Paraphrasing and avoiding plagiarism workshop

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Recurso:Dra. Elena González Rivera

Text of Paraphrasing and avoiding plagiarism workshop

  • 1. Workshop: Paraphrasing and Avoiding Plagiarism Elena Gonzlez Rivera, Ed.D. September 16th 2011 BIOL 3095

2. Objectives Define the terms Paraphrasing Direct Quoting Summarizing Discuss effective ways to summarize Identify appropriate transitional words Practice effective ways of paraphrasing Define plagiarism and identify it Discuss how to find your own voice andavoid plagiarism 3. Exercise # 1 In your own words and without consultinga dictionary, write your definition of Paraphrasing Summarizing Direct quoting 4. I. DefinitionsParaphrasing involves: expressing the text in your own words. producing a slightly shorter version of theoriginal text. crediting the author for their intellectualproduction.Source: University of Perdue Writing Lab 5. I. DefinitionsSummarizing involves: placing only the authors main idea(s) into yourown words. recognizing the authors contribution by citinghim/her. making a significantly shorter version of thetest. a more ample perspective.Source: University of Perdue Writing Lab 6. I. DefinitionsDirect quotations must: be a carbon copy of the original text. refer to a limited segment of thesource. give credit to the author.Source: University of Perdue Writing Lab 7. Exercise #2 Summarizing Read handout #1 on SummarizingFacts about summarizing 8. II. Transitional WordsMaking logical transitions between ideas Alternativesome examples of alternative transitional words are: either, or,nor, on the other hand, however, neither, and otherwise. They are used whenyou can alternate between two concepts or expressions. Causal include thus, then, unless, subsequently, therefore, because,consequently, as a result, if, in order to/that, for, and so. They can be used whenreferring to consequences or effects. Illustrativephrases such as for example, for instance, to illustrate, and as anexample permit us to clarify an idea by connecting it to an example. Repetitive, reiterative expressions such as include in other words, in short,that is, stated simply, and to put it another way help add clarity throughmeaningful repetition Spatial, physicalprepositions like the words under, beside, on top of, next to,behind, point to a physical/spatial relationship between things mentioned intwo separate statements There are also transitional words to denote time (first), purpose (to this end),summary (without doubt), and addition (equally important) 9. Paragraph model - transitional wordsStudies show that there has been anincrease in the number of people who (Topic sentence)support medicide, which happens whenpeople with terminal diseases choose to endtheir lives, rahter than continue living. Onecommon argument for this growing support (Supporting sentence 1)is that people should not be forced tocontinue living if they are in severe pain andcannot live with this constant pain). A(Supporting sentence 2)second reason is that staying in the hospitalfor a long time often causes a financialburden on the family. Terminally ill peopleoften worry about the hardship that this willcause their families. Finally, people who aredying sometimes lose hope. Even if they are(Supporting sentence 3)alive, they can often only lie in bed, and forsome people, this is not life. While manypeople believe that medicide is an unnaturalway to die and should remain illegal, sick (Counterargument orpeople should certainly have the right to endrebuttal)their lives if they want. Source: Dr. Jos Santos Module for INGL 3201 2007 10. III. Effective Paraphrasing6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing 1. Re-read a selection until you fully understand it beforetrying to paraphrase 2. Close the selection and paraphrase from memory 3. Give your paraphrase a topic title and writeyourself a footnote reminding you how you could use it inthe future 4. Compare your text with the authors 5. Place borrowed terms or phrases in quotation marks 6. Jot down all bibliographic information for citation it in Your Own Words by Dana Lynn Driscoll and Allen Brizee, June 2010 11. III. How to ParaphraseThe University of New South Wales in Sydney Australia mention the same steps to paraphrasing as Purdue but adds other important elements to consider.Elements to consider: Meaning: maintain the same ideas and the same relationship between them Words: Use synonyms except for specialized subject vocabularyC. Phrases: If you want to retain unique or specialist phrases, use quotation marks ( )D. Structure: Do not maintain the same grammatical or sentence structure as the author. (Vary sentence length, change from active to passive voice, or use adjectives instead of nouns)D. Order: Change the order in which the text is presented without altering the ideasE. Attitude: Reflect the authors attitude in your version of the text (ex. critical, confident, etc.)Source: 12. Exercise #3 Read handout #2 entitled:Paraphrasing and documentation If the hyperlink does not work, refer to thedocument I attached along with thepresentation. 13. Exercise #4 Now that you have read an example of aparaphrase, complete the followingexercise by evaluating the quality of 3paraphrased versions of a test. Handout#3 contains the exercise.Compare paraphrases 14. Exercise #5 Now you will practice paraphrasing 5passages by completing handout #4Paraphrasing exercises 15. IV. AVOID PLAGIARISM:USE YOUR OWN WORDS 16. Define Plagiarism Plagiarism is taking another persons ideas and pretendingthey are yours a type of intellectual theft the result of ignorance or deliberate intention Plagiarism has serious consequences 17. Clarification of Term Take the plagiarism quiz 18. How Does Plagiarism Happen?Intellectual insecurity related to use your own words paradox The Problem: One of the contradictions about academic writing is that while you are expected to read, research and refer to experts and authorities, you are also expected to produce original work. So, you are asked for your view, but it must also contain academic research. Therefore, you plagiarize because youre not sure how to develop your own argument, or dont have the confidence in your conclusions. 19. How Does PlagiarismHappen?The Solution You need to realize the ways in which your own ideas (your voice) may be incorporatedinto your own writing. Most of the work you will do at university will concern the words, information and ideasof other writers and researchers. When writing assignments, your job is to synthesize answers from the opinions ofothers, rather than just think up an answer off the top of your own head. Dont be concerned about drawing from various sources. Student writers, especiallyearly on, are more like DJs sampling than classical composers. Even if you are writinga PhD, you still need to develop your ideas in relation to other writers. Finding your own voice is not about saying something original (something that no otherperson has ever said before) but about producing something of your own from the ideas/research in the same way in which DJs produce original music from the pre-recordedsounds of other music writers. 20. Four Steps to Finding Your Own Voice1. Overt One way is to write yourself into the essay For example: I will argue that In this essay I argue that... From our investigations we conclude that The researchers of this study concludes One can conclude from this investigation By drawing such a clear distinction between your voice and the voice of your sources, the marker is more able to hear what you are trying to say. WARNING: Some disciplines and schools dont allow their students to use I in theirwritten assignments. Check with your lecturers and tutors before you adopt this strategy.2. Original ResearchThe content of lectures and weekly readings can only give you the basics: you are expected to go beyond the material presented in class when you are producing a research-based assignment. Some students never go beyond lecture material and/or the set readings when doing research.But by branching out on your own, by reading more widely youll have many more ideas to draw from. By broadening your research youll be able to include ideas and information not discovered by others whove not read as widely as you have. This will allow you to construct a different argument from other students and, in turn, this research will give your argument a more individual quality. 21. Four Steps to Finding Your OwnVoice3. OrganizationThe way you put your essays together may give them a distinctive quality. Although you must always engage with and answer the question, and the question will always place limits on your essay, the question itself does not dictate the structure of your essay. It does not give you the correct sequence of paragraphs: the order of the paragraphs is your choice.Impose your framework over the question, and dont let your sources dictate the structure of your essay either.4. Integration: choosing the right wordsWhat transition signals and reporting verbs (states, argues, asserts, writes etc.) do you use to show your relationship to the ideas expressed by other writers?By carefully selecting your reporting verbs you can use the words/ideas of others and your own considered opinion of their view. 22. Using the Correct WordsEvans states that the sky is redstates indicates that you have a(2001:8). largely neutral stance toward theidea expressed.Evans argues that the sky is redargues indicates that you think that(Evans, 2001:8) Evans supports his opinion withargument & evidenceEvans asserts that the sky is red asserts indicate