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Sponges and Cnidarians By Tim Allen, Tim Kang, Niko Escanilla, and Paul Woo

Phylum = Porifera › Scientific name = Calcareous sponge Common Name = Yellow Calcareous Sponge

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Text of Phylum = Porifera › Scientific name = Calcareous sponge Common Name = Yellow Calcareous Sponge

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  • Phylum = Porifera Scientific name = Calcareous sponge Common Name = Yellow Calcareous Sponge
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  • Phylum = Porifera Scientific name = Spongia officinalis Common Name = Bath Sponge
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  • Phylum = Cnidaria Scientific name = Physalia utriculus Common Name = Bluebottle
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  • Phylum = Cnidoria Scientific name = Octocorallia alcyonacea Common Names = Red Sea Soft Coral
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  • Sponges were one of the first animals living on Earth, dating back 730 million years ago. Most are marine (9,000+ species) They share some characteristics with living animals today. Sponges are multicellular but are thought to have evolved from unicellular protists. Multicellularity If they are put through a fine mesh, they separate and then come back together to form a new sponge. Various shapes, sizes, habitats, and colors Sponges date back to the Precambrian era
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  • One of the first animals fossils that were recognized were cnidarians The first cnidarians were composed of soft tissue The earliest Cnidarian fossil discovered is 580 million years of age
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  • Sponges Asymmetrical They lack symmetry Acoelomate Do NOT have a body cavity Can also have radial symmetry Pic from- http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=72139&rendTypeId=35
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  • Vocabulary Sessile Firmly attaching to surfaces and not moving Choanocytes Flagellated cells that are found on the interior of the sponge Ostia pores Osculum The opening at the top of a sponge http://www.marinefoundation.org/sponge2.gif
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  • Has radial symmetry A body plan that can be divided into similar halves by passing a plane at any along a central axis http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/labs/radial.jpg (this website is for the works cited for this radial symmetry pic) Cnidarians have two tissue layers Outer- epidermis Inner- gastrodermis In the center of the body is that gastrovascular cavity a hollow gut
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  • Vocabulary Medusa Bell-Shaped Specialized for swimming Polyp Vase-Shaped Specialized a sessile existence sessile existence Being able to attach firmly to a surface and not move
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  • Some sponges are supported by spongin Flexible protein fibers acting as a skeleton for support Other sponges are supported by spicules Small-needlelike made of silicate (silicon dioxide) or calcium carbonate
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  • The structural support in Cnidarians is Mesoglea Jelly like substance provides structural support in water
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  • Sessile, do not have the ability to pursue food Filter Feed Choanocytes beat flagellum, pumping water in through the ostia, pores Sponges filter the food out of the water Choanocytes trap the food in their small hair-like projections Water leaves through osculum or mouth Water/food IN through ostia Water- OUT through osculum
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  • Cnidocysts capture prey Tentacles are used to capture food Trigger triggers the nematocyst to be expelled The nematocysts sting the prey the spine and trap food with the fillaments Trap food with mucous found at mouth and tentacles
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  • Transportation: During the premature stage The larva moves by means of flagella until they find a place to attach to and thus begin their sessile stage Sessile During adulthood Circulation: A sponge has water flow in through its ostia and go out through its osculum
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  • Many adult cnidarians are free-floating In the larval stage, they are free swimmers Larval stage- part of the life cycle of a cnidarian http://universe-review.ca/I10-82-cnidaria.jpg
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  • No specialized systems found in cnidarians that aid in circulation Circulation mainly achieved through diffusion
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  • Does not have a respiratory system Takes in water (H2O) through its pores They have canals that move the water throughout the sponge
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  • Goes through diffusion There small body size allows oxygen to diffuse from water through their thick membrane No respiratory structures are needed Lungs, gills, etc.
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  • Sponges beat the flagella of certain cells to pump water in and out of its osculum Sponges have carbon dioxide and other wastes removed quite easily The water moves it in and out through the pores
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  • Maintain water balance by osmosis Diffuse water through their tissue
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  • Sponges reproduce both asexually and sexually Asexual reproduction- Budding internally and externally The new sponges are similar to their parents
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  • Reproduce both asexually and sexually Asexually- budding or binary fission Binary fission- splitting a parent cell into two equal parts Sexually- an asexual cnidarian reproduces Produces an organism that can reproduce sexually This leads to the variation in generations
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  • Sponges do not have a nervous system Lack sensory cells and nerve cells
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  • Contains a nerve net Has a network of nerve fibers Able to communicate when overlapped Not cephalized
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  • The largest sponge ever measured was a Monoraphus sponge It was ten feet wide!! In the Caribbean Sea, sponges can filter all of the water in one day!! Within a sponge, it is possible to find 16,000 other animals!
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  • Over 10,000 species 130 of those species recorded in Sydney Harbor Group name Cnidarian comes from the word nettle The body of the a Cnidarian is a sack with an opening, such as a medusa or a polyp
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  • "http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=72139&rendTypeId=35." Marriam-Webster. 2006. 7 Apr 2009 http://www.nps.gov/history/museum/exhibits/dino/geotime/ geo_time_graphic.gif." 7 Apr 2009 Bird, Jonathan. "http://www.marinefoundation.org/sponge2.gif." 7 Apr 2009 "http://universe-review.ca/I10-82-cnidaria.jpg." 7 Apr 2009 Postlethwait, John, and Janet Hopson. Modern Biology. Austin: A Harcourt Education Company, 2006. "iod.ucsd.edu/~amanda/Files/lab5InvertsI.ppt." 7 Apr 2009
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  • ERA PICK IS FROM http://www.nps.gov/history/museum/exh ibits/dino/geotime/geo_time_graphic.gif http://www.nps.gov/history/museum/exh ibits/dino/geotime/geo_time_graphic.gif