Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood
Socioemotional Developmentin Early ChildhoodChristina A. / 1213013008Ivena M. A. / 1213013010Paulin K. G. / 1213013018FamiliesPeer Relations, Play, and TelevisionThe Self, Gender, and Moral DevelopmentWhat influences it?
FamiliesParenting stylesAdapting parenting to developmental changes in the childCultural, ethnic, and social class variations in familySiblings relationship and birth orderThe changing family in a changing societyDepressed parents
Parenting Styles Three parenting styles by Diana Baumrind:
AuthoritarianAuthoritativeNeglectfulIndulgent AuthoritarianIs a restrictive style in which parents exhort the child to follow instruction and to respect their work and effort. This style has a firm limit and controls on the childAuthoritativeThis style encourages children to be independent but parents still place limit and controls on the childrens actionsPermissive Neglectful parents are uninvolved in the childs life.Indulgent parents are highly involved with their children but place few demands or control on them.
Adapting Parenting to Developmental Changes in the ChildParents need to adapt their behavior to their children based on their childrens developmental maturity. As the child grow older, parents increasingly to reasoning, moral exhortation and giving or withholding special privileges, give less physical affection.
Cultural, Ethnic, and Social Class Variations in FamilyDifferent culture, different ethnic, different social class
Different values, different parenting behaviors
Siblings Relationship and Birth OrderActionsParents Siblings Interaction More LessFollowing dictatesMoreLess Behave punitively and negativelyLess More Understand the childs problemLess More
Birth order effects suggest that birth order might be a strong predictor of behavior. However, we must remember that there are so many other complex influences on a childs behavior.
The Changing Family in a Changing SocietyWorking MothersMaternal employment is a part of modern life. Many working mothers are feeling guilty about being away from their children. Working parents guilt can be reduced if they begin paying closer attention to how their children are doing.
Effects of divorce on childrenTwo main models to explain how explain how divorce affects childrens development:
Family Structure ModelMultiple factor model of divorceFamily structure modelAny differences in children from different family structures are due to the family structure variations, such as the fathers being absent in one set of the families.Multiple factor model of divorceTakes into account the complexity of the divorce context and examines a number of influences on the childs development. Such as: age and developmental changes; conflict; sex of the child and custody arrangements; income and economic stress.
Most children initially experience considerable stress when their parents divorce, and they are at risk for developing problem behaviors.
Depressed ParentsResearch shows that depression in parents is associated with problem of adjustment and disorders, especially depression, in their children.
Peer Relations, Play, and Television
Peer RelationsPeer group functionto provide a source of information and comparison about the world outside the family
Two kinds relationsPoor peer relations and Harmonious peer relations
The Distinct but Coordinated Worlds of Parent-Child and Peer RelationsThe Distinct but Coordinated Worlds of Parent-Child and Peer Relations1. bullies their parent rejected, were authoritian permissiviness toward aggresion discord2. whipping boys their parent were anxious and over protective.
Freud and EriksonPlay help child master anxieties and conflicts.PiagetPlay advance children's cognitive development.VigotskyBelives that play advance children's cognitive development.Daniel BerlyneDescribes play as being exciting and pleasurable.
PlayUnoccupied playSolitary playOnlooker playParallel playAssociative playCooperative playParten's Classic Study of PlayUnoccupied playthe child is not playing but occupies herself with watching anything that happend to be of momentary interest.
Solitary playThe children are play alone and independently of others.
Onlooker playOccurs when the child watches other children play.
Parallel playOccurs when the child plays separately from others but with the tpys like those the others are using.
Associative playwhen the child is interested in the people playing but not in coordinating their activities with those people, or when there is no organized activity at all. There is a substantial amount of interaction involved, but the activities are not in sync.
Cooperative playinvolves social interaction in a group with a sense of group identity and organized activity
PlayTypes of PlaySensorimotor / Practice PlayPretense / Symbolic PlaySocial PlayConstructive PlayGames
TelevisionTelevision's rolesEffect of television on childrenAggression and Prosocial Behavior
Strategies for Enriching the Quality of Children's Play1. Time = give 30- to 50- minute at least several times a week.2. Space = at least 25 to 30 square feet3. Experience = field trip4. Play MaterialsAmount of television watching by children
The Self, Gender, and Moral Development
The SelfInitiative vs. GuiltAs preschool, children encounter a widening social world, they are challenge more & need to develop more purposeful behavior to cope with these challenges. Children are asked to assume more responsibility. Uncomfortable guilt feelings may arise, though, if the children irresponsible & are made to feel too anxious.Erikson states the psychosocial stage in early childhood is initiative versus guilt.Baca desccription
In this stage, children will be more active in learning and search for new experiences.They also have a surplus of energy which is let them to forget the failure quickly then continue to search other things that they want to do, even though that seem dangerous.In this part, children begin to use their conscience or their inner voice which is consist of self-observation, self-guidance, and self-punishment.The children in this stage with happily move out into a wider social world.Whether children leave this stage with more sense of initiative than sense of guilt depends on how their parents respond to their self-initiated activities.Children who are given freedom and opportunity have their sense of initiative supported. Initiative is supported when parents answer their childrens questions and dont inhibit their fantasy or play activity.In contrast, if children are made to feel their motor activity is bad, that their questions are nuisance, and their play is stupid, they more develop a sense of guilt.
The SelfSelf-Understandingis the childs cognitive representation of self, the substance & content of the childs self-conception.
Before I explain this. Let us watch the video.
The basic beginning of self-understanding begins with self-recognition, which takes place around 18 months of age.Since children can verbally communicate, self-understanding is not limited to visual self-recognition. It also include mind and body, self in relation to others, and pride and shame in self.In early childhood, children like to describe themselves in term of physical, position, and behavior characteristics.Young children distinguish themselves from others through many different physical and material attributes.In early childhood, active dimension is a central self component. For example, preschool children often describe themselves in activities term like play.The conclusion is in early childhood, children often think themselves in term of a physical self or an active self.32
GenderGender refers to the social dimension of being male or female.
Gender identity is the sense of being male or female, which most of children acquire by the time they are 3 years old.
Gender role is a set of expectation that prescribe how males and females should think, act, and feel.
There are two aspects of gender that produce special mention. Gender Identity and Gender Role.
For clear, let us watch the video.33
GenderBiological InfluencesSigmund FreudHuman behavior and history are directly influenced by sexual drives.
Erik EriksonBecause of genital structure, males are more intrusive and aggressive, females more inclusive and passive.
In GENDER, there are 3 influences. Those are BIOLOGICAL influences, SOCIAL influences, and COGNITIVE influences.
Even though prenatal hormones may or may not influence gender behavior, Freud and Erikson have agued that individuals genitals do play a very important role.Freud said that. He argued that gender & sexual Behavior are unlearned and instinctual.example if its possibleErikson argued that That state contend that he has not given enough credit to experienceexample if its possibleFreud argued that women & men are more free to choose their behavior than Erikson said.Then, Erikson clarified his view, that he never said biology is the only one determinant of differences between the sexes.But, biology interacts with cultural & psychological factors to produce behavior.The conclusion is, Biology is not destiny when gender attitudes and behavior are at issue. But children socialization experiences matter a great deal.34
Identification theoryThe preschool child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent.By approximately 5 or 6 years of age the child renounces this attraction because of anxious feelings. Then, the child identifies with the same-