Ancient Greece from the Minoans to the Macedonians

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  • Ancient Greece from the Minoans to the Macedonians
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  • Impact of Geography on Ancient Greece Table of Contents Big Question How did the geography of Greece shape economic, social, and political development and patterns of trade and colonization? Mountains covered 75 % of terrain, separating Greece into small isolated regions. City-states develop. No central government! Scarcity of level land for farming grains caused rivalries between city-states. Rugged, hilly terrain was ideal for growing crops such as grapes and olives. Many deep harbors and calm waters invited sea trade. Overseas trade and travel made easy by many seas, islands, and coastal settlements. Lack of resources and farmland + overpopulation forced Greeks to establish colonies.
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  • Impact of Geography on Ancient Greece Big Question How did the geography of Greece shape economic, social, and political development and patterns of trade and colonization?
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  • Evolution of Greek Governments Table of Contents Monarchy Aristocracy - Democracy Tyranny Oligarchy *Citizenship in the Greek Polis Who were Citizens in Greece? Women, foreigners and slaves have no political rights Where did the right to rule usually come from in a monarchy? What would be a drawback to an aristocracy? Why do you think oligarchies eventually lost power? How and why did early tyrants often come to power? How did Athens democracy differ from ours today? Free adult males Only ones with political rights and participation in government. Who were not Citizens in Greece? earliest form of government in Greece; rule by a king rule by small group of noble, land-owning families rule by a few powerful people rule by one who took over by force/through revolt rule by the people Hereditary rule and often claiming divine right Did not represent the masses. Very few had right to participate in government. Rulers did not look out for good of the people. Became self-serving; and people revolted. Tyrants appealed to the poor & discontented promising changes and reform. Athens had narrow definition of citizenship. However, Athenian govt expected participation.
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  • Evolution of Greek Governments Table of Contents Monarchy Aristocracy - Democracy Tyranny Oligarchy *Citizenship in the Greek Polis Who were Citizens in Greece? Where did the right to rule usually come from in a monarchy? What would be a drawback to an aristocracy? Why do you think oligarchies eventually lost power? How and why did early tyrants often come to power? How did Athens democracy differ from ours today? Who were not Citizens in Greece? Directions : Use pgs. 115-117 to define each type of government and answer the questions.
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  • Introduction to Greek Life Things to Know Table of Contents Ancient Greece Hellenic culture Greeks refer to themselves as Hellenes; Greek culture = Hellenic culture Greek Polis = City-state - an urban center and the countryside surrounding it. Ancient Greece consisted of hundreds of independently- governed city-states Greeks considered themselves members of their polis, not of a country. The Agora open area gathering place in the center of the polis; center of social, economic and political life. The Acropolis a fortified hilltop in the center of many city-states. The most famous is the Acropolis in Athens. The most famous building on the Acropolis is the Parthenon. An outdoor lifestyle the mild Mediterranean climate promoted an outdoor civic & cultural life. Four Bonds that United All Greeks Common language & literature Homeric epic & others Religion Greek mythology connected to all Greeks Olympic Games united city-states in competition; 1 st held in 476 B.C. Olympic Games united city-states in competition; 1 st held in 476 B.C. Fear of the Persians Defense of homeland unites Greeks Fear of the Persians Defense of homeland unites Greeks
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  • Introduction to Greek Life Things to Know Ancient Greece Hellenic culture Greeks refer to themselves as _________________; Greek culture = __________ culture Greek Polis = ________________ - an urban center (city) and the land surrounding it. Ancient Greece consisted of hundreds of ___________________ __________________________ ___ Greeks considered themselves ____________________________ ________________________________________________________ The Agora open area gathering place in the center of the polis; ______________________________ The _____________________ a ____________________________in the center of many city-states. The most famous is the Acropolis in Athens. The most famous building on the Acropolis is the ___________________________ An outdoor lifestyle the mild Mediterranean climate promoted an _____________________________ ___________________________________ _________________________________ Homeric epic & others ______________________ Greek mythology connected to all Greeks __________________________________ united city- states in competition; 1 st held in 476 B.C. __________________________________ united city- states in competition; 1 st held in 476 B.C. __________________________ Defense of homeland unites Greeks __________________________ Defense of homeland unites Greeks
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  • Persian Empire under Darius Back to Greece
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  • Athens vs. Sparta Two city-states with very different views Table of Contents AthensSparta Type of Government Government participation Education and military duty Position of women 5.2 Wkbk DemocracyOligarchy Assembly = All citizens; Assembly passed laws + served as supreme court Council of 500 randomly chosen - proposed laws Boys school from age 7-18 Studied literature, math, drawing, music, & rhetoric At 18 served 2 years in military Strongest Greek navy Girls no formal ed. Learned household duties: weaving, baking, child care No govt participation! Council of Elders proposed laws Assembly elected officials, voted on issues Ephors carried out laws; courts 2 kings commanded military Life revolved around military ! Boys Age 7, went to military barracks; learned to read, write & use weapons. Soldiers from 20-60 Strongest Greek army Expected to be healthy & strong = healthy babies Gymnastics, boxing, wrestling More personal rights than other women Still, no govt participation
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  • Athens vs. Sparta Two city-states with very different views AthensSparta Type of Government Government participation Education and military duty Position of women Boys school from age 7-18 Studied literature, math, drawing, music, & rhetoric At 18 served 2 years in military Strongest Greek navy Council of Elders proposed laws Assembly elected officials, voted on issues Ephors carried out laws; courts 2 kings commanded military Expected to be healthy & strong = healthy babies Gymnastics, boxing, wrestling More personal rights than other women Still, no govt participation
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  • Warring City-States - 5.2 1. How did Sparta treat the Messenians? 2. What was the primary cause of conflict between rich and poor in Athens? 3. What type of society did Sparta create in response to the revolt? 4. What economic and political reforms did Solon initiate? 5.How did Pisistratus gain the support of the poor? 6.What steps did Cleisthenes take to create a limited democracy in Athens? 7.What advantages did the Greek soldiers have over the Persians? 8.What were the consequences of the Persian Wars? Made them Helots, peasants forced to stay on the land they worked and turn over half their crop Struggle over political power Strong, highly disciplined military state Outlawed debt slavery, gave more power to the Assembly, allowed all citizens to bring legal suits, encouraged overseas trade. Gave funds to peasants to buy farm equipment; created jobs by launching building programs Reorganized law-making assembly, allowed all citizens to introduce laws, created Council of Five Hundred chosen by lot to counsel assembly. Discipline, training, heavy armor, and the phalanx formation End of Persian threat and emergence of Golden Age of Athens Back to Athens vs. Sparta
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  • The Persian Wars Greek city-states vs. Persian Empire 490 479 B.C. Table of Contents Persian War organizer 1 st Persian War Begins with Ionian Revolt 2nd Persian War Battle of Thermopylae Battle of Marathon Battle of Salamis Battle of Plataea
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  • Major Events of the Persian Wars Back to Persian Wars
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  • 546 B.C. ______________ conquers Greek settlements of _____________. 499 B.C. _________________________ against Persian rule. _____________ sends troops to help Ionians fight Persians. Athenians destroy Persian town. Persias _______________________________ sends troops to put down the revolt. After 5 years, Persia suppresses the revolt. Persia back in control. Darius decides to _____________________________________________ to punish Athens. Ionian Revolt Persia Athens King Darius attack mainland Greece Ionia Ionians revolt Ionia Back to Persian Wars
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  • 490 B.C. Darius sent his fleet across ______________________________ to attack Athens. Persian landed on the beaches of ________________________; Athenians attacked them there. ________________________ attacked while the Persians were preparing to board their ships. ____________________ were defeated and sailed home rather than attack Athens directly. Battle of Marathon 1 st Persian War Aegean Sea Marathon Greeks Persians Back to Persian Wars
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  • 2 nd Persian War Battle