40 Thu Thuat Sang Tao

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40 TH THUT(NGUYN TC) SNG TO C BNNgun: GS-PTS Phan Dng - TRUNG TM SNG TO KHOA HC K THUT (TSK) thuc i Hc T nhin, 227 Nguyn Vn C, P4, Q5, TPHCM. Trc khi chng ta bn su v cc khi nim, cc l thuyt mang tnh hc thut, ti chn cch tip cn K NNG SNG TO qua khong 40 CC TH THUT(NGUYN TC) SNG TO C BN do gio s Alshuller - ngi Nga, k s, nh sng ch, nh vn vit truyn khoa hc vin tng..... Mi th thut s trnh by theo cc mc sau: Ni dung: vn bn pht biu th thut Gii thch: i vi cc th thut, cn lm r cc khi nim trong . Nhn xt: trong mc ny trnh by nhng nhn xt v th thut, mt s kh nng khi qut, tng t ho nhm gip ngi c m rng cch hiu v nm c tinh thn ca th thut. Cc v d: minh ho ni dung pht biu cc th thut ly t cc lnh vc khc nhau, nhng khng qu su v chuyn mn. Chuyn vui: minh ho th thut, gip bn nh v lin tng tt n th thut v lm cho topic th gin hn. Ngi ta tm c 40 th thut dng cho t duy sng to k thut. 40 TH THUT (NGUYN TC) SNG TO Nguyn tc phn nh Nguyn tc tch khi Nguyn tc phm cht cc b Nguyn tc phn i xng Nguyn tc kt hp Nguyn tc vn nng Nguyn tc cha trong Nguyn tc phn trng lng Nguyn tc gy ng sut s b Nguyn tc thc hin s b Nguyn tc d phng Nguyn tc ng th Nguyn tc o ngc Nguyn tc cu (trn) ha Nguyn tc linh ng Nguyn tc gii "thiu" hoc "tha" Nguyn tc chuyn sang chiu khc S dng cc dao ng c hc Nguyn tc tc ng theo chu k Nguyn tc lin tc tc ng c ch Nguyn tc "vt nhanh"

Nguyn tc bin hi thnh li Nguyn tc quan h phn hi Nguyn tc s dng trung gian Nguyn tc t phc v Nguyn tc sao chp (copy) Nguyn tc "r" thay cho "t" Nguyn tc thay th s c hc S dng cc kt cu kh v lng S dng v do v mng mng S dng vt liu nhiu l Nguyn tc thay i mu sc Nguyn tc ng nht Nguyn tc phn hy hoc ti sinh cc phn Thay i cc thng s ha l ca i tng S dng chuyn pha S dng s n nhit S dng cht oxy ha mnh Thay i tr S dng vt liu hp thnh composit

1. NGUYN TC PHN NHNi dung - Chia i tng thnh cc phn c lp. - Lm i tng tr nn tho lp c. - Tng mc phn nh ca i tng Nhn xt: 1- T "i tng" trong 40 nguyn tc, cn hiu theo nghi rng. c th bt k ci g c kh nng phn nh c, khng nht thit phi l i tng k thut. Tng t nh vy i vi cc th thut khc c t" i tng". 2- Th thut ny thng dng trong nhng trng hp kh lm "trn gi", "nguyn khi", "mt ln". Ni cch khc, phn nh ra cho va sc, cho d thc hin, cho ph hp vi nhng phng tin hin c.... 3- Phn nh c bit hay dng trong nhng trng hp cn c b mt tip xc ln nh trong cc phn ng ho hc, to s chy n, trao i nhit, trao i nhit 4- Tho lp lm cho i tng tr nn nh gn, thun tin cho vic chuyn ch, xp t v kh nng thay th tng b phn i tng, k c vic m rng chc nng ca tng b phn . 5- Cn tng tng: nh phn nh m i tng, ban u th rn, chuyn dn

sang do, lng kh, plasma....., ni chung, c th phn nh n vi m. 6- S thay i v lng dn n s thay i v cht, cho nn, phn nh c th lm i tu7ng c thm nhng tnh cht mi, thm tr, ngc vi tnh cht c. 7- Nguyn tc phn nh hay dng vi cc nguyn tc 2. Tch khi, 3. Phm cht cc b, 5. Kt hp, 6. Vn nng, 15 Linh ng... Cc v d: 1- Dy kim loi 1 si to, cng, kh cun trn... nu phn nh thnh dy kim loi nhiu si th khc phc c nhc im ca dy mt si to cng. 2- Thc mt phn nh thnh thc gp, phn nh na thnh thc dy mm, gn. 3- Bo kh rng in thnh nhng ct nh cho d c. 4- Ng cc nghin thnh bt, t lm bn, min, m, bnh cc loi... 5- Xe ch vt siu trng siu trng, thay v lm bnh xe t cho tht ln, ngi ta lm xe c rt nhiu dy bnh kch thc bnh thng. 6- Bng qung co ngoi tri mt mt c chia nh theo chiu dc (nh rm ca vn phng) qung co c nhiu thng tin hn. 7- Tu thu ln chia hm tu thnh cc ngn c lp, nu l b thng th d c lp ngn b thng, khng lm chm tu. .................................................. ... Minh ha vui: Du khch hi hng dn vin du lch: Nu ti lt h, ri gy chn, ng em ti ln c ch? Hng dn vin du lch: tt nhin ri. Ti tng vc mt con b b gy chn t h su ln mt cch d dng (ngp ngng) ch c iu ti phi x n ra lm t cho va mt ln mang.

2. Nguyn tc tch khi i tng

Ni dung: Tch phn gy "phin phc" (tnh cht "phin phc") hay ngc li, tch phn duy nht "cn thit" (tnh cht "cn thit") ra khi i tng. Nhn xt: 1 - i tng, thng thng, c nhiu thnh phn (tnh cht, kha cnh, chc nng), trong khi , ngi ta ch thc s cn 1 trong nhng s . Vy khng nn dng c i tng v s tn thm chi ph hoc vn chuyn khng thun tin. Phi ngh cch tch ci cn thit ra s dng ring. Tng t nh vy i vi phn gy phin phc, khc phc nhc im c trong i tng.

2 - Do tch khi i tng m phn tch ra (hoc phn gi li) c thm nhng tnh cht, nhng kh nng mi (nhiu khi, ngc vi ci c). Do , cn tn dng chng. Nhng tnh cht, nhng kh nng mi c th l gn hn, linh ng hn, d thay th, tng tnh iu khin 3 - Khi ni "tch khi" mi ch ra nh hng suy ngh, nh hng vic lm. tr li cu hi "Lm th no tch khi?" cn tham kho cch lm nhng lnh vc chuyn v cng vic nh luyn kim, lc, trch ly, chn ging, gii phu, tuyn la 4 - Nguyn tc tch khi hay dng vi cc nguyn tc: 1. Phn nh, 3. Phm cht cc b, 5. Kt hp, 6. Vn nng, 15. Linh ng Cc th d: 1. Trc y, ting ht l mt phn ca ca s. Mun nghe ht, ngi ta phi mi ca s n, trong ci thc s "cn thit" cho nhiu trng hp ch l ting ht. Sau ny, ting ht c tch ra thnh a ht, bng ghi m. 2. C ph ha tan, mm c, m n lin, hng ph, bt ngt, ng. 3. Trong cc b phn ca ci bn, mt bn ng vai tr quan trng. Do yu cu ca cng vic, i sng, cn c nhng mt bn khc nhau v trang tr. Khn tri bn, xt theo ngha ny, chnh l kt qu ca vic "tch khi". 4. o gi, v chn bngtch khi gi v chn, nn khi b bn khng cn thit phi git nguyn c chn hay gi. 5. Cc th vin ln c nhiu sch, vic tm sch trc tip gp nhiu kh khn. Ngi ta tch nhng thng tin chnh v quyn sch thnh th mc, thun tin cho bn c. 6. S lng cc bi bo khoa hc, k thut ngy cng nhiu, nhm gip cc nh chuyn mn theo di v quyt nh cc bi bo cn thit c. Ngi ta a ra cc loi tp ch, tm tt ni dung chnh cc bi bo. 7. Cc loi km khc nhau phn gng km v y mi l phn chc nng chnh ca km. Trn c s tch gng ra khi tay cm, ngi ta ch to ra loi km, ch trong 2 3 pht thay gng l c c chic km loi khc. Trc kia, ch cn phn lm vic ca gng km b mn qu hoc h, ngi ta phi b nguyn c ci km. Km loi mi bn hn m gi thnh khng cao, v vic tch khi m ra kh nng lm gng v tay cm t cc loi thp khc nhau: gng lm bng thp tt, cht lng cao, cn tay cm - gang cha cacbon, r tin. 8. Vin s qu c P.L. Kapitsa, ngi c gii Nobel v vt l, lc cn sng rt thch tng truyn nng lng i xa bng dng bc x in t tn s cao. Ngy nay,

tng c kh nng bin thnh hin thc. Hng "Lockheed Georgia" ang thc hin n do NASA t hng, nhm ch to loi my bay khng ngi li, c tip nng lng bng ngten t trn mt t. Theo tnh ton, my bay nh vy c th trn khng lin tc 2 - 3 thng do c "nui" bng chm tia cao tn 2MHz pht t ngten magnetron. Tn s ni trn c chn, khng lm ion ha khng kh v ln dng nng lng khong b phn tn, do vy, tit kim c nng lng truyn. ngten thu, t di cnh my bay, bin sng in t thnh dng in mt chiu, cng sut khong 30KW. ng c 25 - 40 m lc lm quay cnh qut v cung cp in cho cc my mc th nghim trn my bay. My bay khng ngi li loi ny s s dng theo di lin tc thnh phn ha hc ca kh quyn, c bit l nng CO2. My bay thc hin cc vng bay hnh s 8 xung quanh ngten cao 20km, cho php khng ch theo di thnh phn kh quyn m cn chp nhng bc nh c phn gii cao hn nhiu v tnh hnh nng nghip v giao thng vn ti. 9. Loi sn do cc nh ha hc t cng ty Nht Bn "Chugoku Marine Paints" ch to, bin cng vic sn trong nc tr nn d dng nh trong khng kh. Sn loi mi gm hai thnh phn, khi s dng trn ln li vi nhau. Thnh phn th nht l mt loi men mu trn c s nha epoxy, thnh phn th hai l cht lm do, phn ng c o khi gp nc. Hn hp c a n cc chi tit cn sn, cc phn t ca cht do y cc phn t nc ra khi b mt chi tit v chim ch ca chng: tng phn t nc dn dn b y khi lp sn cho n ht. Sn dnh tt vi nhiu loi vt liu, khng lm u c v nhim nc. Thi gian kh hon ton t 4 n 8 ting, ty theo nhit . Truyn vui: Sau khi ngi ta cng b pht minh ra tia Rnghen, mt ln nh bc hc Rnghen nhn c mt bc th k l. Ngi gi th yu cu gi cho anh ta vi tia Rnghen km theo bn hng dn s dng chng. Th ra, trong lng ngc trong lng ngc ca anh ta c mc mt vin n sng lc nhng anh ta "khng c thi gi" n ch Rnghen. Nh bc hc c tnh hi hc tr li nh sau: "Tic rng by gi ti khng c tia X. V li gi i cng phin toi lm. Ta lm th ny cho tin vy: Anh hy gi lng ngc n cho ti".

3. Nguyn tc phm cht cc bNi dung a) Chuyn i tng (hay mi trng bn ngoi, tc ng bn ngoi) c cu trc ng nht thnh khng ng nht. b) Cc phn khc nhau ca i tng phi c cc chc nng khc nhau c) Mi phn ca i tng phi trong nhng iu kin thch hp nht ca cng vic Nhn xt:

1- Cc i tng u tin thng c tnh ng nht cao v vt liu, cu hnh, chc nng, thi gian, khng gian i vi cc phn trong i tng. Khuynh hng pht trin tip theo l : cc phn c cc phm cht, chc nng ring ca mnh nhm phc v tt nht chc nng chnh hoc m rng chc nng chnh . 2- Cc i tng ng nht u tin cn pht trin theo khuynh hng chuyn dng ha, a dng ha so vi nhau, ph hp nht vi mi trng, iu kin lm vic, s thun tin i vi ngi s dng, th hiu ca ngi tiu dng c th 3- Vi thi gian, mi trng, tc ng bn ngai cng b bin i theo khuynh hng thch hp vi nhng iu kin, hon cnh c th ca i tng v ca con ngi s dng i tng . Xut hin cc loi vi mi trng, vi kh hu, vi tc ng 4- Ni chung, nguyn tc phm cht cc b phn nh khuynh hng pht trin: t n gin sang phc tp, t n iu sang a dng. 5- Tinh thn phm cht cc b c ngha ln i vi vic nhn thc v x l thng tin: khng phi tin tc no cng c gi tr nh tin tc no. Khng th c mt cch tip cn, dng chung cho mi loi i tng chn l l c th. Cc th d: 1- Cc t lch dng ch ngy, th trong tun, nhng cc ngy khng ging nhau: c ngy lm vic, ch nht v ngy l ngh. phn bit iu y , cc ngy ngh c in mc . 2- 37oC l thn nhit ca ngi khe mnh. Thn nhit thp hoc cao hn nhit ny l c vn . nhn mnh iu ny, trn cc cp nhit , 37oC c ghi bng mu . 3- bo v sch tt, ba thng c lm dy hn nhiu so vi trang sch. Cn thn hn na, b mt ca ba cn c ph mt lp nha trong sut bo v. 4- Qun o mc thng rch trc ti nhng ch nh u gi, khuu tay, vai, nch, cc ng ch may. Do vy, c bit vi qun o bo h lao ng nhng ch ni trn thng c lm dy hn v may thnh gn nhng ch ghp cc mnh vi. 5- Mi nh thng lp bng tn trng km nhng ti nhng ch cn ly nh sng, ngi ta dng tn nha trong sut. 6- Cc vt a dng ha nh bt c nhiu loi bt, bn c nhiu loi bn, xe c nhiu loi xe 7- Cch sp xp cc phm ch ci trn bn my ch qu quen thuc vi mi ngi. iu ny d hiu v n c tui th mt trm nm. Trong khi cc nh to mu, xut pht t cc qui lut t chc lao ng vn phng v cc thnh tu hin i

ca k thut, t lu ngh cch sp xp khc, thun li cho tay tri v tay phi hn.