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Process of advertising (Communication Process)

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Process of AdvertisingProcess of Advertising


All the promotion techniques are based on communication. It is a process in which two or more persons consciously or unconsciously attempt to influence each other through the use of symbols or spoken words.Communication is a two-way process.It has four basic components: Sender, Media, Message and Receiver.

First the sender gets an idea (ideation) what to communicate. The source then can encode the message and sends the message. This message is sent through a channel (media). It is then received by the receiver who decodes the message and sends a feedback to the receiver of having received the messenger.

Through the feedback the sender knows that the message has been received. It is important that the message be received and convey the meaning it is intended for.

SenderMessageChannel (media)ReceiverFeedback

The nine elements of communication processSender and receiver are the major parties in communication.Sender- is a person who sends the message. A sender makes use of symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and produce the required response. For instance - a training manager conducting training for new batch of employees. Sender may be an individual or a group or an organization. The views, background, approach, skills, competencies, and knowledge of the sender have a great impact on the message.Receiver- is a person for whom the message is intended or aimed. The degree to which the decoder understands the message is dependent upon various factors such as knowledge of recipient, their responsiveness to the message, and the reliance of encoder on decoder.

Message and Media are the major communication tools.

Message- is a key idea that the sender wants to communicate. It is a sign that elicits the response of recipient. Communication process begins with deciding about the message to be conveyed. It must be ensured that the main objective of the message is clear.Channel (media)- are the way you convey your message. These channels include verbal such as telephone, and face-to-face conversations as well as non-verbal such as e-mail and text messaging. Each individual channel has its strengths and weaknesses in terms of communicating. For instance - Written medium is chosen when a message has to be conveyed to a small group of people, while an oral medium is chosen when spontaneous feedback is required from the recipient as misunderstandings are cleared then and there.

Encoding, decoding, response and feedback, represent the major communication function.Encoding- is the process where the information you would like to communicate gets transferred into a form to be sent and decoded by the receiver.Decoding- is on the receiving end of communication. This stage is just as important as encoding. Communication can go downhill at this stage if the receiver is not practicing active listening skills or if they do not possess enough information to accurately decode the message.Response- The listening stage wherein the listener provides verbal and/or nonverbal reactions to what she hears.Feedback- is the main component of communication process as it permits the sender to analyze the efficacy of the message. It helps the sender in confirming the correct interpretation of message by the decoder. Feedback may be verbal (through words) or non-verbal (in form of smiles, sighs, etc.). It may take written form also in form of memos, reports, etc.

Noise is the last system which interferes with the intended communication.

Noise- is any type of disruption that interferes with the transmission or interpretation of information from the sender to the receiver. Refers to influences on effectivecommunicationthat influence the interpretation ofconversations. While often looked over, communication noise can have a profound impact both on our perception ofinteractionswith others and our analysis of our own communication proficiency.

Elements in communication Process

Communication can be used in many forms. It can be written or spoken, by body language, by pictures, illustration, by company logo. It acts as a bridge between the purchaser and the seller. Communication is a very wide term. It can take in its preview both external communication and internal communication.SenderFeedbackReceiverDecodingEncoding



External FlowBy external flow we mean the communication which flows to the target market. This target market consists of:

Target MarketCustomersPast presentPotential customers also known as prospects

Channel MembersWhole sellers, RetailersAgents & any otherMiddlemenGovt. AgenciesPrivate Agencies to societyCompaniesCompeting, Non-Competing and others

Internal FlowIt is the flow of communication inside the organization with various departments e.g., finance production, H.R.D. etc. all marketing function including research, innovation, development, packaging, branding and production which has to be of good quality as desired by the customer for his satisfaction.

Types of communicationI. Communication can be of many types. It can be personal communication which is the communication between two or more persons on a personal level. Other types of communications are formal, informal, upward, downward, verbal, non-verbal, body language, mass communication (impersonal), organizational communication, interpersonal communication, integrated marketing communication (IMC).In marketing communication, mass communication is used for advertising, publicity, sales promotion etc.Mass media used can be through newspapers, magazines, hoardings, radio, television, cinema, transit media (Buses, taxis, 3-wheelers) etc.

Types of communicationII.Formal Communication- takes place in organization, this can be horizontal or vertical. It is also in the form of circulars, notices, orders etc. it can pass downwards, down to various levels (downward communication). This can also be upwards, feedback goes from the lower levels to higher level of organization. For example, the nursing superintendent of a hospital will communicate with staff nurse through assistant nursing superintendents, supervisors & ward-in-charge nurses.Informal Communication- communication takes place at informal places. It does not follow line of authority. Examples of informal communication are gossip, chitchat & kitty parties. It is very fast & usually takes place in social groups like friends, family, peer groups, etc.

Non-verbal Communication- is written communicational which can be both formal and informal. It can be in the form of letters, circulars, notices, or by written media, magazines etc. This communication occurs without words; where the five senses & whole range of body movements, posture, gesture, facial expressions & silence are used for sending & receiving the message. Nonverbal communication is a more accurate way of communication because it convey the true & intended meaning of the message.Verbal Communication- can be by words either face to face or by telephone. It is spoken communication. A combination of several words is used & each words conveys a specific meaning. Some important elements of verbal communication are language, vocabulary, denotative & connotative meaning, pacing, intonation, clarity, consciousness, preciseness, comprehension, brevity, timing & relevance.

Body language- is the expression of the body which communicates message just by action. An exhaustive study of body language is made and covers numerous topics. We can communicate by smile, by boredom, by grinding teeth, yawning, angry face, blushing, winking, shrugging, shaking of head, closing and expanding eyes, by rubbing of hands, standing postures, sitting postures, playing with fingers, shaking of hands etc. body language can be combined with other methods of communication to bring greater communication effect.

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