MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE
MOVEMENT OF PEOPLEYEAR 9 historyMiss newman
Mind map: what do you know about this term?
Word Attack FOR_PWhole-class word attack on the term "Industrial Revolution" and discussion of what students think these words mean. HT5.1, HT5.9, QLE4, S3, FA2
Industrial revolution"Let's Begin" What is a Sketch to Stretch?Download/print a Sketch to Stretch worksheetWhat are Gallery Images?
SOURCE: History 9, p41
Sketch-to-stretch or Gallery Images FOR_VAs a class, read the text "Let's Begin" (History 9, p41) ***SCAN TEXTAfter this, break the text down into small chunks and create a sketch to represent each aspect of the Industrial Revolution.
Download/print a Sketch to Stretch worksheet - http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/lesson_images/lesson229/sketch.pdf
HT5.2, HT5.9, HT5.10, IQ4, QLE2, S3, UDL2, FA3
Living & working conditionsWorking conditions for British factory and mine workers in particular were harsh and demanding during the Industrial Revolution. Men, women and children worked in unsafe conditions and for many hours six days a week and up to 16 hours a day. Through the 19th century, demand for reforms to regulate working conditions grew louder in Britain, particularly for child labour. This led to a series of government inquiries and legislation that regulated the minimum employment age, wages and the length of the working week. By the 1870s:no child under 10 could be employed in factorieseducation for children under 10 was compulsorythe working day was limited to 10 hoursin coal mines, women, girls and boys under 12 could no longer be employed underground.Many workers lived in slum areas close to the factories where they were employed. Families had no choice but to live in overcrowded conditions, often with no access to fresh water or proper sewerage. Consequences of these unhygienic living conditions included regular outbreaks of disease, a short life expectancy (just 29 years, in Liverpool in 1865) and a high infant mortality rate.
Text to self/Text to world FOR_MCClass discussion about comparisons between the text and their own lives. How would you feel? What do you think they felt? Imagine what you would say if you could talk with someone your age that lived and worked in the 19th century.Class discussion about comparisons between the text and the current world we live in. Could you image this today? Current mortality rates? What is stopping this now?
WORKING childrenWork is for grown-ups, play is for kids; at least, thats how its supposed to be. While letting children work to teach them meaningful life lessons can be a good thing, its another thing to put kids in harms way by letting them do dangerous jobs. Sadly, our history is full of examples of children risking their necks just to make a living. Lets examine some of the more dangerous jobs that children have done throughout the industrial revolution jobs so dangerous that even a grown adult would have trouble with them.Source
Source: Daily Mail Britains Child Slaves
MUDLARKSAs London became increasingly urbanized during the Industrial Revolution, then the Victorian Era, waste and garbage reached heights of unbelievable proportions. Yet it was in trash that poor children found a way to survive. These little scavengers made their living by collecting anything valuable that wound up in the River Thames. They usually waited for low tide before they waded through mud tosort through the trash, hence the name. Mudlarks were mostly young boys, although it was not an unusual sight to seeyoung girls and old womenknee-deep in mud also.It was a back-breaking job with little reward in iton a good day a mudlark could hope to find coal, iron pieces, and surplus wood. Finding jewels or anything really valuable was a raritymudlarks often had to compete with toshers, the men whoscavenged the sewers. As the trash came through the sewers first, the toshers had a greater chance of finding jewelry and other valuable trinkets than the mudlarks.
Aside from being short-changed by the toshers, mudlarks also had to tread carefully, as any small wound while wading in the filth-riddled mud was a certain death sentence. Additionally, they always had to watch out for the tidesa small miscalculation meant that they could be washed away by the rising water in an instant.
Mule scavengersDuring the Industrial Revolution, mule scavengers became a regular feature of many textile mills in London. They were essentially small children who collected the cotton and cleaned the area underneath the spinning mules (machines used to spin cotton into thread). These machines were known as Spinning Jennys. Keep in mind that we said spinningthe mulesdidnt stopfor the children. To avoid being crushed to death, the children often had to lie low and move very carefully while underneath the mules. As careful as children were around the machines, accidents just could not be avoided. In one of themost gruesomerecorded accidents, a 13-year-old boy died after his head was completely crushed by a spinning mule. Several children also had their fingers and other body parts torn offthese were kept under wraps, because minor accidents were apparently not worth recording.
Children who worked in the mills suffered from an abnormally high rate of respiratory diseases, thanks to the cotton and dust.Source
Spinning Mule otherwise known as a Spinning JennySource
Spinning Mule otherwise known as a Spinning JennySource
hurrierThis illustration shows a girl employed as a hurrier at a coal mine. Her job was to pull heavy coal carts along dark, narrow tunnels, using a harness and belt.SOURCE: Oxford Insight History 9
Matchstick dippersOfficially known as phosphorus necrosis of the jaw, the life-threatening, disfiguring disease phossy jaw could rip off someones jaw, leading to a massive infection and a slow, painful death. Prolonged contact with poisonous white phosphorus was the root cause of phossy jawand thats exactly what child workers experienced during the Industrial RevolutionThese workersmostlyyoung girls worked by dipping the matchsticks into white phosphorus. The pay was poor and working conditions were even worsebeatings were a common occurrence. Not only that, white phosphorus clung to everything. The girls usually had to eat their lunches inside their work areas, which were covered in the substance.Source
Things got so bad that a group of girls working in a London factory staged a strike in 1888 and were successful in getting several concessions from their employers, includingreplacing white phosphoruswith the safer red phosphorus. By 1912, the use of white phosphorus for matchsticks had been discontinued throughout the world.
Chimney sweepsThough chimney sweeps have been in existence since as early as the 12th century, the profession achieved notoriety in 17th- and 18th-century Britain, with most of the attention centred on the young boys and girlswho did the sweeping. Owing to their small size, children were perfect for climbing inside the flues. Adult chimney sweeps acquired their little apprentices either by buying them from their parents or the orphanages, or just outrightkidnapping them.To ensure that their wards performed well on the job, adult chimney sweeps often resorted to very questionable methods, such as starving the children to ensure that they remained thin. They also had the habit of starting a fire underneath while a child was still inside the fluea scare tactic designed to make the little tyke climb up faster.As you might guess, children suffered tremendously. Many succumbed to respiratory illnesses, cancer, and other infections brought on by soot and dirt. In 1875, the practice of sending children up into chimneys was finally regulated.Source
improvementsLater in the period, conditions improved as slums were torn down to be replaced by new urban settlements that provided heating, running water and sewerage systems. Other benefits of the Industrial Revolution also came to have positive impacts on the lives of urban workers:agricultural innovations made food more plentiful and cheapermass-produced goods such as clothing and furniture became more affordableimproved public transport allowed workers to live away from factories in the new developing suburbsstreet lighting transformed city life at night, encouraging people to enjoy entertainment at theatres and music halls.
LINKS TO POPULATION
READ Why it's relevant today
BRAINSTORM ways the Industrial Revolution has impacted on your lifeSOURCE: History 9, p41
Text to self FOR_MC - Read and discuss "Why it's relevant today' (History 9, p41) and students could brainstorm how the Industrial Revolution has impacted on their lives use of newtechnology (positives: fridges, transportation, access to exotic food, travel = cars & planes, mobile phones, internet) environmental (negatives: deforestation, urbanisation)social problems (positive: communication, negative:Health (positive: advances, surgery, hygiene; negative: )
HT5.4, HT5.9, IQ1, QLE3, S4, UDL2