Click here to load reader

Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow. The Study of Human Development Developmental psychology Examines physical, cognitive, and socioemotional change

  • View
    215

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow. The Study of Human Development Developmental psychology Examines...

Scientific American PSYCHOLOGY

Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow1The Study of Human Development

Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow2The Study of Human DevelopmentTHREE DEBATESStages or continuitySensitive and critical periodsHereditary and environmental influencesNature and nurtureStability and changeCourtesy Dr. Julie Gralow

CHROMOSOMES, DNA, AND GENESEvery cell in your body, except red blood cells and sex cells (sperm or egg), contains a full set of 23 chromosome pairs. These 23 chromosome pairs contain the full blueprint for you as a complete, unique person. The primary component of each chromosome is a single, tightly wound molecule of DNA. Within that DNA are around 21,000 genes, each determining specific traits.

CNRI / Science SourceCourtesy Dr. Julie GralowGenetics, Conception, andPrenatal DevelopmentCHROMOSOMES AND GENESHow exactly did you get your genes from your biological parents?Genes are found in chromosomes.Chromosomes inherited from biological parents.Sperm and egg both contain 23 chromosomes = 23 pairs.Twenty-third chromosome pair determines genetic sex.XX = female; XY = maleCourtesy Dr. Julie GralowGenetics, Conception, andPrenatal DevelopmentFROM ZYGOTE TO EMBRYO TO FETUSZygoteIs single cell formed by union of sperm cell and eggTravels down fallopian tube while dividing into more cellsMultiplesMonozygotic twins develop from one egg inseminated at conception.Dizygotic twins occur when two eggs are inseminated by two different sperm.Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow6Genetics, Conception, andPrenatal DevelopmentNeil Bromhall / Science SourceOmikron/Science SourceAnatomical Travelogue/Science SourceCourtesy Dr. Julie GralowFROM ZYGOTE TO EMBRYO TO FETUS

7Prenatal Development and Periodsof Critical Growth

Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow.8Genetics, Conception, andPrenatal DevelopmentTeratogensEmbryo not protected from all environmental dangers.Teratogens can damage a zygote, embryo, or fetus.Damage depends on the agent, timing, and duration of exposure.

Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow

Courtesy Dr. Julie GralowThe photograph at left shows the brain of an infant girl who died at 6 weeks. The mother was categorized as a chronic alcoholic. The childs head circumference was 27 centimeters at birth and did not grow at all during her 6 weeks of life (normal head circumference is approximately 35 centimeters - about 13 and 3/4 inches).

Courtesy Dr. Julie GralowFetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)Male infant born at term and died at 10 weeks due to a sudden cardiac arrest (see picture at right). The mother's alcohol drinking included up to a gallon of wine at a time several times a week. The child had hydrocephalus (excess water in the brain) and typical facial features of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The cerebellum (which controls coordination and movement) was "extremely small and poorly shaped (see picture at right)." The brainstem (responsible for processes such as breathing and body temperature) was also grossly malformed.

Courtesy Dr. Julie GralowChild with FAS, illustrating many features in the drawing. Such children may also have cardiovascular and limb defects.

Courtesy Dr. Julie GralowGenetics, Conception, and Prenatal DevelopmentCourtesy Dr. Julie GralowSee Table 8.1, pg. 34314Infancy and Child DevelopmentSynaptic pruning Increase in neural connections is not uniform in brainUnused synaptic connections eliminatedDecrease in neural connection by 40 to 50 percent by puberty

Rosenzweigs ratsRosenzweig and colleagues demonstrate how environment influences animal brain development.Rats with enriched environment experienced greater increases in brain weight and synaptic connections.

Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow15

Courtesy Dr. Julie GralowInfancy and Child DevelopmentPIAGET AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTSchemaCollection of ideas that represent a basic unit of understandingAssimilation Using existing information and ideas to understand new knowledge and experiencesAccommodationRestructuring of old ideas to make a place for new informationCourtesy Dr. Julie Gralow

Child playing peekaboo, Peter Polak/Fotolia.com; Child playing vet with Teddy bear, Gina Sanders/Fotolia.com; Object permanence test, Doug Goodman/Science Source; Blocks silo, Thinkstock; Teenage girl writing on chalkboard, Creatas/Thinkstock; Young Asian boy pouring cooking oil into cake batter, iStockphoto/Thinkstock; Hands open, iStockphoto/Thinkstock; Piaget Conservation-Girl with milk glasses, Bianca Moscatelli/Worth Publishers Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow18In Notes, under "Preoperational" bullet, is "conservation" the correct word, or should it be "conversation"?Assessing Childs Stage of Cognitive Development

Child playing peekaboo, Peter Polak/Fotolia.com; Child playing vet with Teddy bear, Gina Sanders/Fotolia.com; Object permanence test, Doug Goodman/Science Source; Blocks silo, Thinkstock; Teenage girl writing on chalkboard, Creatas/Thinkstock; Young Asian boy pouring cooking oil into cake batter, iStockphoto/Thinkstock; Hands open, iStockphoto/Thinkstock; Piaget Conservation-Girl with milk glasses, Bianca Moscatelli/Worth Publishers Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow

Courtesy Dr. Julie GralowInfancy and Child DevelopmentATTACHMENTAttachmentDegree to which infant feels emotional connection with primary caregivers

Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow21AttachmentFreudBaby attaches to mother because mom provides oral stimulationAttachment is due to feeding only.

Courtesy Dr. Julie GralowInfancy and Child DevelopmentERIKSONS PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGESEriksonProposed human development marked by eight psychological stages from infancy to old ageSuggested each stage marked by developmental task or emotional crisis to be resolvedUnsuccessful resolution results in difficulty at next stageCourtesy Dr. Julie GralowInfancy and Child DevelopmentERIKSONS EIGHT STAGESTrust versus mistrustIdentity versus role confusionIntimacy versus Isolation

Check Table 8.2 for a discussion of each stage and its positive and negative resolutions.Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow24EriksonTrust vs. mistrustBirth to 1 year

Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow25Harry HarlowHarry and Margaret Harlow found that contact comfort forms the basis of attachment in rhesus monkeys

Courtesy Dr. Julie GralowMary Ainsworth

The Strange Situation

Human infants exhibit separation anxiety and stranger anxiety once attachment has formed, at about 6 to 8 months of ageSeparation anxiety fear and distress shown when parent leavesStranger anxietyfear of strangers

Courtesy Dr. Julie GralowSecure attachmentUse mother as a secure base for exploringDistressed by separation from caregivers, greet caregivers when they returnMore cooperative and content than other infantsDisplay better social skills as preschool childrenInsecure Avoidant attachmentNot responsive to mother, not troubled when she leavesMay actively avoid contact with mother after separationCourtesy Dr. Julie Gralow28Insecure Ambivalent attachmentSeek close contact with mother, and tend not to branch out and exploreAfter separation, may display anger toward mother; not easily comforted

Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow29AdolescencePHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAdolescencePubertyMenarcheSpermarche

Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow30AdolescencePHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTTiming and effects of maturationEarly maturing girls: More negative outcomes; social anxiety, higher risk of emotional problems and unhealthy and delinquent behaviors; lower self-confidenceEarly maturing boys: Generally a more positive experience; however: aggressive behavior, cheating, temper tantrums commonCourtesy Dr. Julie GralowAdolescencePHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAdolescent egocentrismInvolves intense focus on self and feelings of immortalityInfluences increased risky behaviorsPersonal FableImaginary Audience Courtesy Dr. Julie GralowAdolescenceAdolescent brainSignificant limbic system development compared to prefrontal cortex can lead to increase in risk-taking behavior.Increased myelination of axons in prefrontal cortex which is not yet fully developedAdolescent may not foresee the possible consequences of reward-seeking activities.

Should this influence decision about teenagers and the death penalty?

Teen inmates stand in line at a Texas prison facility. As of 2005, defendants being tried for crimes committed before age 18 are no longer candidates for the death penalty. Michael Ainsworth/Dallas Morning News/CorbisCourtesy Dr. Julie Gralow33AdolescenceSOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCEEriksons stage of ego identity versus role confusionInvolves adolescent identity formation and trying out new rolesInfluenced by positive resolution and success at earlier stagesPositive resolution = Stronger sense of values, beliefs, and goalsNegative resolution = Role confusion

Courtesy Dr. Julie GralowSOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCE

Relationships between teens and parents are generally positive, but most involve some degree of conflict.Many disputes center on everyday issues, like clothing and chores, but the seemingly endless bickering does have a deeper meaning.The adolescent is breaking away from his parents, establishing himself as an autonomous person.

Parents and FriendsSW Productions/Getty Images Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow35Parenting StylesBaumrind2 factors:Discipline and controlLove and affection

LowHigh

Courtesy Dr. Julie GralowSocializationParenting StylesAuthoritarian parentsMake arbitrary rules, expect unquestioning obedience, punish transgressionsAuthoritative parentsSet high but realistic standards, reason with the child, enforce limits, and encourage open communication and independencePermissive parentsMake few rules or demands, allow children to make their own decisions and control their own behavior

Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow37SocializationParenting Styles

Search related