Buddhist Terms

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Lexicon of Buddhist terms


<p>Glossary of Buddhist Terms </p> <p>Glossary of Buddhist Terms A</p> <p>AbhidharmaThe section of Buddhist scriptures concerned with philosophical, cosmological and psychological analysis. Abhisheka_ Empowerment Almighty Ocean[Tib. Gyalwa Gyamtso, Skt. Jinasagara] Red, sitting four-armed form of Loving Eyes in Union. AltarThe Altar can consist of several groups of objects. Most important are the three objects representing _ Buddhas body, speech and mind. They constitute a basic altar. The first of this objects is a statue of Buddha or of a _ Bodhisattva. It is placed in the center. Second object is a sacred text. It represents Buddhas speech, is wrapped in maroon or yellow cloth and is placed on the left side. On the right side of the altar a _ Stupa as a symbol of Buddhas mind is located. For all of these objects pictures may be used as substitutes. In addition pictures of Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, _ Lamas and _ Protectors can be arranged around these three objects. The second group concerns offerings. In most cases seven bowls are used. They contain offerings made to the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. The bowls are arranged in a straight line and contain (from the left to the right as one faces the altar): Bowl with water to drink (represents the purity of mind) Bowl with water for washing (represents the purity of the body) Rice and flowers (represents the beauty of sight) Rice and incense (represents the pervasiveness of the _ Dharma) Candle (represents illumination: darkness is ignorance, brightness is wisdom) Fragrant water (represents devotion) Rice and food (fruits or sweets) (offered as a gesture of gratitude) Sometimes a conch shell or a Ting-shag is offered (represents the awakening of beings hearing the Dharma)</p> <p>As a third group _ Tormas, _ Dorje, _ Bell, a crystal ball and other objects can be used. Either permanently ore only during special rituals. The altar should be on a higher place. AmithabaThe Buddha of Limitless Light. AnuttarayogatantraThe highest of the four levels of _ Diamond Way teachings. ArhatOne who has "conquered the enemy", that is, "the emotions and ignorance that keep one locked in Samsara". The Arhat represents the _ Small Way ideal, one who has experienced the cessation of suffering. AsuraDemi-Gods of the desire-realm are called Asuras. Avalokiteshvara_ Loving Eyes B</p> <p>BardoLiterally, "between two". In general, any interval, "a between". Six bardos are usually spoken of in the _ Diamond Way teachings: The Death Process. The interval from the moment when the individual begins to die until the moment when the separation of the mind and body takes place. The Cho Nyi Bardo. The interval of the ultimate nature of phenomena (the Dharmadata), when the mind is plunged into its own nature. The first phase of the after-death experience. The Bardo of Becoming. The interval in which the mind moves towards rebirth. The Bardo between Birth and Death. Ordinary waking consciousness during the present lifetime. Dream. The dream state we experience in sleep. Meditative Concentration. The state of meditative stability.</p> <p>In the west "bardo" is usually referred to only the first three of these, that is, the states between death and rebirth. These states are no more and no less illusory than dreams and ordinary waking consciousness. Bardo Meditation_ Intermediate State MeditationBearer of Black Coat [Tib. Bernagchen] Main protector of the Karma Kagyu lineage. BeadsBeads are used to count _ Mantras. A _ Mala consist of 108 Beads. BellPaired with the vajra the bell represents wisdom, and as wisdom and method are an undivided unity so the _ Dorje and bell are never parted or employed separately. Its base must be round, above which is a vase surmounted by the face of Prajnaparamita. Above these are a lotus, a moon disc and finally a vajra. The hollow of the bell symbolizes the wisdom recognizing emptiness. The clapper represents the sound of emptiness. The vase represents the vase containing the nectar of accomplishment. Bernagchen_ Bearer of Black Coat BhumiLiterally "ground". One of the ten stages of realization and activity through which a _ Bodhisattva progresses towards _ Enlightenment. The 10 bhumis are: The Supremely joyful The Stainless The Illuminating The Radiant Very Difficult to Train For The Manifesting The Far Going The Unwavering Excellent Intelligence Cloud of Dharma</p> <p>Black Coat_ Bearer of Black Coat Black CrownAttribute of the _ Karmapa. Signifying the power to help all beings, the female Buddhas bestowed this energyfield on Karmapa at his enlightenment several thousand years ago. It is constantly above his head. The replica shown at ceremonies has the power to open the subconscious of those present and permits the Karmapa to exchange his limitless space-awareness for beings' inhibitions and pain. It is a means for gaining liberation through seeing which only a Karmapa can use. Bodhgaya[Lit. Dorje Seat] Now a village in north India. The first Buddhas of each Dharma-period manifest full enlightenment there. Bodhicitta_ Enlightened Mind BodhisattvaOne who has taken the great vow to rescue all beings from suffering and guide them to enlightenment. Bodhisattva VowThe vow to maintain the enlightened view at all times. The vow is given in the presence of _ Bodhisattva and is repeated as often as possible. Bond[Tib. Damtsig, Skt. Samaya] The basis for the rapid psychological growth in Diamond Way Buddhism. Through the unbroken connection to teacher, meditation forms and co-disciples, students quickly manifest their potential. Especially the bond to one's first teacher is very important. Buddha[Tib. Sangye] The name denotes a state of mind. "Sang" means "perfectly purified" of all obscurations. "Gye" means "perfect unfoldment" of all qualities and wisdom. Buddha aspects[Tib. Yidam] The great richness of enlightened mind expresses itself in countless forms of energy and light. By identifying with them in meditation and daily life they rapidly awaken our innate Buddha-nature. Buddha Dharma CenterDuring his teachings in the West _ Lopon Tsechu Rinpoche gained more and more western students, which visit him from time to time. To accommodate them and his local students Lopon Tsechu Rinpoche founded the Buddha Dharma Center. It is a place where students can get in contact with _ Mahayana-Buddhism. This goes for lay and ordained-people as well. _ [more]. BuddhismThe teachings of the historical _ Buddha, Siddharta Gautama, are the basis of what is called `Buddhism'. Buddhism can be subdivided into _ Small Way, _ Great Way and _ Diamond Way. Buddha energies_ Buddha aspects Buddha of Limitless Light[Tib. pame, Skr. Amitabha] His mental realm is the pure land of highest bliss. C</p> <p>CalendarThe Tibetan calendar is divided into major cycles of sixty years duration. These sixty-year cycles are themselves divided into five minor twelve-year cycles, each year of which is identified by the name of an animal. Rabbit Dragon Snake Horse Sheep Monkey Bird Dog Pig Mouse Ox Tiger </p> <p>Two consecutive years are paired with one of the five elements. As there are: Fire Earth Iron Water Wood</p> <p>So one gets i.e. a Earth Dragon Year, followed by a Earth Snake Year, followed by a Iron Horse Year and so on. After 60 years the combinations are repeated and the cycle is closed. The calendar was introduced in 1027 starting with the Fire Rabbit Year. The 16th cycle ended 1986 with a Fire Tiger Year. Thus we're living in the 17th cycle. The Tibetan year is based on twelve lunar month and lasts 360 days. Because twelve lunar months consists of only 355 (or 354) days, 5 (or 6) days in the Tibetan Year must be left out. Also, in order to avoid an unlucky day, an auspicious date may happen twice. This makes it not even easy to transform a date from the Western Calendar into a date of the Tibetan Calendar and vice versa. To keep pace with the solar year (365.25 days)every 3 years a leap month is added. There is an intelligent calculation which month will be the leap month. This certain month is simply repeated. In 1997 the fifth month of the Fire Ox Year was repeated. Due to the leap month the New Year's Day (Losar) of the Tibetan Calendar moves between February and March. The month starts with the new crescent and full moon is on the 15th. Chagya Chenpo_ Mahamudra Chakrasamvara_ Highest Joy Changchub Dorje[1703-1732] The twelfth Karmapa, Changchub Dorje was born at Chile Chakhor in Derge province in east Tibet. Shamarpa heard talk of the doings of a remarkable child, and sent a party to investigate. His envoys brought the child to Karma Gon, one of Karmapa's principal monasteries, where he met Shamarpa Paichen Chokyi Dondrub. The two were to spend the rest of their lives together, travelling and teaching in Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, India and China. Only one day separated their deaths. Both gave Kagyu transmission to the eighth Situpa, and named him lineage holder. Chang Chub Kyi Sem_ Enlightened Mind Channa Dorje_ Diamond-holder Power Buddha Chenrezi_ Loving Eyes Cho_ Dharma Chodrag Gyamtso[1454 - 1506] The seventh Karmapa, Chodrag Gyamtso, was from Kyilha in Northern Tibet. Wiping his face immediately after birth, he is reported to have said "AH", the Sanskrit syllable symbolising the ultimate nature of reality. The nearby Nyewo Ngarteng Monastery was headed by one Cho Paljor, a student of the sixth Karmapa, who had a dream that his teacher had taken rebirth at Kyilha. He searched, and found the week-old child. The baby immediately recognised the possessions of the sixth Karmapa, and placed his hands in blessing on Cho Paljor's head. Seven weeks later, Chodrag Gyamtso was brought to Arik Thang, where Tongwa Donden had taught, and where there was a vast seat, like a throne, made of stone slabs. He blessed the ten thousand who had come to welcome him. At four, he was given a series of empowerments by Goshir Paljor Dondrup, and at eight, at Karma Gon, he was given the Kagyu teachings from Bengar Jampal Zangpo and Goshir Paljor Dondrub. He was invited to teach and give empowerments throughout Tibet; during his travels he wrote many texts and commentaries, and attended to the development of the many students who travelled with him. These tent-dwelling nomads - said to be several thousand strong - led a rigorous life, following a strict schedule of study and meditation laid down by the Karmapa. While at Nyriro Dong Tse, he met the fourth Shamarpa, to whom he gave the full teachings. Another of his students, Denma Drubchen Denma Drubchen Tashi Paljor, was to become the next lineage holder. Chokhor DuchenName of the day where Buddha started his teachings. Chokyi Drakpa Yeshe Pal Zangpo[1453 - 1524] The Fourth Shamarpa was born in the Tresh province of Kham in eastern Tibet. Wondrous signs manifested at his birthplace in Tre Kangmar, with wide ranging interpretations by the local communities. The Seventh Karmapa _ Chodrag Gyamtso was seven years old when he set up camp near Kangmar and remained in retreat while he sent his attendant to invite the Shamarpa. This learned monk was Paljor Dndrup - the first Gyaltsab Rinpoche, a man of exceptional realisation. He was later to become a Guru to the Shamarpa. When the Karmapa and the Shamarpa met it was the renewal of a very close bond, comparable to the joyful reunion of father and son. The Karmapa enthroned the young Shamarpa under the name of Chkyi Drakpa Yeshe Pal Zangpo and returned the red crown to him. The Karmapa proposed that from then on they both propagate the Dharma, but in different parts of the country. The Shamarpa would remain in the Kongpo area of southern Tibet, while the Karmapa continued towards eastern Kham. Some years later, they were together again at Tresh Kangmar. The Shamarpa arrived laden with offerings and the Karmapa imparted to him the empowerments of Mahamudra, the Six Yogas of Naropa and many other important instructions of the Kagyu lineage. Chopal Yeshe[1406 - 1452] The Third Shamarpa was only five months old and had no difficulty recognizing many of the monks who were close to him in his previous incarnations, which suggested that he was the incarnate for whom they all anxiously awaited. A year later he visited Takse monastery at the invitation of its monks. It had been one of the Shamarpa's monasteries in previous centuries. He studied there under the tutelage of two great Scholars - Payl Chzang and Wn Drakpa. At the age of eight, he met with the Fifth Karmapa _ Deshin Shegpa and stayed with him while he received all the Kagyu teachings including numerous empowerments and ritual readings. At this time, the Karmapa gave the Shamarpa full authorization to instruct. As his extraordinary clairvoyant abilities emerged, the fame of the Third Shamarpa spread rapidly into China. The Shamarpa could see his own past lives in vivid detail and this intrigued the Chinese Emperor. The fact that the Shamarpa had been the Guru of the Fifth Karmapa in his previous incarnation also fueled the wish for a closer relationship. The Emperor sent a minister to a distant part of Tibet bearing gifts for the Shamarpa. Statues of the Buddha and Dorje Chang arrived made of the finest bell metal and the Shamarpa communicated the importance of generosity in a letter of thanks. When the Shamarpa later ruled as the Karmapa's representative in Kong-Po and other provinces in southern Tibet, he kept this basic Buddhist principle in mind when attending to the needs of the people. Chorten_ Stupa Choying Dorje[1604-1674] The tenth Karmapa, Choying Dorje, was born in Khaytri Tang inGolok province, in the far north-east of Tibet. He was identified as the reincarnation and enthroned by the sixth Shamarpa, Chokyi Wangchuk, who also gave him the full Kagyu transmission. The Karmapa travelled throughout Tibet, teaching and promoting the welfare of the people, until certain political difficulties arose. Ngawang Lozang Gyamtso, the fifth Dalai Lama, had become the official ruler of Tibet, a role that would continue to be filled by his successive incarnations. He established a pact with the Mongol ruler Goshir Khan; the ensuing sectarian persecution severely weakened Kagyu doctrine in Tibet, and placed the Karmapa in such a difficult position that he was forced to leave the country. Travelling through Nepal and Burma to Yunnan in China, Choying Dorje made virtue of necessity and founded monasteries along his route. Twenty years were to pass before he could return to his homeland. He identified the seventh Shamarpa, _ Yeshe Nyingpo, and with the transmission of the Kagyu teachings, selected him as lineage holder. Cho Ku_ State of Truth Cho Nyi Bardo_ Bardo Clear Light Meditation[Tib. Osel] One of the _ Six Teachings of Naropa. CompassionIt denotes the attitude that the benefit of other beings is more important to us than our own. Compassion is always paired with love. While compassion stands for the wish that other beings may be free from suffering and free from the cause of suffering, love stands for the wish that all being...</p>