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    2nd Assignment Observation experimentation and simulation for research in business

    ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY

    (Department of Business Administration)

    Assignment # 2

    BUSINESS RESEARCH METHOD (5529)

    Topic: OBSERVATION, EXPERIMETATION ANDSIMULATION RESEARCH IN BUSSINESS.

    Submitted to : Sir, Muhammad Younus MazariSubmitted by: Faizullah khanRoll # AH-52299

    Cell no 03469175441

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

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    2nd Assignment Observation experimentation and simulation for research in business

    All praises to Almighty Allah, the most Gracious, the most

    Beneficent and the most Merciful, who enabled me to complete this

    assignment.

    I feel great pleasure in expressing my since gratitude to my teacher,

    for his guidance and support for providing me an opportunity to

    complete a productive research study of my topic

    THE observation, experimentation and simulation FOR RESEARCHIN BUSSINESS.

    My special thanks and acknowledgments to Mr. Muhammad Suhail

    for providing me all relative information, guidance and support to

    compile the practical study at Procter and Gamble Pakistan.

    I will keep my hopes alive for the success of given task to submitthis report to my honorable teacher Mr.Muhammad Younus

    mazari , whose guidance; support and encouragement enable me

    to complete this assignment.

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    2nd Assignment Observation experimentation and simulation for research in business

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    This assignment is a research-oriented activity, which represents

    both the theoretical and practical implication of the topic. In the first

    section of this assignment, I explain the theoretical aspect of thetopic and all major parts has been explained which are involved in

    the method of observation, experimentation and simulation for

    research in business in business research. For empirical study, I

    select Procter and Gamble Pakistan. and compare their ways of the

    method of observation, experimentation and simulation for research

    in business instruments.

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    2nd Assignment Observation experimentation and simulation for research in business

    Introduction to Topic:

    Observation, experimentation and simulation

    Business research is a systematic inquiry that provides informationto build business decisions. Before starting any sort of business,the businessman needs certain information about the product,people and market. The purpose of research is to collectobservation, experimentation and simulation required for makingcertain decision and analysis.In this context we will emphasize on observation, experimentationand simulation Methods.

    Observation :

    Observation is found in almost all research studies, at least at theexploratory stage. Such as data collection is known as simple

    observation. Its practice is not standardized, as one expect,because of the discovery nature of exploratory research. Thedecision to use observation as the major data collection methodmay be made as early as the moment the researcher moves fromresearch questions to investigative questions. The latter specifythe outcomes of the study. If the study is to be something otherthan exploratory, steamily observation employs standardizedprocedures, trained observers, schedules for recording, and otherdevices for the observer that mirror the scientific procedures of

    other primary data methods.

    What is observation?The definition given by Donald R. Cooper & PamelaS. Schindler1998

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    2nd Assignment Observation experimentation and simulation for research in businessObservation is one of the few options available forstudying records, mechanical processes, loweranimals, small children, and complex interactive

    processes

    The act or the faculty ofobserving or takingnotice; the act of seeing, or of fixing the mind upon,anything.

    The result of an act, or of acts, of observing;

    view; reflection; conclusion; judgment.

    Hence: An expression of an opinion orjudgment upon what one has observed; a remark.

    Performance of what is prescribed; adherencein practice; observance.

    The act of recognizing and noting some fact oroccurrence in nature, as an aurora, a corona, or thestructure of an animal.

    Specifically, the act of measuring, with suitableinstruments, some magnitude, as the time of anoccultation, with a clock; the right ascension of a star, witha transit instrument and clock; the sun's altitude, or the

    distance of the moon from a star, with a sextant; thetemperature, with a thermometer, etc.

    Their two type of observation.

    Non behavioral observation.

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    2nd Assignment Observation experimentation and simulation for research in business Behavioral observation.

    Non-behavioral observation:If people choose the no behavioral observation,they need to collect the useful information from thesecondary data sources, such as books in library,hot news online, national documents. Maybe theseresources are obtained easily and inexpensive, andmaybe not. People use the historical information to

    support their research.Three types of non-behavioral observation.1. Record analysis.2. Physical condition analysis.3. Physical process analysis.4. Record analysis.

    Record previous knowledge about the subject

    previously done word like literature review

    Physical condition analysis.Observation condition like physical condition.

    Physical process analysis.What type of process physically deputed forobservation. Physical condition of a previous alsoso important

    Behavioral observation:If people choose the behavioral observation, theyneed some employees to enjoy in the research tomonitor the movements by the research targets or

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    2nd Assignment Observation experimentation and simulation for research in businessthey need to use the machines to record thechanges.

    There are four type of behavioral observation.

    1. Non verbal analysis.2. Linguistic analysis.3. Extralinguistic analysis.4. Spatial analysis.

    Non verbal analysis.During the observation what was the bodylanguage or movement of a individual.

    Linguistic analysis.What was the pitch of the individual during theobservation?Extralinguistic analysis.Rat of specifying in observation are the rat ofspecifying hand or not.

    Spatial analysis.Special analysis included vocabulary of utilization ofvocabulare.

    Experimentation:Definition:Research method for testing different assumptions(hypotheses) by trial and error under conditionsconstructed and controlled by the researcher. During theexperiment, one or more conditions (called independentvariables) are allowed to change in an organized mannerand the effects of these changesonassociated conditions(called dependent variables) is measured, recorded,validated, and analyzed for arriving at a conclusion.

    http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/research.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/method.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/testing.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/assumptions.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/trial.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/error.htmlhttp://www.investorwords.com/11391/under.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/condition.htmlhttp://www.investorwords.com/10902/researcher.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/independent-variable.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/independent-variable.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/change.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/organized.htmlhttp://www.investorwords.com/9552/effect.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/changes.htmlhttp://www.investorwords.com/9376/cut_down_on.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/associated.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/dependent-variable.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/method.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/testing.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/assumptions.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/trial.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/error.htmlhttp://www.investorwords.com/11391/under.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/condition.htmlhttp://www.investorwords.com/10902/researcher.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/independent-variable.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/independent-variable.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/change.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/organized.htmlhttp://www.investorwords.com/9552/effect.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/changes.htmlhttp://www.investorwords.com/9376/cut_down_on.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/associated.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/dependent-variable.htmlhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/research.html
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    2nd Assignment Observation experimentation and simulation for research in business

    Advantage and disadvantage ofexperimentation.

    Advantage. The experiment comes closer than any primary datacollection method to accomplishing this goal. the foremostadvantage is the researchs ability to manipulate theindependent variable .consequently the probability thatchange in the depended variable are a function of thatmanipula