Battery Reference Book

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Text of Battery Reference Book

T. R. Crom

Re Boo1m

Thirc

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Battery Reference Book

Battery Reference BookThird Edition

T R CromptonMSC, BSic

NewnesOXFORD AlJCKLAND BOSTON JOHANNESBURG MELBOURNE NEW DELHI

Newnes An imprint of Butterworth-Heinemann Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 225 Wildwood Avenue, Woburn, MA 01801-2041 A division of Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd

-&A

member of the Reed Elsevier plc group

First published 1990 Second edition 1995 Thrd edition 2000

0 Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd 1990, 1995, 2000All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without the written permission of the copyright holder except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London, England W1P 9HE. Applications for the copyright holder's written permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed to the publishers

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British LibraryISBN 07506 4625 X

Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress

Typeset by Laser Words, Madras, India Printed in Great Britain

Contents

Preface Acknowledgements 1 1ntroduc:tionto battery technologyElectromotive force . Reversible cells . Reversible electrodes . Relationship between electrical energy and energy content of a cell . Free energy changes and electromotive forces in cells . Relationship between the energy changes accompanying a cell reaction and concentration of the reactants . Single electrode potentials . Activities of electrolyte solutions . Influence of ionic concentration1 in the electrolyte on electrode potential . Effect of sulphuric acid concentration on e.m.f. in the lead-acid battery . End-of-charge and end-ofdischarge e.m.f. values . Effect of cell temperature on e.m.f. in the lead-acid battery . Effect of temperature and temperature coefficient of voltage dEldT on heat content change of cell reaction . Derivation of the number of electrons involved in a cell reaction . Thermodynamic calculation of the capacity of a battery . Calculation of initial volume of sulphuric acid . Calculation of operating parameters for a lead-acid battery from calorimetric measurements . Calculation of optimum acid volume for a cell Effect of cell layout in batteries on battery characteristics . Calculation of energy density of cells . Effect of discharge rate on performance characteristics . Heating effects in batteries . Spontaneous reaction in electrochemical cells . Pressure development in sealed batteries

4 Nickel batteriesNickel-cadmium secondary batteries . Nickel-iron secondary batteries . Nickel-zinc secondary batteries . Nickel-hydrogen secondary batteries . Nickel-metal hydride secondary batteries . Sodium-nickel chloride secondary batteries

5 Silver batteriesSilver oxide-zinc primary batteries . Silver-zinc secondary batteries . Silver-cadmium secondary batteries . Silver-hydrogen secondary batteries

6 Alkaline manganese batteriesAlkaline manganese primary batteries . Alkaline manganese secondary batteries

7 Carbon-zinc and carbon-zinc chloride primary batteriesCarbon-zinc batteries . Carbon-zinc chloride batteries

8 Mercury batteriesMercury-zinc primary batteries . Mercury-indiumbismuth and mercury -cadmium primary batteries

9 Lithium batteriesIntroduction . Lithium- sulphur dioxide primary batteries . Lithium-thionyl chloride primary batteries . Lithium-vanadium pentoxide primary batteries . Lithium-manganese dioxide primary batteries . Lithium-copper oxide primary batteries . Lithiumsilver chromate primary batteries . Lithium-lead bismuthate primary cells . Lithium-polycarbon monofluoride primary batteries . Lithium solid electrolyte primary batteries . Lithium-iodine primary batteries . Lithium-molybdenum disulphide secondary batteries . Lithium (aluminium) iron monosulphidev

2 Guidelines to battery selectionPrimary batteries . Secondary batteries . Conclusion

Pat3 1 Battery Characteristics3 Lead-acid secondary batteriesOpen-type lead-acid batteries . Non-spill lead-acid batteries . Recombining sealed lead-acid batteries

vi Contents

secondary batteries . Lithium-iron disulphide primary cells . Lithium- silver-vanadium pentoxide batteries

20 Silver batteriesSilver oxide-zinc primary batteries . Silver-zinc secondary batteries . Silver-cadmium secondary batteries

10 Manganese dioxide-magnesium perchlorate primary batteriesReserve type

21 Alkaline manganese batteriesAlkaline manganese primary batteries . Alkaline manganese secondary batteries

11 Magnesium-organic electrolyte primary batteries 12 Metal-air cellsZinc-air primary batteries . Zinc-air secondary batteries . Cadmium-air secondary batteries . Aluminium-air secondary batteries . Iron-air secondary batteries

22 Carbon-zinc and carbon-zinc chloride batteriesCarbon-zinc primary batteries . Carbon-zinc chloride primary batteries

13 High-temperature thermally activated primary reserve batteriesPerformance characteristics of calcium anode thermal batteries . Performance characteristics of lithium anode thermal batteries

23 Mercury-zinc batteriesMercury-zinc primary batteries . Mercury-zinc cardiac pacemaker batteries

24 Lithium batteriesLithium-sulphur dioxide primary batteries . Lithiumthionyl chloride primary batteries . Lithium-vanadium pentoxide primary batteries . Lithium solid electrolyte primary batteries . Lithium-iodine primary batteries . Lithium-manganese dioxide primary batteries . Lithium-copper oxide primary batteries . Lithium-carbon monofluoride primary batteries . Lithium-molybdenum disulphide secondary batteries . Lithium (aluminium) iron sulphide secondary cells . Lithium-iron disulphide primary batteries

14 Zinc-halogen secondary batteriesZinc-chlorine secondary batteries secondary batteries

.

Zinc-bromine

15 Sodium-sulphur secondary batteries 16 Other fast-ion conducting solid systems 17 Water-activated primary batteriesMagnesium-silver chloride batteries . Zinc- silver chloride batteries . Magnesium-cuprous chloride batteries

25 Manganese dioxide-magnesium perchlorate primary batteries 26 Metal-air batteriesZinc-air primary batteries . Metal-air secondary batteries . Aluminium-air secondary reserve batteries

Part 2 Battery theory and design18 Lead-acid secondary batteriesChemical reactions during battery cycling . Maintenance-free lead-acid batteries . Important physical characteristics of antimonial lead battery grid alloys . Lead alloy development in standby (stationary) batteries . Separators for lead-acid automotive batteries Further reading

27 High-temperature thermally activated primary batteriesCalcium anode-based thermal batteries . Lithium anode thermal batteries . Lithium alloy thermal batteries

19 Nickel batteriesNickel-cadmium secondary batteries . Nickel-hydrogen and silver-hydrogen secondary batteries . Nickel-zinc secondary batteries . Nickel-metal hydride secondary batteries . Nickel-iron secondary batteries . Sodium-nickel chloride secondary batteries

28 Zinc- halogen secondary batteriesZinc-chlorine batteries . Zinc-bromine batteries

29 Sodium-sulphur secondary batteriesReferences on sodium-sulphur batteries

Contents

vii

Pard:3 Battery performance evaluation 30 Primary batteriesService time--voltage data . Service life-ohmic load curves . Effect of operating temperature on service life Voltage-capacity curves . Shelf life-percentage capacity retained . Other characteristic curves

37 Mercury batteriesMercury -zinc primary batteries . Mercury-cadmium primary batteries . Mercury-indium-bismuth primary batteries

38 Lithium primary batteriesLithium- sulphur dioxide . Lithium-vanadium pentoxide . Lithium-thionyl chloride . Lithium-manganese dioxide . Lithium-copper oxide Lithium- silver chromate . Lithium-lead bismuthate . Lithium-polycarbon monofluoride . Lithium solid electrolyte . Lithiumiodine . Comparison of lithium-iodine and nickelcadmium cells in CMOS-RAM applications . Lithium-iron disulphide primary cells . Lithiummolybdenum disulphide secondary cells . Lithium (aluminium) iron sulphide secondary cells

31 Secondary batteriesDischarge curves . Terminal voltage-discharge time curves . Plateau voltage-battery temperature curves Capacity returned (discharged capacity)-discharge rate curves . Capacity returned (discharged capacity)-discharge temperature curves and percentage withdrawable capacity returned-temperature curves . Capacity returned (discharged capacity)-terminal voltage curves . Withdrawable capacity-terminal voltage cunies . Capacity returned (discharged capacity) -discharge current curves . Discharge rate-capacity returned (discharged capacity) curves . Discharge rate-terminal voltage curves . Discharge rate-mid-point voltage curves . Discharge rate-energy density curves . Self-discharge characteristics and shelf life . Float life characteristicsI

39 Manganese dioxide-magnesium perchlorate primary batteriesReserve batteries . Non-reserve batteries

40 Metal-air batteriesZinc-air Primary batteries . Zinc-air secondary batteries . Aluminium-air secondary batteries

Part 4 Battery Applications

32 Lead-acid secondary batteriesStationary type or standby power batteries . Traction or motive power type .