ergonomics in the sewing room
Submitted By : Angel SharmaAshmita JainMansi JainRiddhi MalviyaBFT VII
FINAL JURY ASSIGNMENTMentored By: Mr. Manoj TiwariAssociate Professor
Need of ergonomics in the sewing roomREFERENCE : http://ofslides.com/nagarajan23-140665/presentation-201653
Injuries and Illnesses Among sewing room Workers REFERENCE : National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)Elements of Ergonomics Programs, January 1997
70% of Sewing Machine Operators Using Foot Controls Report Back Pain35% Report Persistent Low Back Pain25% Have Suffered a Compensable Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD)81% of CTDs Were to the Wrist14% of CTDs to the Elbow5% of CTDs to the Shoulder
Some fundamental ergonomic principles to keep in mind :REFERENCE: http://www.iapa.ca/pdf/ergonomics_handbook.pdf
CLASSIFICATION OF TASKS ACCORDING TO POSTURES:REFERENCE :http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:PjAGX8ElhVEJ:www.toolboxtopics.com/Beyond%2520Safety%2520Meetings/Power%2520Points/Ergonomics%2520in%2520the%2520Textile%2520Industry.PPT+&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=in
SEWING ROOM Tasks Associated With Injuries and IllnessesREFERENCE :http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:PjAGX8ElhVEJ:www.toolboxtopics.com/Beyond%2520Safety%2520Meetings/Power%2520Points/Ergonomics%2520in%2520the%2520Textile%2520Industry.PPT+&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=in
Static PosturesAnalysis reveals that 40% of operators at sewing machines stoop forward > 20o throughout the machine cycle60% tilt their heads forward > 20o throughout the machine cycleVisual demands of the workGeometry of the work stationInadequate seating
1. SITTING TASKS:STITCHING, HAND SEWING, GARMENT ASSEMBLYREFERENCE : http://ofslides.com/nagarajan23-140665/presentation-201653
MAJOR CONCERN FOR SITTING TASKS:Seating
Stools are typical in the industry. They often lack cushioning, back rests and height adjustability.
Employees must sit for long periods in the same position, resulting in soreness of the back, neck, buttocks, and reduced circulation to the legs.
Chairs should have:Easily adjustable height and backrest position.Padded back rest with rounded edges that supports worker's lower back.No wheels, or wheels that lock.A cushioned seat, which distributes the worker's weight so no body part gets all the pressure.Swivel motion, so that worker does not have to twist to reach the side or behind
A gently sloped or "waterfall" front edge to help prevent the chair's edge from pressing into the back of the legs; and
To choose a proper chair, consider the amount of movement the task requires, and the size of the worker.Chairs should be placed at an appropriate distance from the workstation, so workers can perform tasks without pulling their elbows away from the body.
REFERENCE : http://ofslides.com/nagarajan23-140665/presentation-201653
THE WRONG WAY THE RIGHT WAY
Duration of ExposureMachine operators experience cumulative damage to the neck and shoulders over timeRisk for persistent neck and shoulder pain increases with years of employment as a machine operatorWork for more than eight years as machine operator increases risks for neck and shoulder painSolutions :Frequent rest periodsJob rotations2 minutes exercises to reduce fatigue
VENTILATIONSince a lot of machines are continuously working in the sewing room and the number of workers is very high too, it tends to get very stuffy and suffocatingTo combat this problem, ensure:Proper cross ventilation through adequate and properly placed windowsPresence of exhaust fans on the walls15
SOME WAYS OF PROPER VENTILATIONREFERENCE: http://elizabethgatlin.com/tips-and-tricks/natural-ventilation-tricks-to-cool-off-your-summer/
tABLEPROBLEMWorkers maintain awkward shoulder, elbow, and wrist postures while sewing because of improper table height.
REFERENCE : http://www.wsps.ca/WSPS/media/Site/Resources/Downloads/ergonomics_handbook.pdf?ext=.pdf
Provide height adjustable tables.Tables should be adjusted so the work is at elbow height and wrists are kept straight . Postures due to improper table height tires the neck, shoulder, and upper back muscles and may result in muscle pain.
, which can help employees access their work without using awkward postures. If the table is too low, workers will have to hunch forward, putting strain on the back, neck, and shoulders. If a table is too high, workers will have to raise their shoulders to get their arms high enough to work. 18
For sit-down work, the table should also be high enough to allow room underneath for the worker's legs. The table top should not press on the worker's thighs. Workers who use a treadle need more room than those who don't so they can move their legs more easily.
Edges of work surfaces should be padded or rounded, so workers can rest their arms against them.REFERENCE: https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/sewing/sewingstationdesign.html
TILT-ABLEADVANTAGES:Pain-free sewingProvides better view of sewing work areaAllows sewer to keep back straight for less back painPerfect for sewers with Bi/Tri-focal glasses
Tables may be tilted slightly toward workers, to enable them to see the work more easily and to reduce awkward wrist postures.
lightingUse adjustable task lighting to make it easier for the worker to see product during set up .Ensure bulbs are replaced frequently so they are functional at all times.Required illumination level in sewing room is 500 lux.
Postural Stress and LightingThread and fabric often offer little or no visual contrast36% of operators feel lighting is inadequateSurveys found light levels at less than 60% of recommended levels Operators lean forward to see their work
2. STANDING TASKS:INSPECTION , IRONING BY HANDREFERENCE: https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/sewing/sewingstationdesign.html
SOLUTIONS Provide sit/stand workstations, which encourage changing posture.Provide anti-fatigue mats for workers who are standing for prolonged periods. Anti-fatigue mats promote better circulation and reduce fatigue in the lower extremities.
TREADLE/PEDALPROBLEMS:Employees operating a treadle for prolonged periods must maintain awkward and unbalanced posture.Employees required to apply a constant treadle force must maintain static lower extremity postures.Workers may also maintain poor posture if treadle is too close or too far away
3. SPECIAL CASE OF SITTING WORK: FOOT OPERATED SEWINGREFERENCE: https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/sewing/sewingstationdesign.html
Use job/task rotation through tasks that do not require constant leg pressure and awkward leg posture.Distance of the operator from the machine should ideally be such that he can maintain a 90 degree angle while bending the leg
OTHER HEALTH AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
Material HandlingEmployees may sometimes have to move large bundles of cut fabric from delivery, or between stations.Eliminates Heavy Lifting by Operators or Bundle BoysUse trolleys with proper height and wheels so that the stress on helper boys is limited
Avoid lifting objects that are too heavy. Use more than one person or a mechanical device to reduce the load. Your workstation should not require you to lift objects above your head or twist your back while lifting. Keep the load close to your body and ensure that you have a good grip. Heavy and frequently lifted objects should be stored between knee and shoulder height not on the ground or above your head.