2011 03-30

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  • 1. 3/31/11 Integrate Urban Resource Management Water and Sanitation Towards sustainable urban water managementHousehold centered planning approach1 March 31, 2011 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Structure of the lecture The imperative of IURM The Global Situation Current Water and Sanitation Systems Sustainable Water & Sanitation2 March 31, 2011 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze1

2. 3/31/11The imperative for IURM Resources, Emissions and Biodiversity play acentral role in sustainable development(CIB: International Council for Research and Innovation in Building Construction, W82, Future Studies in Construction)3March 31, 2011Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze The imperative for IURM Contribution of the building sector [according to: UNEP Industry and Environment, Vol. 26 No. 2-3, 2006]4March 31, 2011Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze2 3. 3/31/11 The imperative for IURMEcological Footprint: Demands (for processes & production) are converted into a measure of land area used in global hectares (gha) per capita.[Best foot forward] Today the average is 2,3 gha (1.2 worlds) 4 planets! Average footprint gha per capita (2003) : USA: 9.5 gha Switzerland: 4 gha China: 1.5 gha, Shanghai: 7 gha UK: 5.6 gha, London: 6.63 ghaMining, processing, consumption, freshwater use, biodiversity services & loss of bio-capacity from therelease of wastes have been omitted = underestimation of footprint [Wackernagel et al. 2002]5 March 31, 2011 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze The imperative for IURM Non renewable resource and energy consumption Final energy demand to grow by 95% between 2005-2050 (reference scenario)[World Primary Energy Outlook, reference scenario, International Energy Agency 2006 & 2008]6 March 31, 2011 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze3 4. 3/31/11 The imperative for IURM Easy available oil production peaked already in 2006 As a result prices have to rise in long term Energy dependency: Korea 96%, Japan 90%, USA 60%, Europe 50%[The worldwide crude oil production,Energy Watch Group, 2007]7 March 31, 2011 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze The imperative for IURM The world is losing fertile top soil 10 to 20 times faster than it is replenishing it. Phosphorous production is expected to peak at 2040. Currently estimated minable Phosphorous reserves will be depleted in 70 100 years.Peak Phosphorous Curve [Cordell, 2009]8 March 31, 2011 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze4 5. 3/31/11 The imperative for IURM World energy consumption, world fossil resources andannual solar energy potential (Krauter 2006, p.2; adapted from Greenpeace) 9 March 31, 2011Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze The challenge of IURM Natural resources are the base for lifefor past, present and future generations10 March 31, 2011Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze5 6. 3/31/11 The challenge of IURMFrom linear to circularurban metabolism![Girardet & Mendonca 2009] 11March 31, 2011 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze The challenge of IURM Reduction of environmental impact by living better on less requires increase in efficiency and effectiveness, particularly of resource management systems.Ten principles for global sustainable living on the local level [One Planet Living in Girardet & Mendonca 2009] 12March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 6 7. 3/31/11 The challenge of IURMApply the Three Step Strategy for resource management (for instance for energy, water & sanitation and material & waste) 1. Reduce demand and quantity of consumed resourceswithout losses regarding social and economic aspects(demand management) 2. Use renewable resources as much as possible,including (solar, wind, water, geothermal, bio, ) 3. Use non renewable resources as efficient & effectiveas possible (optimization, innovation, reuse & recycling,)Use the local potential and apply this strategy alsoin the already built environment!13March 31, 2011 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten SchuetzeIntroduction - The Global SituationDr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze7 8. 3/31/11 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Climate Conditions and Water Availability Averaged monthly rainfall and precipitation in millimetres (1971 2000) over the period of one year in the Netherlands. The summer water deficit is in more than 50% of the years exceeding the average value of 122 mm. In 45% of the years it is up to approx. 280 mm, while in 5% of the years it is even exceeding this height.16March 31, 2011 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze8 9. 3/31/11 Climate Conditions and Water AvailabilityAveragePrecipitation andEvaporation perjanfebmar apr mayjun julaugsep oct nov dec yearPrecipitation 63.9 44.7 58.7 42.1 55.1 67.4 65.4 58.1 72.1 75.9 78.6 72 754Evapo-562.ration -8.3 -15.7 -32.9 -56.4 -85.1 -90.2 -95.1 -83.1 -50.3 -27.8 -11.5 -6.5 917 March 31, 2011 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Precipitation in the Netherlands extreme years 1998: 1240 mm 2003: 613 mm18 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 9 10. 3/31/11Fresh surface water 73% of the fresh surface water in the Netherlands originates from the Rhine (approx. 65%) and the Meuse (approx. 8%). The remaining 27% are originating from smaller rivers and from precipitation. The water use is water supply (for drinking water, agriculture, industry and cooling water) as well as for transport (shipping) and recreation.Middelkoop, 199919 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten SchuetzeWater Resources & Withdrawal Total renewable water resources: 89.7 cu km (2005)Total Freshwater withdrawal: 8.86 cu km/yr Domestic: 6% Industrial: 60% Agricultural: 34% per capita: 544 m3/yr (2001)Middelkoop, 199920 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze10 11. 3/31/11Water and Water Supply Policy The total drinking water produced in the Netherlands origins to approx. 60% from groundwater and 40% of surface water. High population densities and intensive farming practices cause a continuing increase of pollution and potentially hazardous substances in fresh water resources. 15 20% of the delivery costs for drinking water are often spent for the tracing and treatment of pesticides. Collected river water is purified by sedimentation, aeration and the adding of iron-sulphur (elimination of phosphate), before it is either infiltrated in dunes for artificial groundwater recharge or stored in lakes.21 March 31, 2011Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten SchuetzeDrinking Water from river water Nature-orientated purification by the river-dune or river- lake method (100 days holding time) Further treatment in form of: softening in a reactor, treatment with activated carbon (for the elimination of pesticides and a better taste) and finally sand filtration Duinwaterbedrijf Zuid Holland, 200822 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 11 12. 3/31/11Water Import Dependence The ratio between the water footprint of a countrys imports and its total water footprint yields. (Beef 1/13500, Soybean 1/2750, Rice 1/1400, Milk 1/790)Selected Countries, 1997-2001, Chapagain and Hoekstra,Water International, March 2008 / World Water Council23 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten SchuetzeClimate change low flows and drought The rising sea level and more frequent low river discharges during the summer will allow the salty sea water to flow further inland. The salination of the river water will cause problems for the freshwater supply for drinking and regional agriculture. Especially in case of salination of the Hollandsche IJssel, the Haringvliet and the Spui.Rijkswaterstaat, 200724 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze12 13. 3/31/11 Climate change water stress25March 31, 2011Dr.-Ing. Thorsten SchuetzeSustainable Water Management Sustainable urban water management is including thedifferent sections of the urban water cycle: water supply & distribution water use & saving Water reuse and recycling water storage and augmentationUNEP IETC DTIE & TU DELFT, (2008, in print) Every Drop Counts, Environmental Sound Technologies for water use efficiency in the urban and domestic environment.26March 31, 2011Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze13 14. 3/31/11 Sustainable Water Management Focus: Efficient use of ESTs Efficient is: optimizing thebalance between demand andsafe and sufficient supply Efficient and fit: selection andcombination technologies thatfit in with sustainableperspectives for the localsituation 27March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten SchuetzeEnvironmentally Sound Technologiesin the Urban Water CycleTechnological DescriptionConstruction, operation andmaintenanceRelative CostsWhen appropriate technologicalapproachAdvantages, disadvantages andconstrainsCultural acceptabilityExtent of useReferences, Links and Literature 28March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze14 15. 3/31/11Storage and Augmentation ESTs Ponds and Reservoirs Artificial recharge of Groundwater Water Tanks Rainwater runoff in surface water Rainwater runoff in groundwater Rainwater runoff in tanks Effluent in surface water Effluent in ground water29March 31, 2011Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Supply and distribution ESTs Surface water abstraction Groundwater abstraction Water supply reservoirs (tanks) Transfer of water Single pipeline systems (one quality) Dual pipeline systems (two qualities) Water containers (bottles, tanks) Centralised treatment systems Point of use treatment systems30March 31, 2011Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze15 16. 3/31/11Use and Saving ESTs Waterless toilets (compost- and dry-) Water saving toilets Water saving urinals Waterless urinals Water saving taps Water saving showerheads Pressure reducers Water saving household appliances Economised water use: personal hygiene Economised water use: cleaning & watering31March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Reuse, recycle & disposal ESTs quality and treatment issues Domestic rainwater use On-site treatment of grey water Constructed wetlands On-site and near-site treatment of black water and mixed