1. 1 Engaging and Motivating Learners Aim: To identify practical approaches to teaching and tutoring to engage and motivate learners
2. 2 Awareness of a range of classroom or workshop management techniques to improve motivation and teaching and learning Understanding of how to work with individuals to build self-esteem Understanding of the use of motivational dialogue techniques Objectives
3. 3 Classroom or Workshop Management
4. 4 Being an assertive teacher A teachers response has crucial consequences it creates a climate of compliance or defiance, a mood of contentment or contention, a desire to make amends or to take revenge. (Chesterton, 1924)
5. 5 Classroom or workshop management self-assessment questionnaire Please complete the questionnaire answering YES or NO. We will return to the questionnaire and the action points at the end of this session.
6. 6 Teaching styles and learner behaviour High expectations for learner behaviour Assertive Style Authoritarian Style High sensitivity to learners needs Over-indulgent / Permissive / Submissive Style Neglectful / Passive Style Low sensitivity to learners needs Low expectations for learner behaviour
7. 7 Ground rules for life Share Play fair Dont hit Remember to flush Hold hands in traffic Tidy up after your own mess Put things back where you found them Dont take things that arent yours Say sorry when you hurt someone
8. 8 Ground rules of behaviour Behaviours unacceptable to STAFF Behaviours unacceptable to LEARNERS Behaviours unacceptable to BOTH Behavioural expectations of STAFF Behavioural expectations of LEARNERS Behavioural expectations of BOTH Ground rules should be discussed by the teaching team and then by the learner group. Areas of common agreement form the ground rules. Have them typed or written up as a poster. Some ground rules are non-negotiable. This is an important exercise in social problem-solving. (Kohn, 1996)
9. 9 A cycle of classroom management Bill Rogers (1998) produced this framework of key principles for successful classroom management. Prevention (of disruptive behaviour) Encouragement (of positive behaviour correcting as necessary) Repair and rebuild (the relationship following correction) Consequences (for unacceptable behaviour certainty rather than severity) Exercise: Work in four groups, each group taking one of the areas of the cycle above. Each group will develop strategies for their area of the cycle. Write up the strategies on a flip chart and report back.
10. 10 Prevention Teach and establish rights, rules and responsibilities. Have a major focus on positive relationships and self-esteem. Build rituals and routines for starting and ending lessons and for gaining attention. Consider learner states and styles play to their strengths differentiate. Develop scanning intervene early and quietly.
11. 11 Encouragement Create a relaxed, peaceful environment. Have high expectations of all learners. Achieve a 6:1 ratio of encouragement : correction Use verbal and non-verbal encouragement. Give clear instructions, positive feedback and set realistic targets. Frequently ask yourself: Why would learners want to return to my class?
12. 12 Consequences Discuss when establishing ground rules Should be fair, reasonable and related to appropriate behaviour Emphasise they are in direct response to learners choice Certainty rather than severity Offer some negotiation and opportunity to make restitution where appropriate
13. 13 Repair and rebuild Correction can erode relationships and damage self-esteem. Its our job to develop and manage positive working relationships. A simple acknowledgement of improved behaviour is often enough. A friendly and courteous word as learners leave goes a long way.
14. 14 Learners Learners are the most important visitors on our premises think of them as guests. We are dependent on them. They are our core business. Always acknowledge their presence smile, make eye contact, say hello, talk to them, make them laugh, offer help and advice where appropriate. Treat learners as you would like to be treated.
15. 15 Aristotles challenge Aristotle in the Nicomachean Ethics Anyone can be angry that is easy. But to be angry with the right person, to the right degree, at the right time, for the right purpose, and in the right way this is not easy.
16. 16 Anger: four questions Is anger the same as aggression? Is there anger without aggression? Is there aggression without anger? How do you deal with your anger? Work on anger-management strategies for angry learners.
17. 17 Assertiveness training People adopt different response styles depending on the circumstances. It is unlikely that anyone is wholly one type or another. RESPONSE STYLES NON- ASSERTIVE/SUBMISSIVE When you allow your boundaries to be invaded; I lose - you win ASSERTIVE standing up for your rights without violating the rights of others; I win - you win AGGRESSIVE/DOMINANT when you invade or attack someone elses boundaries; I win - you lose comprising: BASIC SKILLS developing confidence and rights ESSENTIAL SKILLS what to say; non- verbal behaviour; what to think; how to integrate these elementsSPECIALIST SKILLS Handling: disagreement complaints criticism aggression + +
18. 18 Social skills Model and teach: social communication skills social interaction skills self-awareness relationship skills.
19. 19 A sequenced repertoire of strategies for the management of disruptive behaviour 1. Core skills these are powerful skills, useful in all discipline transactions. 2. Low level strategies these are low key but assertive interventions. 3. Medium level strategies these are direct and assertive interventions. 4. High level strategies consequences for inappropriate behaviour are applied.
20. 20 ABC A ANTECEDENTS events that prompt, precede or trigger behaviour B BEHAVIOUR the specific actions of an individual C CONSEQUENCES subsequent events that make the behaviour more or less likely to occur The model is powerful in that it offers the possibility of altering behaviour by changing either antecedent or consequence.
21. 21 Talk strategies Dont say dont. Use maybe and. Use calming tone of voice that conveys respect. Emphasise you will hear them out when they have calmed down. Preface your statement with an understanding of their point of view, then say, however, I feel then say, and I suggest or and I would like. State your request in positive behavioural terms. Repeat your statement up to three times. If negative behaviour continues, state the consequence and emphasise it is their choice.
22. 22 Non-verbal techniques Take-up or face-saving time Mirroring Mood matching Using calming gestures Non-confrontational positioning Body buffer zone Walking awa