Introduction to Jewish, Early Christian, & Byzantine Art

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  1. 1. Art History Survey, T, R, 12-1:20PM, P327, Professor Paige PraterJEWISH, EARLY CHRISTIAN, & BYZANTINE ART
  2. 2. THREE MONOTHEISTIC RELIGIONS/BOOKS Judaism Hebrew Scriptures, Torah Christianity Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament) + New Testament = Bible Islam Quran (Arabic)
  3. 3. MAP OF CHRISTIAN SPREAD
  4. 4. MAP OF ISLAMIC SPREAD
  5. 5. TIMELINE Destruction of Jerusalem -70 CE Early Christian (100-6th century CE) Early Byzantine (5th century 726 CE) End of Western Roman Empire 476CE Iconoclastic Controversy 726-843CEMiddle Byzantine (843-1204 CE) Imperial Christian (313-476CE) Council of Nicaea 325 CECatholic vs. Orthodox 1054 CE Crusades begin 1095 CELate Byzantine (1261-1453CE) Fall of Constantinople to Turks 1453 CE
  6. 6. DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM, 70 CE Arch of Titus, 81 CE
  7. 7. EARLY JEWISH ART Synagogue at Dura Europos, Syria, 250CE
  8. 8. EARLY JEWISH ART DURA EUROPOS The Finding of the Baby Moses (244-45 CE)
  9. 9. JEWISH CATACOMB VILLA TORLONIA, ROME Menorahs and Ark of the Covenant, 3rd century
  10. 10. EARLY JEWISH ART Synagogue floor mosaic, Maon (ancient Menois) c. 530 CE
  11. 11. EARLY CHRISTIAN ART - SYMBOLS Good Shepherd Icthus (fish) Chi Rho Alpha and Omega Gospels (first 4 books in New Testament) Matthew = man or angel Mark = Lion Luke = Ox John = EagleCrosses Latin, Greek, Tau, & St. Peters
  12. 12. SYMBOLS: GOOD SHEPHERD Good Shepherd, Orants, and Story of Jonah, Catacomb of Saints Peter and Marcellinus, Rome, late 3rdearly 4th century Lunettes Medallion Syncretism Typology
  13. 13. SYMBOLS: CHI RHO, ICTHUS, & ALPHA & OMEGADetail from Theodorus sarcophagus, 5th century, Ravenna
  14. 14. SYMBOLS: GOSPELS (WRITTEN 65-95CE)Carolingian illuminated manuscript, 9th century
  15. 15. SYMBOLS: CROSSES Latin Greek Tau St. Peters
  16. 16. BASILICA PLAN CHURCH
  17. 17. OLD ST. PETERS BASILICA (4TH CENTURY)
  18. 18. SANTA SABINA, C. 422-432 Bishop Peter of Ilyria Brick/marble veneer 24 Corinthian columns: spolia! View from south aisle near the sanctuary to the entrance
  19. 19. SANTA SABINA DOOR PANEL (420S CE) The Ascension of Elijah Cypress wood
  20. 20. CENTRAL PLAN CHURCH Atrium Narthex Apse Dome
  21. 21. CENTRAL PLAN CHURCH: SANTA COSTANZA, ROME, C. 350 CE
  22. 22. SANTA COSTANZA, ROME, 350 CE Harvesting of Grapes, ambulatory vault; double allusion
  23. 23. RAVENNA 395 Emperor Theodosius I : eastern & western Roman empire (split between his sons) Honorius(395-423 CE) Milan > Ravenna-Direct access by sea to Contantinople GallaPlacidia, sister; regent 425-440 CE (West)476 CE Italy fell to the Ostrogoths; Ravenna became headquarters
  24. 24. MAUSOLEUM OF GALLA PLACIDIA RAVENNA, 425-426 CE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yvnr0wnmoGYGood Shepherd Lunette over entrance
  25. 25. MAUSOLEUM OF GALLA PLACIDIA RAVENNA, 425-426 CE Cruciform plan; pendentive dome (vs squinches)St. Lawrence Patron saint of Bakers
  26. 26. EARLY CHRISTIAN SCULPTURE Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, c. 359 CE, Marble
  27. 27. EARLY BYZANTINE: FIRST GOLDEN AGE 5th century-726 CE (iconoclasm) Art of Constantinople Emperor Justinian 527-565 CE
  28. 28. CONTSTANTINOPLE: WALLS, 412-413CE Moat & double walls with huge towers 4 mi 180 deep
  29. 29. CONSTANTINOPLE: HAGIA SOPHIA, 532-537 CE Justinian & Theodora 532 CE Anthemius of Tralles geometry/ optics Isidorus of Miletus physics
  30. 30. CONSTANTINOPLE: HAGIA SOPHIA Pendentives vs squinches
  31. 31. CONSTANTINOPLE: HAGIA SOPHIA
  32. 32. CHURCH OF SAN VITALE, RAVENNA 476 CE Arian Christian Ostrogoths conquer the Romans 526 CE Bishop Ecclesius commissions 2 new churches- San Vitale in Ravenna and one in port Classis 540 CE Byzantine forces conquer Ravenna Well-preserved monuments! San Vitale not finished until AFTER Justinian conquered Ravenna
  33. 33. CHURCH OF SAN VITALE, RAVENNA Centraldomed octagon Offset narthex Dome: mortared, interlocking ceramic tubes squinches
  34. 34. CHURCH OF SAN VITALE, RAVENNA Gold tesserae Mossics in apses
  35. 35. CHURCH OF SAN VITALE, RAVENNAChrist Enthroned, 547 CE. Half-dome of sanctuary apse.
  36. 36. CHURCH OF SAN VITALE, RAVENNA Justinian and Theodora did NOT attend the dedication; may never have been there at all!Emperor Justinian and his attendants, North wall of the apse.
  37. 37. CHURCH OF SAN VITALE, RAVENNA Purple makes a fine shroud - TheodoraEmpress Theodora and her attendants, South wall of the apse.
  38. 38. CHURCH OF SAN VITALE, RAVENNAAbel and Melchizedek, South wall lunette. TYPOLOGY!!!
  39. 39. SANTAPOLLINAIRE IN CLASSE Mosaics above apse added in 7th-9th century
  40. 40. ARCHANGEL MICHAEL DIPTYCH EARLY 6TH CENTURY Two carved, hinged panels Receive these gifts, and having learned the cause
  41. 41. BOOKS: VIENNA GENESIS, EARLY 6TH CENTURY Murex mollusks imperial useRebecca at the Well. The Vienna Genesis, early 6th century. Tempera, gold, and silver paint on purple dyed vellum, 13 x 9 7/8.
  42. 42. KEY BYZANTINE EMPERORS 527-565 - Justinian I: First Byzantine Emperor 717-741 Leo III: ICONOCLASM in 726 867-886 Basil I: initiates Macedonian dynasty 1259-1282 Michael VIII Palaeologus: retakes Constantinople from Crusaders in 1261 1449-1453 Last Byzantine Emperor: Constantine XI Palaeologus
  43. 43. BOOKS: RABBULA GOSPELS, 586, SYRIA Crucifixion & Resurrection Signed by monk, Rabbula Monastery of St. John the Evangelist in Beth Zagba, Feb 586 CE
  44. 44. RABBULA GOSPELS, 586, SYRIA Ascension Ezekiel 1 Mandorla Theotokos (Godbearer/Church
  45. 45. ICONS & ICONOCLASM Greek word eikon, meaning image Eastern Orthodox: iconostasis (screen); prayed while looking at images (ICONS)miraculous powers Idolatry vs veneration: Basil the Great of Cappadocia (329-379) and John of Damascus (675749) 726 CE: Emperor Leo III ICONOCLASM image breaking 843 CE: Empress Theodora, widow of Virgin and Child with Saints & Angels. Theophilus, reversed 2nd half of 6th century, encaustic on wood, 27 x 18 7/8 the
  46. 46. MULTIPLE DOME CHURCH PLANS Naos central core Quincu nx cross-insquare
  47. 47. CATHEDRAL OF SANTA SOPHIA, KIEV, 10371046 CE Eastern Slavs>Scandinavian Vikings (Byzantine bodyguards!)>Kiev=capitalEastern Orthodox Large Central Dome + 12 smaller domes
  48. 48. MONASTERY CHURCHES AT HOSIO LOUKAS, GREECE: 10-11TH CENTURIES Middle Byzantine Alternating courses of brick & stone (vertical AND horizontal)
  49. 49. CATHEDRAL OF ST. MARK, VENICE, 1063 BEGUN Venice: important Byzantine trade center Greek cross plan 5 great domes/barrel vaults/pendentives
  50. 50. HARBAVILLE TRIPTYCH, MID-11TH CENTURY, IVORY. http://www.louvre .fr/en/oeuvrenotices/harbaville -triptych Deesis entreaty
  51. 51. PALERMO: PALATINE CHAPEL, MID-12TH CENTURY Sicily: a mix of cultures Greekcolony Roman empire Ruled by Muslims from 827-end of 11th century Normans took over 1130-1154 Norman King Roger Religious toleration Western basilica plan with Byzantine dome on squinches Christ at PANTOKRATOR
  52. 52. PALERMO: KING ROGERS CHAMBER Byzantine domestic architecture
  53. 53. FUNERARY CHAPEL, CHURCH OF THE MONASTERY OF CHRIST 1310-1321 CE Now the Kariye Camii Museum in Istanbul 1316-1321 sponsor Theodore Metochites expanded it Late Byzantine
  54. 54. ANASTASIS, CHURCH OF THE MONASTERY OF CHRIST IN CHORA Adam & Eve Starstudded mandorla
  55. 55. THE OLD TESTAMENT TRINITY, ANDREY RUBLYOV, ICON, 1410-1425, TEMPERA ON PANEL Representation of the Trinity Artist-monk Commissioned for abbot Sergius of the Trinity-Sergius Monastery, near Moscow. Ideal geometry Late Byzantine

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