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Raising the Social Capital for Recovery Process after Tsunami in Aceh:Lesson Learned from Impacted Area in Eastern & Western Coastal Rissalwan Habdy Lubis
Characteristic of Disaster Impact in Aceh
Earthquake & Tsunami
Mostly impacted in western areaMostly impacted in eastern area
In Eastern area, a resettlement program running by UN-Habitat at Geunteng Village at Batee Sub District, Pidie District
In Western area, a livelihood improvement program running by Action by Church Together (ACT) at Teunom Sub District, Aceh Jaya District.Focus of case studies
Map of Aceh
Located on eastern coastal of Aceh where moderately impacted by tsunami.Tsunami has made Geunteng totally isolated because of the only bridge had lost.Geunteng in local language mean almost separated, because the area looks like to be separated by two rivers in estuary.This area was also a place for Aceh paramilitary force in armed conflict era.
About Geunteng Village
Located on western coastal of Aceh where highly impacted by tsunami.Tsunami has made Teunom totally isolated because of most of road and bridges along western coastal way had broken or lost.Teunom in local language mean sink below water surface, because most of subdistrict area were swampAbout Sub District Teunom
Systemic eventsDramatic historical happenings that has been socially constructed in people mind since human ancestors cope and survive from the disaster for the first timeSocial catalystCollective reaction on disruption and harmful event for human life. This reaction emerge in acceleration of social dynamics, that can be strengthening orthe other waydestructing the social structure. Conceptual Framework of Disaster in Social Perspective(Kreps in Quarantelli, 1998)
Explicit debonding of social structure the lost of family members or relativesDebonding on hidden social structure/relation the lost of trust, the emerge of suspiciousness hidden plundering phenomenon in the name of solidarity to help.Impact of Disaster on Social Structure
Social Structure Social CapitalIdeally balancedNetworks
Rebonding of Social Structure after Disaster Impact
Lesson Learned from Livelihood Recovery Program in Teunom First Case Study
1. Providing direct services/materials related to improve livelihood activities for tsunami survivor in Teunom. 2. Building the capacity of community through training activities, civic education and community organization. Objectives of the Program
1.Providing financial support to certain economic activities, those are: farming, fishery, animal husbandry, home industry, small trader owned by women and coconut grater.
Small kiosk owned by women
2. Capacity building and encouraging gender mainstream through series of community forum / group discussion about topics on livelihood management.Activities (contd)
3. Training and civic education for community organizer and local leader.Activities (contd)
Lesson Learned from Settlement Recovery Program in GeuntengSecond Case Study
1. Providing direct services/materials related to rebuild houses for tsunami survivors in Geunteng. 2. Building the capacity of community through community organization within housing development group (consist of 10 household, who received housing grand) Objectives of the Program
Activities 1.Providing financial support to build new house, for survivor recommended by village leaders.
2. Series of community forum / group discussion about topics on financial constraint issuesActivities (contd)
3. Quality control on rebuild houses process that conducted by professional engineers. Activities (contd)
Cultural Capital as Foundation of Social Capital (Peuseujuk and Meuurup)
1. Local government and also BRR (rehabilitation and reconstruction body on Aceh and Nias) were to slow in response on people needs in Teunom and Geunteng to recover live of Acehnese survivors.2. There were so many NGOs competing to seek community to be assisted. Thats created confusing situation and suspiciousness among the community, whether someone get more helps while the others probably get nothing.
3. Cash for Work program that conduct by NGO were shapely change the cultural context in society. It has shifted local wisdom into pragmatism. 4. Late of local budgeting. This includes unclear allocation and distribution of budget that planned by local government and BRR.5. Lack of human resources and the problem of salary. On the field, its difficult to find someone with certain ability to match with the job that team try to provide/ implement for.
LESSON LEARNEDParticipatory community-approach in all sectors, not only in housing, but also in local economic recovery and development is clearly the only hope for a truly sustainable formation of social capital. Therefore, enforcement and improvement with a clearly formulated minimum standard of participatory community-based practices is a must.
Women participation in Aceh has increased within certain recovery program
Its really important to understand that disaster recovery effort is not just a type of charity activity. Cultural factor such as peuseujuk (local custom of giving a welcoming or farewell ceremony) and meuurup (the same customs in most of Asian culture in working together within solidarity spirit) needs to be maintained. Because those activities are quite important to keep the bonded network among the group member.