Module 12 Ausubels Meaningful Verbal Learning / Subsumption Theory
Prepared by: Mitschek, Ariane B.BSE-ENG2A02/23/16
Ausubels Meaningful Verbal Learning / Subsumption Theory
Ausubels Subsumption TheoryFour Processes for Meaningful LearningMeaningful Reception of InformationAdvance OrganizersLearners Cognitive StructureCorrelative SubsumptionUse of Advance Graphic OrganizerExpositoryDerivative SubsumptionNarrative SubsumptionGraphic OrganizersCombinatorial LearningSuperordinate LearningSkimming
Meaningful Reception of InformationAccording to David Ausubel, knowledge is hierarchically organized, and new information can be attached/anchored to what is already known. Once a learner successfully attached this new information to their existing knowledge, this is where Meaningful Reception of Information takes place.
Learners Cognitive StructureLearners Cognitive Structure is the most important factor influencing learning. It pertains to the learners present knowledge including facts, concepts, propositions, theories and raw perceptual data that the learner has available at any point in time.
Use of Advance Graphic OrganizerSince the learners cognitive structure is the most important factor influencing the learning, this should be strengthened. Ausubel proposed the use of advance organizers to allow students to already have a birds eye view or to see the big picture of the topic to be learned.
Whenever the learners cognitive structure is successfully strengthened, acquisition and retention of new information is facilitated. This process is called subsumption, in which new material is related to relevant ideas in the existing cognitive structure.Subsumption
Meaningful Learning can take place through four processes:Four Processes for Meaningful Learning
This describes the situation in which the new information you learn is an example of a concept you already learned. EXAMPLE: Your concept of bird is that, it has feathers, beak, and lay eggs. Now youve seen a blue jay, new kind of bird that conforms to your concept of bird. Your new knowledge about blue jay is attached to your concept of bird without altering the concept.Derivative Subsumption
This describes the accommodation of new information by changing or expanding the concept.EXAMPLE: Youve seen a new kind of bird, which is the ostrich. The ostrich cant fly, has big body and long strong legs. To accommodate this new information, you need to include the concept of an ostrich to your previous concept of bird. You expand the concept by including the possibility of bird being big and having long strong legs.Correlative Subsumption
Superordinate learning is when you knew a lot of examples of the concept, but did not know the concept itself until it was taught to you. EXAMPLE: You knew about banana, mango, dalandan, guava etc., but you did not know, until you were taught, that these were all examples of fruits. Superordinate Learning
It describes a process by which the new idea is derived from another idea that is neither higher or lower in the hierarchy, but at the same level ( in a different, but related, branch).EXAMPLE: To teach someone about how plants breathe you might relate it to their previously acquired knowledge of human respiratory where man inhales oxygen and exhales carbon dioxide. This is because they are related to each other as they are both labeled as process of breathing. Combinatorial Learning
The advance organizer is a major instructional tool proposed by Ausubel. Two Benefits of Advance Organizers: You will find it easier to connect new information with what you already know about the topic.You can readily see how the concepts in a certain topic are related to each other.Advance Organizers
Types of Advance OrganizersExpository describes the new content.Narrative presents the new information in form of a story to students.Skimming is done by looking over the new material to gain a basic overview.Graphic organizer visual to set up or outline the new information. This may include pictographs, descriptive patterns, concept patterns, concept maps.