Mud Architecture.. mohammed muneer
Introduction...Mud has been the most essential of building materials since the dawn of the man.Approximately 58% of all buildings in India are mud brick and a growing construction boom in India. Mud is a building material which has already being tested and tried for thousands of years. It is used in modern day construction and the method of using it is very different.
IntroductionMud has its own limitations which can be overcome. Mud construction is mainly found in places which are relatively dry and have mud in abundance.
IntroductionThe mud house uses minimal energy, is comfortable year round. The mud house construction uses only simple natural materials, which are any digging soil from the earth mixed with water and added up with paddy or hay or any dried fiber or even recycling garbage. Mud house construction is durable and can be easily recycled .Mud construction also provide air conditioning system which provide cool air from the massive walls.
Types of soil usedGravel: small piece of stone varying from size of pea to that of a eggSand: similar small piece of stone which are small but visible to the eyeSilt: the same as sand except that it is so fine that you cannot see the individual grainsClay :soils that stick when wet but very hard when completely dryOrganic soil : soil mainly composed of rotting materials organic matters leaves,plants,vegetables
Various construction methods are:
COB: COB is good for anything except height. It is particularly good for curved or round walls.PISE OR RAMMED EARTH : PISE OR RAMMED EARTH is strong and ideal for solid, squat, single storey houses.ADOBE: ADOBE or SUN DRIED BRICKS can easily cope with two storey houses. PRESSED BRICKS: PRESSED BRICKS smooth and very strong and can build three storey. WATTLE & DAUB METHOD: WATTLE & DAUB is elegant and fine for Seismic Zones.
A very stiff mud is prepared by mixing mud and water in the proportion of 1:3 and it is moulded into huge elongated egg shape.
The elongated egg shape mud is 12 to 18-inches, (30 to 40-cm) long and about 6-inches (15-cm) in diameter.
For making a wall ,a row of cob is placed in proper line and is pressed to avoid gaps n crack.
In this way two to three layers of cobs are placed one above the other and the sides are smoothed to avoid cracks n gap.
For making openings of door wooden frame or kerosene tins are used to make the openings.
This is a method in which the strength of the wall can be increased by increasing the thickness of the wall.Two parallel planks are held firmly apart by metal rods and clips or bolts, or by small crosspieces of wood.Stiff mud is thrown in between these two planks and rammed down with either a wooden or metal ramrod.When one section is completed and hard, the two planks are then raised up and a second course of rammed earth is repeated over the first.
ADOBE Blocks are kept covered with air tight polythene sheets for first 48 hrs with relative humidity up to 100.Polythene sheets shall be removed after 48 hrs and the blocks shall be kept in shaded area like having enough air circulation.Sprinkle water over blocks daily, as many times needed, during 28 days.Write date of production on block corner.Cover stacks top with coconut leaves or any other cover to avoid direct sunlight.Principle is that blocks shall not dry for 4weeks.
WATTLEANDDAUBWattle and daub method is an old and common method of building mud structures.Bamboo and cane frame structure that supports the roof.Mud is plastered over this mesh of bamboo cane and strawsDue to excessive rainfall the Wattle and Daub structures gets washed off. However, the mesh of cane or split bamboo remains intact and after the heavy rain is over the mud is plastered on again.
Taos Pueblo (New Mexico) Arg-e bam (southeastern Iran,)Examples of mud construction
Examples of mud construction
Djinguereber Mosque (West Africa.) khiva wall (Uzbekistan)
Examples of mud construction
Chan Chan (Moche Valley of Peru) Bobo Dioulasso Grand Mosque(Burkina faso)
Examples of mud construction Shibam (Yemen) Siwa oasis (western egypt)
Advantages of MudEnvironmental impact To save natural resources.Using neither cement nor rock (Save our mountains.
To save building materials Main materials are soil and water, mixed to be mud, if the mud is too sticky, we can add up with paddy husky or rice straw or local fiber weed or bamboo.
Energy use To save energy Cool in summer (Inside building temperature is about 24c to 26c
Advantages Warm in Winter (Automatic control temperature by passive cooling system)
Capital Expenditure To save money .No air conditioning, no electricity bills.
DISADVANTAGEHumidity Humidity is the crucial factor, mud-house will easily be fungus.Foul odour The brand- new mud-house may have foul odor of crushed green leavesTermite termites usually buildup on mud structure
Mud house construction, making use of the best appropriate technology knowledge, conducive to people participation, compatible with laws of ecology, harmonizes with the environment, gentle in its use of resources, and minimal energy. Thus, hoping that Mud house will help open our eyes to an architectural alternative design for preserving the natural world not solely for its own sake but to provide an environment hospitable to man which should be environmental friendly design