Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

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Photosynthesis and Cellular RespirationBiology EasyShiksha.Com - A Way of Simple Learning

Energy and Livings ThingsAll organisms require energy to carry out life processes.Most of the energy used by life on Earth comes from the sun.You get energy from the food you eat.

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2How energy flows in living systems light energy plant rabbit fox[sun plants animals other animals]

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Why do we need energy?Energy is required for:GrowthReproductionMovementTransport of materials across the cell membraneEasyShiksha.Com - A Way of Simple Learning

Plants and animals need each other to survive.

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Storing EnergyPhotosynthesis - light energy converted to chemical energy--- The atmospheric by-product of photosynthesis is oxygen (O2)Autotrophs organism that uses energy from sunlight or inorganic compounds to make organic compounds (ex: plants, algae, deep sea organisms)EasyShiksha.Com - A Way of Simple Learning

6Breakdown EnergyCellular Respiration process by which cell produces energy (ATP) from foodHeterotrophs organisms that get energy from food by organic molecules (food) being broken down through cellular respiration---have to consume other organisms to get energy!!!

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7ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)3 (tri) Phosphate groups provide energyWhen one phosphate is removed than energy is releasedThe phosphate groups are negatively charged and repel each otherMost of the energy that drives metabolism is supplied by ATP energy currency EasyShiksha.Com - A Way of Simple Learning

8

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photo Greek for lightsynthesis to make (Calvin Cycle)

Where photosynthesis occurs in a leafa.k.a mesophyllEasyShiksha.Com - A Way of Simple Learning Photosynthesis

10What is photosynthesis?Process plants use to make their own foodPlant cells contain chloroplastChloroplasts make photosynthesis possibleOccurs in cell membranes in certain prokaryotes

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Stages of PhotosynthesisLight Dependent ReactionsAbsorption of lightConversion of light Electron Transport Chain (ETC)Makes ATP and NADPH (carries high energy electrons needed to make organic molecules)EasyShiksha.Com - A Way of Simple Learning

12Stages of PhotosynthesisLight Independent Reactions3. Storage of energyCalvin CycleATP and NADPH get fuel from ETCSugars are produced from carbon atoms (CO) and hydrogen atoms (NADPH)

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Light Dependent RxnsLight Independent RxnsEasyShiksha.Com - A Way of Simple Learning

14Chemical FormulaMust know the ENTIRE equation ofphotosynthesis

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light C6H12O6 +6O2

reactantsproductsMajor atmospheric by-product!EasyShiksha.Com - A Way of Simple Learning

15Light Dependent ReactionsElectron Transport Chain Occurs in thylakoids clusters of pigment (ex: chlorophyll, which absorbs green & yellow, & carotenoids, which absorb red & orangeGrana stacks of thylakoidsPigments absorb light

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16

Diagram of Light Dependent ReactionsNote the arrows and circled molecules entering and leaving.EasyShiksha.Com - A Way of Simple Learning

17Steps in Light Dependant Reactions1. light absorbed by chlorophyll2. electrons excited and transfer electrons and hydrogen from H2O to NADP+ NADPH (electron carrier)3. ADP + P ATP4. ATP and NADPH power light independent reactionRequired by dark reactions to generate sugars(note: does not use CO2)

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18Light Independent ReactionsCalvin CycleOccurs in the stoma an opening in a leaf or stem that enables gas exchangeSeries of enzyme-assisted chemical reactions that produces a three-carbon sugarEasyShiksha.Com - A Way of Simple Learning

Light Independent ReactionsTake CO2 from air and make sugar (glucose, starch)Requires ATP, NADPH from ETC

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20Cellular RespirationThe process in which chemical energy stored in food molecules (carbohydrates, protiens, and fats) is released.EasyShiksha.Com - A Way of Simple Learning

Aerobic w/oxygenAnaerobic w/out oxygenOccurs outside & inside of mitochondria

EasyShiksha.Com - A Way of Simple Learning Metabolic processes

Stages of Cellular RespirationStage One---GlycolysisGlucose pyruvateStage Two---Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration

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Stage One - Glycolysis- breaks down glucose to 2 pyruvates- Why?- Glucose (6-C) is too big to fit into the mitochondria- Pyruvates are only 3 carbons!

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Enzyme assisted anaerobic process that breaks down glucose (6-C) to pyruvate (3-C) Requires energy to start breaking glucose down:Input 2 ATPOutput 4 ATPNet Gain 2 ATP

EasyShiksha.Com - A Way of Simple Learning Glycolysis

Where Glycolysis occurs?In cytoplasm, outside of mitochondria

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Occurs w/in the mitochondriaNADH and FADH2 now contain energy that was in glucose and pyruvate

EasyShiksha.Com - A Way of Simple Learning Stage Two Krebs Cycle

Krebs CycleStarts with 2 carbon molecule4 carbon molecule is recycled at the endMakes 3 NADH, 1 ATP, 2 CO2 , and 1 FADH2NO NADPH!!!

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Stage Three Electron Transport ChainOccurs w/in mitochondriaAerobic respirationReceives NADH & FADH2 from glycolysis and Krebs cycleUses electrons to convert ADP + Pi to ATPH ions, spent e-, and oxygen molecules form H2OEasyShiksha.Com - A Way of Simple Learning

**(Note pathway of e-)**

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What happens when oxygen is not present?Fermentation occursAnaerobic processOccurs in cytoplasm (outside of mito.)Two Types:Lactic Acid FermentationAlcohol FermentationEasyShiksha.Com - A Way of Simple Learning

Lactic Acid FermentationProkaryotes have over a dozen kinds of fermentation (yogurt, cheese)Pyruvate lactateAllows glycolysis to continue in anaerobic conditionsBlood removes excess lactateEasyShiksha.Com - A Way of Simple Learning

Alcohol FermentationPyruvate ethanolCO2 is released, e- transferred to make ethanolYeast is used to prepare certain foods and beveragesEasyShiksha.Com - A Way of Simple Learning

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Production of ATPTotal amount of ATP depends on presence of oxygenFor each glucose molecule in aerobic respirationGlycolysis (outside) net 2 ATPKrebs Cycle (inside) 2 ATPETC (inside) 34 ATP

TOTAL ATP: 38EasyShiksha.Com - A Way of Simple Learning

Production of ATP (cont)Anaerobic RespirationNo oxygen presentGlycolysis (outside) net 2 ATPFermentation (outside) no ATPNo oxygen for H+ and e- to bind to, so go to make ethanol or lactateEasyShiksha.Com - A Way of Simple Learning

Overall Pathway of Cell Respiration

2 ATP in4Net Gain = 2 ATP38 TotalInside mitochondriaOutside mitochondria(a.k.a glucose)EasyShiksha.Com - A Way of Simple Learning

Importance of OxygenRemember, oxygen is needed to bond H+ and e- to make H2OIn Fermentation, no oxygen means H+ and e- go to lactate or ethanol

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The chlorophyll absorbs the sunlight.EasyShiksha.Com - A Way of Simple Learning

The sunlight is combined with water, Carbon Dioxide and nutrients from the soil.

CO2

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The chlorophyll processes the ingredients and makes sugar (plant food) and oxygen.

Sugar + Air

O2EasyShiksha.Com - A Way of Simple Learning

Animals including humans make the CO2 (carbon dioxide) plants need.They (the plants) make the O2 (oxygen) and food we need.EasyShiksha.Com - A Way of Simple Learning