AP Biology Ch. 9 – Cellular Respiration. Catabolic pathway Fermentation Aerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration Cellular respiration Redox reaction.

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Catabolic PathwayA metabolic pathway that releases stored energy by breaking down complex molecules

Back to contentsFermentationCatabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid

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Aerobic RespirationCatabolic pathway that consumes oxygen and organic molecules, producing ATP. This is the most efficient catabolic pathway and is carried out in most eukaryotic cells and many prokaryotic organisms

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Anaerobic RespirationThe use of molecules other than oxygen to accept electrons at the end of the electron transport chain

Back to contentsCellular RespirationThe catabolic pathways of aerobic and anaerobic respiration which break down organic molecules for the production of ATP

Back to contentsRedox ReactionOxidation-Reduction ReactionA chemical reaction involving the complete or partial transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another

Back to contentsReducing Agent/Oxidizing AgentThe electron donor in a Redox Reaction is the reducing agentThe electron acceptor in a Redox Reaction is the oxidizing agent

Back to contentsNAD+A coenzyme that is the electron carrier that receives the hydrogen atom (1 proton and 1 electron) before it continues on to oxygen in energy releasing steps

Back to contentsElectron Transport ChainA sequence of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP

Back to contentsGlycolysisThe splitting of glucose into pyruvate. Occurs in almost all living cellsServes as the starting point for fermentation and cellular respiration

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(back to lactic /alcohol fermentation)The Citric Acid CycleAlso called the Krebs CycleTakes place within the mitochondrial matrix of eukaryotic cells or the cytosol of prokaryotesSecond major phase of cellular respirationBack to contentsOxidative PhosphorylationThe production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chainThe third major stage of cellular respiration

Back to contentsSubstrate-level PhosphorylationThe formation of ATP by an enzyme directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism

Back to contentsPyruvateIonized form of pyruvic acidDuring glycolysis glucose is split into two three-carbon sugars and these smaller sugars are then oxidized and rearranged to form two molecules of pyruvate

Back to contentsAcetyl CoAAcetyl coenzyme APyruvate is transformed to Acetyl CoA in the citric acid cycle

Back to contentsCytochromesIron-containing protein that is a component of electron transport chains in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells as well as the plasma membrane of prokaryotic cells

Back to contentsATP SynthaseA complex of several membrane proteins that provide a port though which proteins diffuse. This complex functions in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chains, using energy of a hydrogen ion (proton) concentration gradient to make ATP. Found in mitochondrial membrane in eukaryotic cells and the plasma membrane of prokaryotes Back to contentsChemiosmosisMechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work such as the synthesis of ATP. Most ATP synthesis in cells occurs by chemiosmosis

Back to contentsObligate AnaerobesAn organism that only carries out fermentation or anaerobic respiration. Such organisms cannot use oxygen and in fact may be poisoned by it

Back to contentsFacultative AnaerobesAn organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to anaerobic respiration or fermentation if oxygen is not present

Back to contentsBeta OxidationA metabolic sequence that breaks fatty acids down to two-carbon fragments that enter the citric acid cycle as acetyl CoA

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