’sAphididae. Homoptera Aphidoidea. INRA editions, Paris 473 pp. ROJO, S., GILBERT, F.,MARCOS-GARCÍA. M.A., NIETO, J.M. & MIER, M.P. (2003): A world review of predatoryhoverflies (Diptera, Syrphidae: Syrphinae) and their prey. CIBIO Ediciones, Alicante, 320 pp.THOMPSON, W.R. & SIMMONDS, F.J. (1965): A catalogue of the parasites and predators ofinsect pests. Section 4. Host-Predator catalogue: Syrphidae, 115-127. Commonwealth Instituteof Biological Control (ed.), London.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Poster

Density fluctuation of syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae) aphid-predators onalfalfa field in Northeast of Argentina

1*José Benito Valenciano, 2**A. S. Paravano & 3*M. Victoria Seco*Departamento de Ingeniería Agraria. ESTIA. Universidad de León, 24071 León (Spain)

1e-mail: [email protected] 3e-mail: [email protected]

**Facultad de Agronomía y Veterinaria. Universidad Nacional del Litoral.

3080 Esperanza (Argentina)

Among other factors, alfalfa fields of Argentina are threatened by attacks of aphids

that reduce yield, lowering the profit and shortening the plants’ useful lifetime. Aphid-

predators play a very important role in the aphid regulation. In Argentina, the main

aphids predators are Coccinellidae (Valenciano et al., 1997); although Syrphidae also

are quite important predators, they are only predators in larval stages, these suck up

the corporal contents, soft and easy assimilable, they don’t ever devour the aphids

(Núñez, 1991).

This work assesses the abundance and distribution of syrphids aphid-predators

on an alfalfa field in the Santa Fe Province (Argentina). For the tracking of syrphids

population a total of 48 samples were taken over 366 days. A bag net of mouth

diameter 33 cm was thrown 20 times weekly, which represents 10 square meters each

time. The predators were subsequently identified in the laboratory, counted and

classified according to development stage. The total population of Syrphidae aphid-

predators presents its maximums in spring and other lower peaks appear in autumn. Its

population is very little during the winter, and there are not population in summer. The

biggest presence of Syrphidae occur during the period of mild temperatures, as spring

and autumn; while the population is little when there are extremes of temperature, as

winter and summer. The population fluctuations of Syrphidae aphid-predators are

related to population fluctuation of aphids (Ekbom, 1994; Gosselke et al., 2001). The

adult forms dominate over the larval forms.

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Syrphids are predators in larval stages (Núñez, 1991), its maximum presence

must coincide with the season in which food exists in abundance, during spring and

during the end of summer-beginning of autumn, in the other hand, the larval

population during the rest of the year is low (Tremblay & Pennacchio 1988).

Keywords: Alfalfa, lucerne, aphid-predator, syrphids, population.

ReferencesEKBOM, B. (1994): Arthropod predators of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harr.

(Hom., Aphididae) in peas (Pisum sativum L.), clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and alfalfa(Medicago sativa L.). Journal of Applied Entomology 117, 469-476. GOSSELKE, U., TRILTSCH,H., ROßBERG, D. AND FREIER, B. (2001): GETLAUS01- the latest version of a model forsimulating aphid population dynamics in dependence on antagonists in wheat. EcologicalModelling 145, 143-157. NÚÑEZ, E. (1991): Bases para el desarrollo del control integrado delos pulgones (Hom., Aphididae) de los cultivos de la provincia de León. Tesis doctoral.Universidad de León. León (Spain). TREMBLAY, E. & PENNACCHIO, F. (1988): Populationstrends of key aphids and of their main natural enemies in an alfalfa ecosystem in SouthernItaly. Ecology and Effectiveness of Aphidophaga, 261-265. VALENCIANO, J. B., PARAVANO, A.S. & IMWINKELRIED, J. M. (1997): Aphididae and their Coccinellidae predators on a lucernefield in the Province of Santa Fe (Argentina). In: J.M. Nieto and A.F.G. Dixon (eds.). Aphids innatural and managed ecosystems. Universidad de León, León (Spain) 291-298 pp

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Poster

Natural enemies of Syrphinae (Diptera:Syrphidae) in Lara, Venezuela1Evelin Arcaya & 2Francisco Díaz

Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas. Decanato de Agronomía. Universidad Centroccidental

“Lisandro Alvarado”. Lara state, Apartado 400, Cabudare. (Venezuela).1e-mail: [email protected]: [email protected]

The main aims of this study were to identify the parasitoid species that attack

Syrphinae associated to aphids and whiteflies in Lara state, Venezuela, and gather

information on host plants and distribution. The study was based on specimens

collected during the period June 1997- February 2003. Larvae and pupae of Syrphinae

found in plants attacked by aphids or whiteflies were collected, carried to the

laboratory. The larvae were fed with preys got from their host plants. Disposable Petri

dishes which covers were perforated, and the resultant holes were covered with a fine

gauze to facilitate ventilation were used for rearing larvae.

Twelve plant species served as hosts for Allograpta exotica (Wiedemann),

Ocyptamus dimidiatus (F.), O. gastroctactus (Wiedemann), Ocyptamus sp. and

Pseudodorus clavatus (F.). Members of the families Ichneumonidae, Figitidae,

Encyrtidae, Eulophidae and Pteromalidae were recovered. A 55.5 % of specimens

reported belong to Pteromalidae. Pachyneuron syrphiphagum (Brethes) was the most

frequent parasitoid found attacking four species of Syrphinae. Diplazon laetatorius

(F.) (Ichneumonidae) as usual was represented only by females individuals. Two

hyperparasitoids species (Eulophidae) were also recovered.

Keywords: Syrphinae, parasitoids, Pachyneuron.

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ReferencesBELLIURE, B. & MICHAUD, J.P. (2001): Biology and behavior of Pseudodorus clavatus

(Diptera: Syrphidae), an important predator of Citrus aphids. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 94(1),91-96. FREITAS, C.D. (1982): Estudos sobre os Syrphidae neotropicais. I: redescriçao dePseudororus clavatus (Fabricius,1794) (Diptera). Rev. Brasil. Biol. 42(3), 583-587.GONÇALVES, C.R. & GONÇALVES, A.J. (1976): Observaçoes sobre moscas da familiaSyrphidae predadoras de Homopteros. Anais da S.E.B. 5(1), 3-10. HANSON, P. & GAULD, I.D.(1995): The Hymenoptera of Costa Rica. Oxford University Press. 893pp. LEAL, C.A.,OLIVEIRA, H.C.C. & SMITH, J.G. (1976): Syrphidae predadores dos afídeos de Citrus spp. emRecife, Pe. Anais da S.E.B. 5(2), 138-142.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Poster

Diurnal activity of Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and beneficialinsectary plants

1Miguel Louis-Maldonado & 2Oscar AlomarDep. Protecció Vegetal, Institut de Recerca i Tecnología Agroalimentàries (IRTA),

E-08348 Cabrils, Barcelona (Spain)1e-mail: [email protected]

2e-mail: [email protected]

Beneficial insectary planting is a form of conservation biological control that involves

introducing flowering plants into agricultural and horticultural systems to increase

nectar and pollen resources required by some natural enemies of insect pests. Research

is still needed to identify which plants have the greatest potential as beneficial

insectary plants, and that are adapted to local conditions. Use of direct observations to

determine relative attractiveness of selected insectary plants at our Research Station

only recorded relatively few visits. The objectives of this work are to determine the

best sampling time during the day and the influence of the length of the observations.

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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Poster

Syrphid (Diptera: Syrphidae) population in an agrosystemwithout pesticides

Anne Vallet* ENTOMO-LOGIC, 14 rue Bailly, 54000 Nancy (France)

e-mail: [email protected]

To attain the water quality of Vittel and Contrexéville springs, the AGRIVAIR society

has a policy of agreements with the farmers to helps them to suppress pesticides from

their agricultural practices. We studied the impact of this no pesticides management

on the syrphid population using the Syrph-The-Net procedures (Speight, 2001).

We found 70 species. Six of them were new for the Lorraine region (Carrières

& Vallet, in prep). Eleven syrphid macro-habitats were present on the area. For 3 of

them: crops, farmyard organic waste and scattered Quercus trees in open ground, we

caught 100% of the potentially present hoverflies. For 3 others macro-habitats

(scattered trees in open ground, culture macro-habitats and field margin/hedge bank)

we found between 60 and 80% of the potentially present hoverflies.

We evaluated also the impact of farm management operation (Speight et al,

2001). Crops are the only farm management operation that had more than 50% of the

sensitive syrphid observed on the site.Most of the observed species that were not among predicted ones were forest species,

although no forest were present on the area but, only hedge and isolated trees. Probably

because of the absence of pesticides, the site was very rich in syrphids.

ReferencesCARRIÈRES, E. & VALLET, A. (2003): Liste provisoire des Syrphes (Diptera, Syrphidae)

de Lorraine. SPEIGHT M.C.D. (2001) Species accounts of European Syrphidae (Diptera), 2001.In: Speight M.D.C., Castella E., Obrdlik P. and Ball S. (eds) Syrph the Net , The database ofEuropean Syrphidae, vol 27, 281p. Syrph the Net publications, Dublin. SPEIGHT, M.C.D.,GOOD, J.A. & SARTHOU, J.-P. (2001): Impact of farm management operation on the EuropeanSyrphidae (Diptera), 2001. In: Speight M.D.C., Castella E., Obrdlik P. and Ball S. (eds) Syrphthe Net , The database of European Syrphidae, vol 32, 141p. Syrph the Net publications,Dublin.

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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Poster

Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer, 1776) (Diptera: Syrphidae) as a vector ofentomopathogenic fungi for the control of aphid pests

1*Leticia Asensio, 2**Santos Rojo, 3*Luis Vicente López-Llorca &4**Mª Ángeles Marcos-García

*Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales y R. Naturales, Universidad de Alicante,

Alicante 03080 (Spain)1e-mail: [email protected] 3e-mail: [email protected]

*CIBIO (Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad), Universidad de Alicante,

Alicante 03080 (Spain)2e-mail: [email protected] 4e-mail: [email protected]

An important group of organisms used as insect enemies in the biological control

programs are entomopathogenic fungi. Fungal biocontrol agents could be used where

chemical pesticides are banned or where pests have developed resistance to

conventional pesticides. Entomopathogenic fungi produce mycoses on the insect: first

of all conidia stick on the insect cuticle and produce enzymes that destroy it and the, a

special hypha penetrates on the hemocele. Inside the hoste, the fungus grows and

produces toxins. Finally the host dies and the fungus comes out and is ready to

parasite another host.

But, how can the fungus arrive to the insect? An easy and practical way to

transport fungal inoculum to the part of the plant where target insects are, is using

natural vectors; these can fly, lay on flowers and leaves, carrying fungal conidia.

It is well known the role of the Syrphidae as biological control agents of aphids.

Moreover they are good flyers and have a lot of setae to transport and disperse conidia

of entomopathogenic fungi (Lecanicillium lecanii and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.)

Vuill 1912) that can parasite aphids. In laboratory experiments we have used adults of

Epysirphus balteatus from Font Roja Natural Park (Alicante province, Spain) as

carriers of the entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana (isolated from Langia sp in

Orihuela, Alicante) and L. lecanii (isolated from Saissetia oleae in Denia, Alicante).

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Using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) we have studied the way that

conidia stick on syrphid surface. We have followed syrphids carrying on conidia and

checked their life span.

Financial support was provided by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia y

Tecnología (project AGL2000-0342-P4-02).

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Poster

Life history of the ichneumon flies (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)parasites of aphidophagous syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae) in

Mediterranean areas1**Santos Rojo, 2*Santiago Bordera, 3*Celeste Pérez-Bañón &

4**Estefanía Hernández-Rodríguez*CIBIO (Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad), Universidad de Alicante,

Alicante 03080 (Spain)1e-mail: santos.[email protected] 2e-mail: [email protected] 3e-mail: [email protected]

4e-mail: fani.hernandez @ua.es

In this contribution we investigate the importance of parasitoidism in aphidophagous

syrphids in Mediterranean areas. The aim of the study is twofold: 1. Know the species

composition of Diplazontinae (Ichneumonidae) and 2. Study the life history of these

natural enemies of the aphidophagous hoverflies. Both studies are going to be

comparatively carried out on cultivated agroecosystems (almond trees). The species

composition from east Mediterranean (W Greece) will be compared with fauna

present in the west Mediterranean (SE Spain).

Aphidophagous Syrphidae are attacked by a wide range of parasitoids such as

Figitidae (Cynipoidea) and Encyrtidae (Chalcidoidea), but one of the most common

group are the Diplazontinae, that seem entirely specialised to hoverfly larvae.

Diplazontines are koinobiont endoparasitoids. They ovoposit into the egg or larva and

its emergence is from the puparium.

We have sampled syrphid larvae from the aphid colonies of Hyalopterus pruni,

which it is an important pest of Prunus trees. Larvae have been reared in a climatic

room (21 °C., 80% R.H. and 14 daylength to allow them to develop into adults. In the

present contribution we undertake the following items: the relative abundance of each

parasitoid species, the relationship syrphid-diplazontine, the phenology in relation

with the presence of the syrphid larvae, and different aspects related with the life cycle

of hoverflies larvae (length of preimaginal stages, percentage of parasitism etc.).

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Financial support was provided by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia y

Tecnología (projects BOS 2000-0148 and AGL2000-0342-P4-02).

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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SESSION IVSYSTEMATICS / PHYLOGENY / EVOLUTION

Oral Contributions

Posters

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SYSTEMATICS–PHYLOGENY–EVOLUTION // Plenary session

Generating DNA sequence characters for syrphid phylogenetics:possibilities and future directions (Diptera: Syrphidae)

Gunilla StåhlsEntomology department, Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, FIN-

00014 Helsinki, (Finland)

e-mail: [email protected]

The addition of molecular techniques to the toolkit of insect systematists has brought

much into the field of insect taxonomy and systematics. Obtaining characters that are

informative for a specific taxonomic problem can be difficult, characters are often

limited or conflicting. All sources of data present certain limitations when applied to

specific problems of phylogeny reconstruction. Molecular characters, the DNA

sequences, are increasingly often applied to bring light on taxonomic questions on

different levels or phylogeny reconstruction.

The number of morphological character that can be employed to a particular

study is typically tens to a few hundreds, while molecular characters are easily

collected in thousands. If the choice of gene (or non-coding sequence) was appropriate

for the study, the number of potentially phylogenetically informative characters could

be significant. The genes used for species level questions in studies of insect

taxonomy and systematics almost invariably include mitochondrial gene(s), often in

combination with a nuclear non-coding region. The high rate of nucleotide substitution

makes mtDNA particularly valuable in studying the relationships of recently diverged

lineages. Sequence variability (mutations and insertion-deletion events) of nuclear

non-coding regions is found even between species of the same genus, while nuclear

ribosomal genes are highly conserved and used for taxonomic levels of genera to

families. For several studies of syrphid species boundaries, the mitochondrial protein-

coding gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) was found to be highly informative.

Additional molecular evidence for species level questions was gathered from the

internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-2), an independent molecular locus.

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For all taxonomic studies it is essential to contrast the molecular evidence with

the morphological evidence, and base conclusions on both sources. The COI was

informative for resolving species-level phylogenies of several genera of syrphids. The

same gene was used in combination with the ribosomal gene 28S and morphological

characters for a study of the phylogenetic relationships within the family Syrphidae.

Examples of on-going studies of syrphid taxonomy and systematics using molecular

characters will be presented.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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SYSTEMATICS–PHYLOGENY–EVOLUTION // Oral contribution

The genus Chrysotoxum: problems and advance in its taxonomy(Diptera: Syrphidae)

*Daniele Sommaggio, **Antonio Masetti, ***Andrea Luchetti, **Giovanni

Burgio & ***Barbara Mantovani*Biostudio, Via Riello, 4. 36010 Velo d'Astico (VI) (Italy) e-mail: [email protected]

**Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agroambientali, Alma Mater Università di Bologna,

40127 Bologna (Italy). e-mail: [email protected]

*** Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica Sperimentale, Università di Bologna,

40126 Bologna (Italy). e-mail: [email protected]

The genus Chrysotoxum has been recognized since the very beginning of the 1800 by

Meigen. The generic characters to recognize Chrysotoxum are clear but the position of

the genus inside the family is strongly discussed and crucial problems have followed

in the intra- and supraspecific systematic of the group. Only after 1950 the genus has

been correctly considered as belonging to the Syrphinae subfamily, even if frequently

treated as a separated tribe. Many species have been described in the genus, mainly on

the basis of small differences in the colour of black and yellow bands on the abdomen,

such as for example for C. sackeni, only recently proposed as synonym of C .

octomaculatum.

In the Palaearctic region 114 species has been described, 45 of which are

actually considered as synonym. The crucial problem in the taxonomy is due to the

lack of good morphological characters; for example the male genitalia, highly useful

in other hoverfly genera, are, with only few exceptions, not appropriate to

unambiguously identify Chrysotoxum species. The authors will deal with the

taxonomy of the genus on the basis of morphological and molecular approaches with

the aim to clarify in particular the position of some critical species.

Keywords: Chrysotoxum, morphology, molecular taxonomy, phylogeny.

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ReferencesICZN (2001): Opinion 1982 (Case 3090): Musca arcuata Linnaeus, 1758 and M. festiva

Linnaeus, 1758 (currently Chrysotoxum arcuatum and C. festivum) and M. citrofasciata DeGeer, 1776 (currently Xanthogramma citrofasciatum) (Insecta, Diptera): specific namesconserved by the designation of neotypes for M. arcuata and M. festiva. Bulletin of ZoologicalNomenclature 58, 241-242. SOMMAGGIO D. (2000): The Species of the Genus Chrysotoxum,Meigen, 1822 (Diptera, Syrphidae) described By Giglio Tos. Bollettino Museo Regionale diScienze Naturali, Torino 18, 115-127. STÅHLS , G. & NYBLOM, K. (2000): PhylogeneticAnalysis of the genus Cheilosia (Diptera Syrphidae) using mitochondrial COI sequence data.Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 15, 235-241. VIOLOVITCH, N.A. (1974): A review ofthe Palaearctic species of the genus C h r y s o t o x u m Mg. (Diptera, Syrphidae).Entomologicheskoe Obozernie 53, 196-217.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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SYSTEMATICS–PHYLOGENY–EVOLUTION // Oral contribution

When and where Cheilosia (Diptera: Syrphidae) appeared?Anatolii Barkalov

*Zoological Museum of the Institute of Animal Systematics and Ecology of RAS,

Novosibirsk-91, 630091 (Russia) e-mail: [email protected]

It is possible to judge time of an origin of any group of animals or plants proceeding

from paleontological evidence. Thus it is necessary to take into account, at what level

of morphological evolution were paleotaxa. If they have many apomorphic features,

the age of occurrence of the group should be carried on the earlier time. Taking into

account above stated, I consider, that the origin of Cheilosia should be carried to early

eocen, that corresponds approximately 50 millions years ago. By establishing age of

Cheilosia I shall address to the second part of a question. For its decision it is

necessary to know common ecological preferences of investigated group. About it, if

is not present direct paleontological items of information, we can judge on recent

representatives of the group. The genus Cheilosia now is dated to moderately warm

ecological conditions appropriate to distribution deciduous forests and mountain

meadows. I assume, as on the initial stage of development of the genus these

conditions were preferable for it. In the Eocene time such conditions were presented at

two regions - in extreme northwest of Europe and in northeast of Asia. I propose, that

the region of occurrence of the genus was northeast of Asia. The modern distribution

of the subgenera testifies to it. From territory of East Asia now it is known 11 of 13

subgenera, thus 4 of them are endemics for this region.

Keywords: Cheilosia, time of appearance.

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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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SYSTEMATICS–PHYLOGENY–EVOLUTION // Oral contribution

Present status of the World revision of the genus Eupeodes(Diptera: Syrphidae)

1Libor Mazánek 1Pavel Láska & 2Vítezslav BicíkDept. of Zoology and Anthropology, Natural Science Faculty, Palacky University,

771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic).1e-mail: [email protected] 2e-mail: [email protected]

The genus Eupeodes Osten Sacken consists of a group of species related to Scaeva and

allied genera. The species form four distinct natural groups of very unequal size.

Those groups should be classified at least as subgenera: 1) sg. Eupeodes Nearctic

region, monotype; 2) sg. Lapposyrphus Dusek & Láska Holarctic, 2 species; 3) sg.

Macrosyrphus Matsumura South-west Palaearctic, Oriental and Australian, with at

least 6 species; 4) sg. Metasyrphus Matsumura that are topic of our revision work.

Within the subgenus Metasyrphus only E. corollae with 1 species (+1

unrevised, newly described species) and the E. lundbecki group with 3 species

(Scaevosyrphus of Dusek & Láska, 1967) could be distinguished from other species

(Posthosyrphus of Enderlein, 1938) since most are extremely similar to one another

both in terminalia and in external characters. The subgenus forms the largest single

group of closely related species of Syrphini in the Holarctic region. Moreover the

revision is complicated by great external variability (see Dusek & Láska, 1974) that

has led to the redescription of many synonymous species by some authors (Matsumura

and recently Ho). We recorded a total of about 126 available names within

Metasyrphus. 78 names are valid according to the literature up to now, but only 46

clear species are known to us: 7 species with Holarctic distribution, 6 Euroasian, 5

European (+2 nameless and +1 unclear); 16 Nearctic (+3 nameless +6 unclear); 7

Asian (+30 valid names, 16 of them described by Matsumura from Japan and 13 by

He from China). One species extends also to the Neotropic region, two to the

Ethiopian region (+2 unrevised valid names from that region), and 3 species extend

into the Oriental region (+2 unrevised valid names from that region).

Keywords: Metasyrphus, taxonomy, Macrosyrphus, Lapposyrphus.

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ReferencesDUSEK, J. & LÁSKA, P. (1974): Influence of temperature during pupal development on

the colour of adult syrphids (Syrphidae, Diptera). Folia Fac. Sci. Univ. Purk. Brun. 15, Biol.43(1), 77-81.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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SYSTEMATICS–PHYLOGENY–EVOLUTION // Oral contribution

On the Phylogeny of Syrphini (Diptera: Syrphinae, Syrphidae) using adultmorphological data

Luciane Marinoni*Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba (Brazil).

e-mail: [email protected]

A preliminary cladistic analysis of the tribe Syrphini (Diptera: Syrphidae: Syrphinae)

based on adult morphological characters is presented. Fifty-four species representative

of the various genera and subgenera of Syrphini were studied and five genera of three

other tribes: Toxomerus Macquart (Toxomerini), Paragus Latreille (Paragini),

Leucopodella Hull, Melanostoma Schinner and Platycheirus (Bacchini) [Vockeroth

(1969); Thompson et al., (1976)]. In the genus Ocyptamus Macquart, one

representative species of each group recognized by Thompson (1981) was added to the

analysis for a total of seven species. Three outgroups, Cheilosia Meigen (Cheilosiini),

Pipiza Fallén and Pipizella Rondani (Pipizini) belonging to the subfamily Eristalinae

were used. From the 37 genera currently recognized as Syrphini, only two were not

included in this analysis: Eosphaerophoria Frey (Oriental) and Pelloloma Vockeroth

(Afrotropical). The type species of each genus was studied because studying all

species within the genera is impractical and the type species name is always linked to

the appropriate generic name. When the type species was not available the species

studied by Stahls et al., (1999) and Rotheray & Gilbert (1999) were analyzed.

The monophyly of Syrphinae and Syrphini were corroborated. For the

establishment of a consistent phylogeny within the genera of Syrphini a combined

study using larval and pupal characters and DNA is necessary and more characters

need to be included in the morphological analysis.

Keywords: Syrphini, cladistic analysis, morphological data.

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ReferencesROTHERAY, G. & GILBERT, F. (1999): Phylogeny of Palaeartic Syrphidae (Diptera):

evidence from larval stages. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 127, 1-112. STÅHLS,G., ROTHERAY, G., HIPPA, H., MUONA, J. & GILBERT, F. (1999): On the phylogeny ofhoverflies (Diptera, Syrphidae) using molecular and morphological characters. THOMPSON,F.C. (1981): The Flower Flies of the West Indies (Diptera: Syrphidae). Memoirs of theentomological society of Washington, number 9. THOMPSON, F.C., VOCKEROTH, J.R. &SEDMAN, Y.S. (1976): Syrphidae. In: Papavero, N. (ed.), A catalogue of the Diptera of theAmericas south of the United States. Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria de Agricultura. SãoPaulo, Brazil, 195 pp. VOCKEROTH, J. R. (1969): A revision of the genera of the Syrphini(Diptera: Syrphidae). Mem. Canad. Ento. Soc. 62, 1-176.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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SYSTEMATICS–PHYLOGENY–EVOLUTION // Oral contribution

Concept of the species of the genus Pipiza Fallen, 1810(Diptera: Syrphidae) on the Balkan Peninsula

Ante VujicDepartment of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad,

21000 Novi Sad (Serbia and Montenegro)

e-mail: [email protected]

The European species of the genus Pipiza are badly in need of revision. At present

species concepts in this genus are uncertain and the number of European species

cannot be decided (Speight, 2001). This author mentioned only 4 species in European

species accounts: P. accola Vilovitsh, 1985, P. festiva Meigen, 1822, P. luteitarsis

Zetterstedt, 1843 and P. quadrimaculata (Panzer, 1802). Peck (1988) listed 17 species

for the Palaearctic region. This paper presents the concept of Balkan species of genus

based on the voluminous material from the Balkan Peninsula and revision of available

Meigen types. Morphological analysis has shown the presence of 11 species in this

area. The correct names for some of species are still uncertain without study of the

type material of other described species, but this problem will stay for the future work.

This contribution presents the conceptual foundation of species with set of stable and

set of variable morphological features.

The possible names of established taxa follow:

Pipiza austriaca Meigen, 1822 (type not studied);

Pipiza bimaculata Meigen, 1822 (types studied; synonyms based on studied

material: notata Meigen, anthracina Meigen);

? Pipiza carbonaria Meigen, 1822 (type not studied, but this can be the name of

this species based on male genitalia figured by Goeldlin, 1997; other possible name

for this taxon can be lugubris Fabricius);

Pipiza festiva Meigen, 1822 (types studied; confirmed synonym: fenestrata

Meigen);

Pipiza luteitarsis Zetterstedt, 1843 (type not studied);

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? Pipiza noctiluca L. (type not studied; confirmed synonyms: guttata Meigen,

calceata Meigen);

Pipiza quadrimaculata (Panzer, 1804) (type not studied);

Pipiza signata Meigen, 1822 (type studied; confirmed synonyms: geniculata

Meigen, funebris Meigen);

? Pipiza sp 1 (fenestrata of recent authors, but based on the type from Meigen

collection this name is only synonym of P. festiva);

Pipiza sp 2 (probably undescribed species related to P. luteitarsis);

Pipiza sp 3 (rare species on the Balkan Peninsula nearly related to “P .

noctiluca”).

Keywords: Pipiza, taxonomy, concept species, Balkan peninsule.

ReferencesPECK, L.V. (1988): Family Syrphidae. In: Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera. Syrphidae-

Conopidae, Vol 8. Á. Soós (ed.), Budapest, 11-230 pp. SPEIGHT, M.C.D., CASTELLA, E.,OBRDLIK, P. & BALL, S. (eds., 2001): Syrph the Net: the database of European Syrphidae.Vols. 27 to 32. - Syrph the Net Publications, Dublin. ISSN 1393-4546.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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SYSTEMATICS–PHYLOGENY–EVOLUTION // Oral contribution

Larval morphology of some xylobiont Syrphidae: adaptation or evolution?Marina Krivosheina

Institute of Ecology and Evolution, 119071 Moscow (Russia)

e-mail: [email protected]

The study on xylobiont larvae of Syrphidae showed that as a rule it is possible to find

differentiations among larvae at species level. For example we can distinguish Xylota

species by the morphology of sclerotized hooks and anterior spiracles. Callicera

species differ by relative size among thoracical hooks. In Ceriana species we can

observe different length of terminal projections and in Mallota species - different size

and morphology of lateral papillae-. As for Temnostoma larvae - they differ mainly by

morphology of spiracular disc of posterior breathing tube-. The representatives of all

abovementioned genera breed in tree trunks: they inhabit tree holes filled with moist

dust or settle bast or dust saturated with sap under the bark. It means that the majority

of their external morphological characters may reflect adaptations of larvae for such

conditions.

However larvae of different species from the same genus can be often found not

only in certain species of tree but in the same trunk. Differences among species though

they may be in minute details of morphology show us that their significance is not

only adaptive but some evolutionary process takes place in larvae.

It is easy to prove this. Mallota dimorpha and M. eurasiatica both breed in tree

holes of Ulmus propinqua under same conditions but have different larval

morphology. Mallota parvula, M. sogdiana and M. tadzhikorum inhabit trunks of

Populus diversifolia. Larvae of Ceriana caesarea and C. naja live under the bark of P.

diversifolia and have close conditions for breeding. We hope that further studies on

syrphid larvae will give new examples to support this theory.

Keywords: species, larva, xylobiont, character, morphology, adaptation, evolution.

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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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SYSTEMATICS–PHYLOGENY–EVOLUTION // Oral contribution

Taxonomy and Phylogeny of West Palaearctic Eristalinus (Diptera:Syrphidae) using both morphological and molecular data

1*Celeste Pérez-Bañón, 2*Santos Rojo, **Gunilla Ståhls

& 3*Mª Ángeles Marcos-García*CIBIO (Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad), Universidad de Alicante,

Alicante 03080 (Spain).1e-mail: cele[email protected] 2e-mail: [email protected] 3e-mail: [email protected]

**Entomology department, Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, FIN-

00014 Helsinki, (Finland)

e-mail: [email protected]

The taxonomy of European Eristalinus syrphid flies is reviewed. The larva and

puparium of Eristalinus taeniops (Wiedemann, 1818) and Eristalinus megacephalus

(Rossi, 1794) is described for the first time, including new morphological characters

of the thoracic respiratory process of all species. The morphology of the male genitalia

of E. megacephalus is described and compared with that of E. taeniops.

The results of our morphological studies of the male genitalia and molecular

data (mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28S rDNA) do not support the traditional adult

classification based on the patterning on the eyes (fasciate vs punctate). The molecular

and morphological data indicate that the relationship between some species with

punctate eyes and those with fasciate eyes may be closer than with other species with

punctate eyes. Moreover the results of the molecular studies support two clades, which

does not accord with the traditional arrangement of this group of Syrphidae.

Accordingly we propose that the characters of male genitalia stated by Kanervo

in 1938 (but subsequently largely ignored) for arranging the European species of the

Eristalinus-Eristalodes-Lathyrophthalmus complex, are suitable for classifying these

species. We present a preliminary phylogeny of Eristalinus species showing also the

position of the genus in the Eristalinae.

Financial support was provided by the Finnish Carl Cedercreutz Foundation, the

Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología (project BOS 2000-0148) and the

University of Alicante (GR02-09).

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ReferencesKANERVO E. (1938): Zur Systematic und Phylogenie der westpaläarktischen Eristalis-

arten (Dipt. Syrphidae) mit einer Revision derjenigen Finnlands. Ann. Univ. Turk. 6(4), 1-54.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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SYSTEMATICS–PHYLOGENY–EVOLUTION // Poster

Population-genetic analysis of the Merodon aeneus group(Diptera: Syrphidae) from the Balkan Peninsula

1V. Milankov & 2Ante VujicDepartment of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad,

21000 Novi Sad (Serbia and Montenegro)1e-mail: [email protected] 2e-mail: [email protected]

Allozyme variability at 15 isozyme loci (Aat, Fum, Gpd-2, Gpi, Had, Hk-2, Hk-3, Idh-

2, Mdh-1. Mdh-2, Me, Pgm, Sod-1. Sod-2 and Sod-3) of the aeneus group, genus

Merodon on the Balkan Peninsula was investigated. Genetic variability of 11 natural

populations of species: Merodon aeneus A, M. aeneus B, M. aeneus C, M. cinereus A,

M. cinereus B, M. desuturinus and M. funestus from five geographical regions on the

Balkan Peninsula: Kopaonik Mountain, E 20°40', N 43°15' (Serbia); Sar planinana

Mountain, E 21°05', N 42°12' (Serbia); Prokletije Mountain, E 19°50', N 42°32'

(Serbia); Durmitor Mountain, E 19°00', N 43°11' (Montenegro) and Morinj, E 18°40',

N 43°29' (Montenegro) were investigated.

Statistical analysis of electrophoretic variability data was performed using the

computer program BIOSYS-1 (Swofford and Selander, 1981). Analyses of the mean

number of alleles per locus (A), frequency of polymorphic loci (P) and average

frequency of observed heterozygosity (Ho) show that populations of M. aeneus C

origin from Durmitor Mountain and Morinj as well as the population of M. funestus

from Morinj were slightly more variable (A: 1.3, 1.5, 1.5; P: 0.33, 0.33, 0.33; Ho:

0.021, 0.033, 0.033, respectively) than populations of M. aeneus A from Durmitor

Mountain and Morinj (A: 1.3, 1.2; P: 0.267, 0.133; Ho: 0.019, 0.027, respectively) and

both populations of M. cinereus A (from Kopaonik Mountain and Sar planina

Mountain) (A: 1.3, 1.1; P: 0.267, 0.133; Ho: 0.031, 0.013, respectively).

The least values of genetic structure parameters was determined in the

population of M. aeneus B from Kopaonik Mountain (no heterozygous genotype; A:

1.3; P: 0.200), M. cinereus B from Durmitor Mountain (no polymorphic loci; A: 1.2;

Ho: 0.005) and Prokletije Mountain (no heterozygous genotype; A: 1.3; P: 0.267) as

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well as population of M. desuturinus from Kopaonik Mountain (no heterozygous

genotype; A: 1.1; P: 0.067).

Keywords: Merodon aeneus, Syrphidae, allozyme, population-genetic analysis

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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SYSTEMATICS–PHYLOGENY–EVOLUTION // Poster

Geographic differentiation between conspecific populations of Cheilosiacumanica, Ch. hypena and Ch. urbana (Diptera: Syrphidae)

1J. Ludoski 2V. Milankov & 3Ante VujicDepartment of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad,

21000 Novi Sad (Serbia and Montenegro)1e-mail: [email protected] 2e-mail: [email protected] 2e-mail: [email protected]

Allozyme variability of 12 isozyme loci (Aat, Fum, Gpd-2, Gpi, Had, Hk-2, Hk-3,

Mdh-1. Mdh-2, Me, Pgm and Sod) in four populations of Cheilosia cumanica and Ch.

hypena from two region on the Balkan Peninsula: Vrsacke planine Mountain; E

21°20', N 45°08' (Serbia) and Dubasnica Mountain, E 21°59', N 44°01' (Serbia) as

well as 10 isozyme loci (Aat, Fum, Gpd-2, Gpi, Hk-2, Hk-3, Mdh-1, Mdh-2, Pgm,

Sod) in three populations of the Cheilosia urbana species from Fruska Gora

Mountain, E 19°50', N 45°10' (Serbia); Dubasnica Mountain (Serbia) and Durmitor

Mountain, E 19°00', N 43°11' (Montenegro) was done.

Genetic analysis of the Cheilosia cumanica, Ch. hypena and Ch. urbana species

were investigated using the computer program BIOSYS-1 (Swofford and Selander,

1981). Statistically significant difference in the allele frequencies at Pgm (Fst=0.005),

as well as at Me (Fst=0.287) and Pgm (Fst=0.174) were observed analyzing

geographic variability of conspecific populations of Ch. hypena and Ch. cumanica,

respectively. Differentiation among conspecific populations of Ch. urbana was mainly

caused by statistically significant difference in the allele frequencies at Fum

(Fst=0.247) and Pgm (Fst=0.133) loci. Distribution of genetic identity values per locus

among conspecific populations of Ch. hypena, Ch. cumanica and Ch. urbana

indicated high percent of genetic identity (I>0.95) per locus (91.67%; 75%; 80%;

respectively), while there were no genetically completely different isozyme loci

(I<0.05). Genetic identity among analyzed populations of species Ch. urbana showed

high degree of genetic similarity (I: 0.958-0.991). Also, average values of the genetic

identity among conspecific populations of Ch. hypena and Ch. cumanica were high

(0.995 and 0.964, respectively).

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Keywords: Cheilosia, Syrphidae, allozyme, geographic variation

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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SYSTEMATICS–PHYLOGENY–EVOLUTION // Poster

The chorologic analysis of Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) of theFar Eastern Russia

Valeri MutinDepartment of Biology, Komsomolsk-na-Amure State Pedagogical University, 681000

(Russia). e-mail: [email protected]

Heterogeneity of syrphid fauna within the boundaries of the Far Eastern Russia is

caused by the variety of species areas. A classification of the areas is component part

for the following biogeographic research. On the strength of the approach of the

actualism results of the chorological analysis can be used, too, for reconstruction of

some events of the regional faunogenesis.

The present analysis is based on the works of K.B. Gorodkov about principles

of area modeling. The material for its is employed foremost syrphid collections, kept

in the largest museum of Russia or caught by the author.

On the basis of similarity of spreading of the Far Eastern syrphids their areas

were divided into 38 types, which accord to the same name chorological groups.

About 33% of syrphids of the fauna of the Russian Far East are known only from the

Sea of Japan Region. Some among them belong to monotypic genera, and likewise to

species from the genera with disjunctive areas, they are evidently the Tertiary relicts

outlived Pleistocene glacial stages within the Seas of Japan Region. But most species

from the Sea of Japan Region chorological group are rated as neoendemics, which

arose on account of multiple vicariance during the Pleistocene. It is supposed, that at

the postPleistocene time emigrants from refuges of the Sea of Japan Region had great

influence on the forming of the fauna of the South Siberia and all taiga zone.

Apparently the many species of the Sea of Japan Region - Southern Siberian, the

Eastern Palaearctic and the Subtranspalaearctic chorological groups are such

emigrants.

Other large chorological group contains the transpalaearctic species widely

spread in temperate latitudes of Eurasia (28%). Species of the Cyrcumholartic widely-

temperate group (8,7%) are similar to them by ecological requirements.

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Chorological analysis affirms ancient historical connections of the Far Eastern

fauna with the ones of the Oriental and Nearctic Regions.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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SYSTEMATICS–PHYLOGENY–EVOLUTION // Poster

Preliminary molecular data of Merodon species (Diptera: Syrphidae) incomparison with morphological characters

1*Ximo Mengual, **Gunilla Ståhls & 2*Mª Ángeles Marcos-García*CIBIO (Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad), Universidad de Alicante,

Alicante 03080 (Spain)1e-mail: [email protected] 2e-mail: [email protected]

**Entomology department, Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, FIN-

00014 Helsinki, (Finland). e-mail: [email protected]

The genus Merodon Meigen, 1903 with more than 50 European species is one of the

most widespread in the Mediterranean region. There are about 30 species occurring in

the Iberian Peninsula and most of them are poorly known and inadequately treated in

identification keys.

The morphological variation found within some species and varieties prompted

us to study their taxonomic status. Our aim was to describe the phylogenetic

relationships between them using molecular data.

The mitochondrial protein-coding gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)

was chosen for sequencing, as well as the nuclear 28S ribosomal gene and the nuclear

internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region. Molecular data of the COI gene identified

three well supported clades within Merodon. The phylogenetic informativeness of 28S

in resolving relationships at species level is low, due to the conservative nature of the

gene. The molecular non-coding ITS2 as well as the COI data supported the same

taxonomic conclusions for the studied species and varieties. The molecular results

show a high intraspecific variability in “albifrons group”, and promote to continue

work on this subject.

Financial support was provided by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia y

Tecnología (project BOS 2000-0148) and the University of Alicante (GR02-09).

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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen

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LIST OF PARTICIPANTS

INDEX OF AUTHORS

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LIST OF PARTICIPANTS

ALOMAR, OSCAR

Institut de Recerca i Tecnología

Agroalimentàries (IRTA)

E-08348 Cabrils

Barcelona (Spain)

e-mail: [email protected]

ARCAYA, EVELIN

Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro

Alvarado

Canato de Agronomía. Departamento de

Ciencias Biológicas

Cabudare (Venezuela)

e-mail: [email protected]

ASENSIO, LETICIA

Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales y

Recursos Naturales

Universidad de Alicante

Apartado de correos 99. 03080

Alicante (Spain)

e-mail: [email protected]

BALL, STUART G.British Hoverfly Recording Scheme

7 Vine Street

Stamford, Lincolnshire PE9 1QE

(United Kingdom)

e-mail: [email protected]

BARKALOV, ANATOLII

Institute of Animal Systematics and

Ecology RAS

Frunze str. 11, Novosibirsk-91, 630091

Novosibirsk (Russia)

e-mail: [email protected]

BORDERA, SANTIAGO

Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad

Universidad de Alicante

Apartado de correos 99.

03080 Alicante (Spain)

e-mail: [email protected]

BURGIO, GIOVANNI

DiSTA

Alma Mater Università di Bologna

viale Fanin, 42, 40127

Bologna (Italy)

e-mail: [email protected]

CARLSON, CATHY

UCCE (University of California

Cooperative Extensión)

1432 Abbott st.

93901 Salinas

California (USA)

e-mail: [email protected]

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DOZKAL, DIETER

Königsberger Strabe 4

76316 Malsch

Malsch (Germany)

e-mail: [email protected]

DZIOCK, FRANK

UFZ-Centre for Environmental Research

Leipzig-Halle

Department of Conservation Biology

Permoser Str. 15, 04318

Leipzig (Germany)

e-mail: [email protected]

EDMUNDS, MALCOLM

Department of Biological Sciences

University of Central Lancashire

Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom)

e-mail: [email protected]

ENNOS, ROLAND

University of Manchester

47 Tatton RD, Sale M33 7EE

Manchester (United Kingdom)

e-mail: [email protected]

FISHER, ERIC

Calif. Dept. of Food & Agriculture

Plant Pest Diagnostics Lab.

3294 Meadowview Road, Sacramento

California 95832 (USA)

e-mail: [email protected]

GILBERT, FRANCIS

School of Life & Environmental Sciences,

Nottingham University,

Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

e-mail: [email protected]

GITTINGS, TOM

Dep. of Zoology and Animal Ecology

University College Cork

Lee Maltings, Prospect Row

Cork (Ireland)

e-mail: [email protected]

GOLDING, YVONNE

University of Manchester.

Manchester M13 9PT

Manchester (United Kingdom)

e-mail: [email protected]

HANCOCK, GEOFFREY

Hunterian Museum

Graham Kerr Building

University of Glasgow

Glasgow (United Kingdom)

e-mail: [email protected]

HERNÁNDEZ-RODRÍGUEZ,ESTEFANÍA

Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad

Universidad de Alicante.

Apartado de correos 99. 03080

Alicante (Spain)

e-mail: [email protected]

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HONDELMANN, PETER

Institute of Plant Protection

University Hannover. Herrenhaeuserstr

2, 30419 Hannover (Germany)

e-mail: [email protected]

HOWARTH, BRIGITTE

Department of Biological Sciences

University of Central Lancashire

Preston PR1 2HE

Preston (United Kingdom).

(Present address: Al Ain English Speaking

School, P.O. Box 17939, Al Ain, U.A.E.)

e-mail: [email protected]

ILIFF, DAVID

Editor of UK Hoverfly Newsletter

Green Willows

Station Road

Woodmancote

Cheltenham (United Kingdom)

e-mail: [email protected]

KRÁLIKOVÁ, ADRIANA

Department of environmentalism and

Zoology

Faculty of Agrobiology and Food

Resources

Slovak Agricultural University

Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76

Nitra (Slovak Republic)

e-mail: [email protected]

KRIVOSHEINA, MARINA

Institute of Ecology and Evolution

33 Leninsky prospect

119071 Moscow

Moscow (Russia)

e-mail: [email protected]

LÁSKA, PAVEL

Dep. of Zoology, Natural Science Faculty

Palacky University

Svobody 26, 771 46

Olomouc (Czech Republic)

e-mail: [email protected]

LOUIS-MALDONADO, MIGUEL

Institut de Recerca i Tecnología

Agroalimentàries (IRTA)

E-08348 Cabrils

Barcelona (Spain)

e-mail: [email protected]

MARCOS-GACÍA, Mª ANGELES

Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad

Universidad de Alicante

Apartado de correos 99. 03080

Alicante (spain)

e-mail: [email protected]

MARINONI, LUCIANE

Universidade Federal do Paraná.

Rua Alcebíades Plaisant, 850 ap 43

Curitiba (Brazil)e-mail: [email protected]

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MAZÁNEK, LIBOR

Dep. of Zoology. Natural Science Faculty

Palacky University

Svobody 26, 771 46

Olomouc (Czech Republic)

e-mail: [email protected]

MENGUAL, XIMO

Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad

Universidad de Alicante

Apartado de correos 99. 03080

Alicante (Spain)

e-mail: [email protected]

MORRIS, ROGER, K. A.British Hoverfly Recording Scheme

7 Vine Street, Stamford

Lincolnshire PE9 1QE

(United Kingdom)

mail: [email protected]

MUTIN, VALERI

Department of Zoology

Komsomolsk-na-Amure State Pedagogical

University 681000

Komsomolsk-na-Amure (Russia)

e-mail: [email protected]

NIELSEN, TORE RANDULFF

Sandvedhagen 8

NO-4318

Sandnes (Norway).

e-mail: [email protected]

PEREZ-BAÑON, CELESTE

Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad

Universidad de Alicante

Apartado de correos 99. 03080

Alicante (Spain)

e-mail: [email protected]

POPOV, GRIGORY

Donetsk Botanical Gardens Nat. Ukr.

Acad. Sci. 83059 Donetsk (Ukraine)

e-mail: [email protected]

RADENKOVIC, SNEZANA

University of Novi Sad

Faculty of Science

Department of Biology and Ecology

Trg Dositeja Obradovica 2

21000 Novi Sad

(Serbia and Montenegro)

e-mail: [email protected]

REEMER, MENNO

National Natuurhistorisch Museum

Postbus 9517

2300 RA Leiden (The Netherlands)

e-mail: [email protected]

ROJO, SANTOS

Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad

Universidad de Alicante

Apartado de correos 99. 03080

Alicante (Spain)

e-mail: [email protected]

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ROTHERAY, GRAHAM EDepartment of Natural History

National Museums of Scotland

Chambers Street, Edinburgh (UK)

e-mail: [email protected]

SADEGHI NAMAGHI, HUSSEIN

Dept. of Plant Protection

College of Agriculture

Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

Mashhad (Iran)

e-mail: [email protected]

SARIBIYIK, SULEYMAN

Gazi University

G.U. Kastamonu Egitim Fakultesi

Kastamonu (Turkey)

e-mail: [email protected]

SHERIDAN, HELEN

Teagasc Johnstown Castle Co. Wexford

and Dept of Envir. Resource Management

Faculty of Agriculture, University College

Dublin (Ireland)

e-mail: [email protected]

SIMIC, SMILJKA

Department of Biology and Ecology

University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Science

Trg Dositeja Obradovica 2

21000 Novi Sad

(Serbia and Montenegro)

e-mail: [email protected]

SMIT, JOHN

European Invertebrate Survey

P O box 9517 2300 RA

Leiden (The Netherlands)

SOMMAGGIO, DANIELE

Biostudio, Via Riello

4. 36010

Velo d'Astico (VI) (Italy)

e-mail: [email protected]

SPEIGHT, MARTIN, C.D.Research Branch

National Parks & Wildlife Service

Dublin 2 (Ireland)

e-mail: [email protected]

SSYMANK, AXEL

Bundesamt für Naturschutz (Federal

Office for Nature Conservation),

Konstantinstrasse 110, 53179 Bonn

Bonn (Germany)

e-mail: [email protected]

STÅHLS, GUNILLA

Entomology department & Molecular

Ecology and Systematics (MES)

Laboratory Finnish Museum of Natural

History. University of Helsinki

Helsinki (Finland)

e-mail: [email protected]

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STEENIS, JEROEN VAN

Department of Systematic Zoology

Evolutionary Biology Centre

Uppsala University

Uppsala (Sweden)

e-mail: jeroen.van [email protected]

[email protected]

STUBBS, ALAN E.Peterborough

PE1 4DS

Peterborough (United Kingdom)

THOMPSON, F. CHRISTIAN

Systematic Entomology Lab.

ARS-USDA.

Washington, D.C. (USA)

e-mail: [email protected]

VALENCIANO, JOSÉ BENITO

Departamento de Ingeniería Agraria.

ESTIA

Universidad de León.

Avda. Portugal, nº 41.

24071 León (Spain)

e-mail: [email protected]

VALLET, ANNE

ENTOMO-LOGIC

14 rue Bailly

F-54000

Nancy (France)

e-mail: [email protected]

VANHAELEN, NICOLAS

Department of pure and applied zoology

Faculté des sciences agronomiques de

Gembloux

Gembloux Agricultural University

Passage des Déportés 2,

B-5030 Gembloux (Belgium)

e-mail: [email protected]

VUJIC, ANTE

University of Novi Sad

Faculty of Science

Department of Biology and Ecology

Trg Dositeja Obradovica 2

21000 Novi Sad

(Serbia and Montenegro)

e-mail: [email protected]

WAKKIE, BASTIAAN

Syrphidae.com

Rue de la Jonchaine 15/22

Brussel (Belgium)

e-mail

[email protected]

ZUIJEN, MENNO VAN

Droevendaalsesteeg 81

6708 PR Wageningen

Wageningen (The Netherlands)

e-mail: [email protected]

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INDEX OF AUTHORS

ALOMAR, OSCAR ........................................................................................ 83, 95

ARCAYA, EVELIN ............................................................................................. 93

ASENSIO, LETICIA ............................................................................................ 99

BALL, STUART G. ....................................................................................... 31, 65

BARKALOV, ANATOLII ................................................................................... 109

BICÍK, VÍTEZSLAV .............................................................................. 55, 69, 111

BORDERA, SANTIAGO ..................................................................................... 101

BURGIO, GIOVANNI .................................................................................. 23, 107

COLIGNON, PIERRE ........................................................................................... 85

CULLETON, N. .................................................................................................. 33

DIAZ, FRANCISCO ............................................................................................. 93

DZIOCK, FRANK ......................................................................................... 21, 67

EDMUNDS, MALCOLM................................................................................. 59, 61

FRANCIS, FRÉDÉRIC .................................................................................... 79, 85

GASPAR, CHARLES ........................................................................................... 79

GILBERT, FRANCIS ............................................................................... 61, 77, 89

GILLER, PAUL S. ............................................................................................... 25

GITTINGS, TOM ................................................................................................ 25

GOLDING, YVONNE .......................................................................................... 59

HAUBRUGE, ERIC ....................................................................................... 79, 85

HERNÁNDEZ-RODRÍGUEZ, ESTEFANÍA ........................................................... 101

HONDELMANN, PETER ...................................................................................... 81

HOWARTH, BRIGITTE ....................................................................................... 61

ILIFF, DAVID ..................................................................................................... 71

KRÁLIKOVÁ, ADRIANA ..................................................................................... 47

KRIVOSHEINA, MARINA ................................................................................. 117

LÁSKA, PAVEL ............................................................................. 55, 69, 87, 111

LÓPEZ-LLORCA, LUIS VICENTE ........................................................................ 99

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LOUIS-MALDONADO, MIGUEL ................................................................... 83, 95

LUCHETTI, ANDREA ....................................................................................... 107

LUDOSKI, J. .................................................................................................... 123

MANTOVANI, BARBARA ................................................................................. 107

MARCOS-GACÍA, Mª ANGELES .................................................. 89, 99, 119, 127

MARINONI, LUCIANE .......................................................................... 27, 57, 113

MASETTI, ANTONIO ....................................................................................... 107

MAZÁNEK, LIBOR .................................................................................... 69, 111

MENGUAL, XIMO ........................................................................................... 127

MIER, M. PILAR ............................................................................................... 89

MILANKOV, V. ....................................................................................... 121, 123

MIRANDA, G. F. ............................................................................................... 57

MORRIS, ROGER, K. A................................................................................ 31, 65

MUTIN, VALERI .............................................................................................. 125

NIELSEN, TORE RANDULFF .............................................................................. 45

NIETO, JUAN MANUEL ..................................................................................... 88

O’DONOVAN .................................................................................................... 33

O’HALLORAN J. ............................................................................................... 25

PAPADOPOULOS, J. ........................................................................................... 73

PARAVANO, A. S. ............................................................................................ 91

PEREZ-BAÑON, CELESTE ........................................................................ 101, 119

POEHLING, HANS-MICHAEL ............................................................................. 81

POPOV, GRIGORY ............................................................................................. 49

RADENKOVIC, SNEZANA ................................................................ 35, 37, 39, 45

RADISIC, PREDAG ............................................................................................. 73

ROJO, SANTOS ............................................................................ 89, 99, 101, 119

ROTHERAY, GRAHAM E ................................................................................... 53

SADEGHI, HUSSEIN ........................................................................................... 41

SARIBIYIK, SULEYMAN .................................................................................... 29

SECO, M. VICTORIA ......................................................................................... 91

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SHERIDAN, HELEN ............................................................................................ 33

SIMIC, SMILJKA ........................................................................ 35, 37, 39, 45, 73

SOMMAGGIO, DANIELE ............................................................................. 23, 107

SPEIGHT, MARTIN, C.D. ................................................................................... 19

SSYMANK, AXEL .............................................................................................. 63

STÅHLS-MÄKELÄ, GUNILLA .......................................................... 105, 119, 127

STUBBS, ALAN E............................................................................................... 43

THOMPSON, F. CHRISTIAN .......................................................................... 11, 27

VALENCIANO, JOSÉ BENITO ............................................................................. 91

VALLET, ANNE ................................................................................................. 97

VANHAELEN, NICOLAS ............................................................................... 79, 85

VUJIC, ANTE ..................................................... 35, 37, 39, 45, 73, 115, 121, 123


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