Hurricane Storm Surge Modeling and Analysis
Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge
Group ExodusMembers:1.Benj P. Almojuela2.Angelo A. Asoy3.Jaymz Rainiel C. Bacho
2PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge12/10/20132Note, the next slide can only be properly viewed in Slide Show mode as it is a series of images that are animated (appear and disappear) within PowerPoint.
PrefaceDear Readers, This power point presentation has been designed how to learn what to do when you are hit by this disaster. In this power point presentation you will find the the disaster that struck the world. In this power point youll find the study, history and the plan how to do if you are hit by this disaster. This power point contains the study, history and circumstances happens in earth in the past years until now.3PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge12/10/2013IntroductionGreetings On Readers, The purpose of my presentation is to introduce the importance of preparedness in case of severe accidents impacting your area and what would make when it hits your area. and you still see the 2 types of movement of water and how they occur more why they are moving and how strong is it when you hit the ground. The two types is Tunami and Storm Surge and you will see the meaning and difference of two movement of water. The one you will see in this presentation are examples only. It took only internet. 4PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge12/10/2013Table of Contents Page Chapter 1History & Background of Tsunami and Storm Surge - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6-13 Chapter 2Tsunami - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 14 - 41Storm Surge - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 42 - 70 Chapter 3Similarities and Difference Between Tsunami and Storm Surge - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 71 84Conclusion - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 85References - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 86 - 875PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge12/10/2013CHAPTER 1 History and background of Tsunami and Storm Surge6PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge12/10/2013HISTORY OF TSUNAMI The word tsunami comes from theJapanese language. In that language the word meansharbor wave. Long ago, Japanese fishermen created the word tsunami. They would return from the sea to find that their villages had been destroyed by large waves. They had not been aware of waves large enough to wash away a village while at sea. The waves had traveled through the sea until they reached a point near the land and the water became shallower. The shallow water had caused the wave to be pushed to the surface. In the open water of the ocean, this type of wave could not be detected. Thesedestructive wavesare sometimes mistakenly called tidal waves. As the waves approach the land without warning, they can look like a particularly violent tide rushing to the shore. But these waves really have nothing to do with the tide. Scientists don't like to hear people call tsunamis "tidal waves" because of this wrong idea. The "normal" waves that you can see crashing onto the shore are caused by the action of wind on the ocean. Tsunamis are many times caused by an earthquake. Earthquakes are caused when pieces of the earth's crust shift. Energy released by the earthquake causes the water in the ocean to be displaced or moved. You can see this kind of action for yourself. If you bring your hands quickly together underwater in a pool orbathtub, you will see the water above your hands start to form a wave. It has been displaced. The same thing will happen if someone cannonballs into apool of water. The water will splash out over the sides of the pool. It has been displaced. Tsunamis can also be caused by landslides where large chunks of land suddenly slide into the sea. A meteor landing in the ocean can cause tsunamis, too.
CHAPTER 1 Recent tsunami Date CauseHeightLocation Country Deaths Volcanic eruption35 mIndonesia - - - - - 36,000 Earthquake29 mJapan - - - - - - - 27,000 Earthquake30 mJapan - - - - - - - 3,0001946 Earthquake15 mAlaska - - - - - - - 1751960 Earthquake10 mChile - - - - - - - - 1,2501964 Earthquake 6 mAlaska - - - - - - - 1251992 Earthquake26 mNicaragua - - - - - 1701992 Earthquake26 mIndonesia - - - - - - 1,0001993 Earthquake31 mJapan - - - - - - - - - 2391994 Earthquake14 m Indonesia - - - - - 2381998 Landslide15 m Papua - - - - - - - - 2,2002004 Earthquake30 m Sumatra - - - - - 245,0002010 Earthquake 10 m Chile - - - - - - - - 214+2011 Earthquake 51.51 Japan - - - - - - - 15,883
88PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge12/10/20138Most but not all tsunamis are generated by earthquakes. Note the 1883 tsunami from eruption of Krakatau. That tsunami was also a SE Indian Ocean event. 36,000 deaths from that tsunami. Estimates vary but probably 5 to 10 times as many people died later from disease or starvation. Simon Windcheaster authored a book title Krakatau that is a good source of information about the 1883 Krakatau eruption and tsunami. Relief efforts launched after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami largely avoided the secondary deaths due to disease. HISTORY OF STORM SURGE This article is about themeteorologicalterminology. For the fictional character, seeStorm Surge (Transformers). Astorm surgeis an offshore rise of water associated with alow pressureweather system, typicallytropical cyclonesand strongextratropical cyclones. Storm surges are caused primarily by highwindspushing on theocean's surface. The wind causes the water to pile up higher than the ordinarysea level. Low pressure at the center of a weather system also has a small secondary effect, as can thebathymetryof the body of water. It is this combined effect of low pressure and persistent wind over a shallow water body which is the most common cause of storm surge flooding problems. The term "storm surge" in casual (non-scientific) use isstorm tide; that is, it refers to the rise of water associated with the storm, plus tide, wave run-up, and freshwater flooding. "Tidal surge" is incorrect since there is no such thing. When referring to storm surge height, it is important to clarify the usage, as well as the reference point. The U.S.National Hurricane Center defines storm surge as water height above predicted astronomical tide level, and storm tide as water height aboveNGVD-29, a 1929 benchmark of mean sea level. Most casualties during a tropical cyclone occur during the storm surge.
9PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge12/10/2013http://blog.noah.dost.gov.ph/2013/11/22/philippine-storm-surge-history/9In areas where there is a significant difference between low tide andhigh tide, storm surges are particularly damaging when they occur at the time of a high tide. In these cases, this increases the difficulty of predicting the magnitude of a storm surge since it requires weather forecasts to be accurate to within a few hours. Storm surges can be produced byextratropical cyclones, such as theNight of the Big Windof 1839 and theStorm of the Century (1993), but the most extreme storm surge events typically occur as a result of tropical cyclones. Factors that determine the surge heights for landfalling tropical cyclones include the speed, intensity, size of the radius of maximum winds (RMW), radius of the wind fields, angle of the track relative to the coastline, the physical characteristics of the coastline and the bathymetry of the water offshore. TheSLOSH(Sea, Lake, and Overland Surges from Hurricanes) model is used to simulate surge from tropical cyclones. Additionally, there is an extratropical storm surge model that is used to predict those effects.TheGalveston Hurricane of 1900, aCategory4 hurricanethat struckGalveston, Texas, drove a devastating surge ashorebetween 6,000 and 12,000lives were lost, making it the deadliestnatural disasterever to strike the United States. The deadliest storm surge caused by a tropical cyclone in the twenty-first century is fromCyclone Nargiswhich killed more than 138,000 people inMyanmarin May 2008. The next deadliest this century is fromTyphoon Haiyanin 2013. Haiyan (Yolanda) killed more than 3,600 people in the central Philippinesand resulted in economic losses estimated at $14 billion (USD).Extreme storm surges may occur more often due to theeffects of global warming.For example, theMarshall Islandsare threatened by the potential effects of storm surges as well assea level rise. AU.S. Geological Surveystudy found that theMidway Atoll,Laysan, andPacific islandslike them could become inundated and unfit to live on during this century.10PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge12/10/2013RECENT STORM SURGE IN AMERICADate Height location Country Deaths 6-10 feet Washngton DC 18 18-20 feet South Florida 423 9.3 feet N.Carolina 1 19-20 feet New England 564 10.7 feet Georgia N/S.Carolina 50 14.7 feet Texas 8 12.28 feet Florida-Cuba 18 15 feet Texas 3 16 feet Mississippi GC/New Orleans 51 12 feet Florida/Georgia/S.Carolina