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Stereoscopic Imaging

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2. TopicSlide No.Definition3History4-5Introduction6Visual Requirement7How it works?8-113D viewers12-17Stereo Cameras18-19Applications20Future Enhancement21Pros & Cons22Conclusions & References23-24Thank You252 3. WHAT IS STEREOSCOPIC IMAGING? Derived from the Greek word StereosmeaingSolidandScopymeaningLook/View, so stereoscopy means solid view of an object i.e. 3D view. In general life, it is known as 3D Imaging. It is the technique used to create the illusion of depth in an offset image by presenting two slightly different perspectives of the same object to the eyes of the viewer. 3 4. HISTORY In 280 A.D., Euclid was the first to recognize that depth perception is obtained when each eye simultaneously receives two dissimilarimages of the same object. In 1600, Giovanni Battista della Porta produced the first artificial 3-D drawing based on Euclids notions. In 1833, Sir Charles Wheatstone came up with a device called reflecting mirror camera. In 1844, Sir David Brewster introduces the Stereoscope, a device fortaking stereo photographs. In 1939 William Gruber saw a way to make use of the newly invented flexible 35mm film by Kodak.4 5. IMPORTANT DATES 1947The first Russian 3D video, Robinson Crusoe, is produced.1952World's first feature-length 3D movie, Bwana Devil is released in the USA that was a boom in 3D movie production.2009James Cameron's film Avatar, shot with the Fusion Camera System come into scene, is hailed as the best 3D film to dateand helps push 3D towards the mainstream. 2010The Consumer Electronics Show (CES) features prototype 3D televisions from most major manufacturers.2011Theworld'sfirstdedicated3Dtelevisionchannel,SouthKorea's SKY 3D was launched with1920x1080 resolution. 5 6. INTRODUCTION In conventional 2D imaging, there is only image for the left and right eye of the viewer.So, there is only focused image at the retina due to binocular disparity. The study of a 2D image do not provide a full detailed study.This leads to the invention of Stereoscopic Imaging or 3D imaging. Stereoscopy creates the illusion of three-dimensional depth from images on a two-dimensional plane. In stereoscopic imaging, there are two different images for the left and right eye of the viewer. 6 7. VISUAL REQUIREMENT Anatomically, there are 3 levels of binocular vision required to viewstereo images: 1. Simultaneous perception 2. Fusion (binocular 'single' vision)3. Stereopsis7 8. HOW IT WORKS? TECHNIQUES There are two techniques of producing stereoscopic images: 1. Film Photography 2. Digital Photography8 9. HOW IT WORKS? FILM PHOTOGRAPHY Aim is to take two photographs fromdifferent horizontal positions to get a true stereoscopic image pair. This can be done with two separate side-by-side cameras. Or with the help of stereo cameras incorporating two or more side-by-side lenses. At least 3 lenses are required in a stereo camera. 9 10. HOW IT WORKS? DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY There are Stereo lenses which turn an ordinary film camera into astereo camera by using a special double lens to take two images and direct them through a single lens to capture them side by side. These are also available for digital SLR cameras. In 2009 digital Stereo cameras such as the Fuji W1 began appearing in the consumer market.10 11. HOW IT WORKS? WORKING11 12. STEREOSCOPIC VIEWERS There are two categories of stereoscopic viewer technology, 1.Active3.2. PassiveHead Mounted DisplayActive viewers have electronics which interact with a display.Passive viewers filter constant streams of binocular input to the,,,,appropriate eye.12 13. 3D VIEWERS ACTIVE VIEWERS Also known as Liquid crystal shutter glasses. Each eye's glass has the property of becomingdarkwhenvoltageisapplied, being otherwise transparent. The action is controlled by a timing signalthatallowstheglassestoalternately darken over one eye, and then the other, in synchronization with the refresh rate of the screen. 13 14. 3D VIEWERS PASSIVE VIEWERS 1. Colour Anaglyph Systems Anaglyph method is achieved by means of encoding each eye's image using filters of different colours, typically red and cyan. Red filter blocks only red colour while allowing all the colours and thecyan filter admits only red colour.14 15. 3D VIEWERS PASSIVE VIEWERS 1. Chroma depth Systems Based on the fact that with a prism, colours are separated by varying degrees. The Chroma Depth eyeglasses contain special view foils, which consist of microscopically small prisms. This causes the image to be translated a certain amount that depends on its colour.15 16. 3D VIEWERS HEAD MOUNTED DISPLAYS 1. Theusertypicallywearsahelmetorglasseswithtwosmall LCD or LED displays with magnifying lenses, one for each eye. 2. The technology can be used to show stereo films, images or games, but it can also be used to create a virtual display. 3. Specially used for gaming, where virtual opponents may peek from real windows as a player moves about. This type of system is expected to have wide application in the maintenance of complex systems,16 17. 3D VIEWERS View With & Without 3D Viewers17 18. STEREO CAMERAS 1. A stereo camera is a type of camera with two or more lenses with a separate image sensor or film frame for each lens. 2. Stereo cameras may be used for making stereo views and 3D pictures for movies, or for range imaging. 3. The distance between the lenses in a typical stereo camera (the intra-axial distance) is about the distance between one's eyes (known as the intra-ocular distance) and is about 6.35 cm. 4. Atwin-lensreflexcamerausesonelenstoimagetoafocusing/composition screen and the other to capture the image on film. 18 19. TYPES OF STEREO CAMERAS Types of Stereo Cameras: 1. Kodak Stereo Camera 2. Loreo 3. Nimslo 3D 4. Fujifilm FinePix Real 3D 5. Samsung NX-30019 20. APPLICATIONS It is extensively used for amusement which includes 3D films.Space Exploration - Various spaceships are equipped with unique cameras that allow researchers to view stereoscopic images of the surface of planets.Clinical Uses Stereoscopy is frequently used by vision therapists in the treatment of many binocular vision and disorders.In biology and chemistry, complex molecular structures are often viewed using stereopairs for better view and their study.This technique is also used in holography. 20 21. FUTURE ENHANCEMENT Future enhancement of stereoscopic imaging is Auto stereoscopy.Autostereoscopy is any method of displaying stereoscopic (3D) images without the use of special equipment or glasses.Because headgear is not required, it is also called "glasses-free 3D.Automultiscopic displays provide multiple views of the same scene, rather than just two.Each view is visible from a different range of positions in front of the display. This allows the viewer to move left-right in front of the displayand see the correct view from any position. 21 22. PROS & CONS OF STEREOSCOPIC IMAGING By producing a concise visual summary from cross-sectional exams, 3D imaging can, 1. Create studies that are faster and easier to read. 2. Facilitate diagnoses, treatment and surgical planning. 3. Increase clinical productivity. It gives a better view of any object so its study becomes easy and productive. Stereoscopic imaging technique requires very high cost. It is not available everywhere. This technique uses eye glasses which becomes uncomfortable for the persons wearing spectacles.22 23. CONCLUSION Topic Seminar provided me the knowledge about technology involved and functioning of the stereoscopicimaging. Given me an idea regarding how the theoretical things are put into application and the errors that are encountered during execution.23 24. REFERENCES 1) Flight Simulation, J. M. Rolfe and K. J. Staples, Cambridge University Press, 1986, page 134 2) Kaufmann, H.; Schmalstieg, D.; Wagner, M.: Construct3D: a Virtual Reality Application for Mathematics and Geometry Education. Education and Information Technologies, London, England, v. 5, n. 4,p. 263-276, 2000 3) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereoscopy24