Business Communication: Lesson 4

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Lesson 4: Classification and Methods of CommunicationMBA 1305: Business Communication1Ms. Adiba Anis, Lecturer, (Marketing), School of Business, Bangladesh Open University

Overview to Classification and Methods of Communication:Oral, Non-Verbal, Written, Digital, Audio-Visual, Visual, Silent, Face-to-face, Grapevine, Consensus, Downward, Upward, Vertical, Horizontal, Formal, Informal,2Ms. Adiba Anis, Lecturer, (Marketing), School of Business, Bangladesh Open University

2Ms. Adiba Anis, Lecturer, (Marketing), School of Business, Bangladesh Open University

Ms. Adiba Anis, Lecturer, (Marketing), School of Business, Bangladesh Open University3The concept that communication is the effective exchange of meaning or understanding applies to both formal and informal communication. It applies to communication up, down and across the organization.

Ms. Adiba Anis, Lecturer, (Marketing), School of Business, Bangladesh Open University4

Oral/Verbal CommunicationIt occurs through spoken words. In oral communication, the two parties of communication, the sender and the receiver, exchange their views through speech, either in face-to-face communication between individual and individual, or between an individual and the group, or any mechanicals or electrical devices.Ms. Adiba Anis, Lecturer, (Marketing), School of Business, Bangladesh Open University5

Advantages of Oral Communication Immediate feedbackTime savingEconomicalSecrecy Personal touchFlexibilityGroup communication6Ms. Adiba Anis, Lecturer, (Marketing), School of Business, Bangladesh Open University

Advantages of Oral Communication Immediate feedback the biggest advantage of oral communication is that it provides immediate feedback to both the sender and the receiver.Time saving oral communication is very fast. It saves the time involved in writing the message.Economical oral communication save the money spent on stationery in any organization.Secrecy oral message can be more easily kept confidential than written messages.Personal touch oral communication builds healthy climate in the organization by bringing superiors and subordinates together.Flexibility oral communication provides an opportunity to the speaker to correct himself and make himself clear by changing his voice, pitch, tone, etc.Group communication oral communication is extremely useful for communicating with groups in meetings, conferences, etc.7Ms. Adiba Anis, Lecturer, (Marketing), School of Business, Bangladesh Open University

Limitations of Oral CommunicationPoor retention the listener cannot retain oral message in his memory for a long period of time. The speaker himself may not recall what he actually said.No record oral communication provides no record for future reference.Time consuming oral communication may not always be time saving.Misunderstanding oral communication is likely to be misunderstood due to poor vocal expression and noise.Lengthy messages It is not suitable for lengthy messages.Lack of responsibility oral message are not recorded .therefore, it becomes difficult to hold persons responsible for mistakes, inaccuracy. 8Ms. Adiba Anis, Lecturer, (Marketing), School of Business, Bangladesh Open University

Make Oral Communication EffectiveClarityBrevity Right wordsUnderstand the listenerNatural voiceLogical sequence 9Ms. Adiba Anis, Lecturer, (Marketing), School of Business, Bangladesh Open University

Ms. Adiba Anis, Lecturer, (Marketing), School of Business, Bangladesh Open University10

Non-Verbal CommunicationDefinitionOral or non-oral messages expressed by other than linguistic means (Adler & Rodman, 2003, p. 150)According to: Trenholm & Jensen, 2000:Perceived by sender or receiver, orIntended as a message by the sender, orInterpreted by the receiver as intended.

CharacteristicsNonverbal Communication ExistsYou can interpret others feelingsNo formal training needed to do thisNonverbal Behavior Has Communicative ValueYou cannot not communicate (think about this)We arent always aware of what we are communicating nonverballyNot everyone can interpret nonverbal cluesNonverbal communication assists with:Identity managementthe Presenting SelfHow we want others to view usDefining relationshipsConveying emotions Difficult to convey ideas nonverballyMs. Adiba Anis, Lecturer, (Marketing), School of Business, Bangladesh Open University11

Components of Non-Verbal CommunicationNonverbal comm. is ambiguousDifficult to interpret accuratelySome emotions are easier to decode accurately than othersSADFISH & LSadnessAngerDisgustFearInterestSurpriseHappinessLoveBetter senders of nonverbal messages are better receiversDecoding ability can be learnedExtroverts better than dogmaticWomen better than menNo one has 100% accuracyConsiderations when decoding NVCContext (situation)History of relationship with senderOthers mood at the timeYour feelingsNV messages are CLUES not factNonverbal comm. is culture boundMs. Adiba Anis, Lecturer, (Marketing), School of Business, Bangladesh Open University12

Verbal Communication vs. Nonverbal CommunicationNonverbal communication operates on multiple channelsNonverbal communication is continuous and never endingNonverbal communication can be unconscious13Ms. Adiba Anis, Lecturer, (Marketing), School of Business, Bangladesh Open University

The Power of Nonverbal Codes (Trenholm & Jensen, 2000)Nonverbal codes are given more credence and are more trusted than verbal codes.Nonverbal codes are more emotionally powerful.Nonverbal codes express more universal meaning.Nonverbal codes are continuous and natural.Nonverbal codes occur in clusters.14Ms. Adiba Anis, Lecturer, (Marketing), School of Business, Bangladesh Open University

Functions of Nonverbal CommunicationRepeatingEmblems: deliberate nonverbal behaviors that have precise meanings known to everyone within a culture group. Wave or NodSubstitutingEmblems can replace a verbal messageComplementingNonverbal behavior matches verbal message-Sincere apologyTone of voice and appropriate facial expressionIllustratorsScratching head when trying to think of somethingAccentingPointing your finger at someone when making a pointRegulatingTaking turns speaking has a pattern that we understand when it is our turn to talk, e.g. pauses, tone of voice ContradictingMixed messagesNonverbal message is believed more than verbal messageDeceivingNot all deception is self-serving or malicious Face savingHigh self-monitors are usually better at deceptionPeople whose jobs require them to act differently than they feel are better at it: actors, lawyers, diplomats, salespeople.15Ms. Adiba Anis, Lecturer, (Marketing), School of Business, Bangladesh Open University

Types of Nonverbal CommunicationPostureKinesics: the study of body movements, gesture and posture.Mirroring posture makes good impressionPosture reveals ones vulnerability to violenceGesturesFundamental behavior that even people blind from birth use gesturesManipulators: Movements in which one part of the body touches another body partUsing manipulators is often a sign of discomfort but not alwaysAlso used when one is relaxed and lets guard downFaceVery complicated to discern facial expressionsHigh number of facial expressionsFacial expressions change quicklyAffect blends: showing two emotions simultaneouslyFearful and surprisedDisgusted and angryEyesEye ContactThe Window to the SoulCultural differencesToucha.k.a. HapticsBabies died from lack of touching Disease called Marasmus means wasting awayTouch increases a childs mental functioning and physical health

16Ms. Adiba Anis, Lecturer, (Marketing), School of Business, Bangladesh Open University

Types of Nonverbal Communication, cont.VoiceParalanguage: nonverbal vocal messages that reinforce or contradict our wordsToneSpeedPitchVolumePauses: Number and lengthDisfluencies (stammering, fillers Like)SarcasmClothingConveys economic status, education level, social status moral standards, athletic ability and/or interests, belief system, level of sophisticationWe make assumptions about people based on clothing choicesFlying on airplanes and courtesy of airline personnelInterviewsDatesDistanceProxemics: the study of the way people and animals use spaceIntimate distance: Skin to 18 inchesPersonal distance: 18 inches to four feetSocial distance: 4 feet to 12 feetPublic distance: 12 feet to 25 feet17Ms. Adiba Anis, Lecturer, (Marketing), School of Business, Bangladesh Open University

Types of Nonverbal Communication, cont.Physical AttractivenessPeople prefer others who they find attractiveBeauty is in the eye of the beholderThree year olds already have opinionsWhat can we do to be perceived as more attractive?PostureGesturesFacial expressionsPhysical fitnessChoice of clothingTimeChronemics (the study of the use of time in nonverbal communication. The way that one perceives and values time, structures time and reacts to time frames communication. Across cultures, time perception plays a large role in the nonverbal communication process.)Cultural rulesPolychronicMonochronicGeographic or Situational rulesTerritorialityFixed Space (room, house, neighborhood, country)Not all territory is permanent library, computer labPower and status relationshipsKnocking before enteringMore and/or better space is expected for higher status personnel18Ms. Adiba Anis, Lecturer, (Marketing), School of Business, Bangladesh Open University

Types of Nonverbal Communication, cont.EnvironmentalReflects InteractionResearch: Photos of upper-middle-class homesCommunicated accurate information about the homeowners: intellectualism, politeness, maturity, optimism, tenseness, willingness to risk, family orientations, and reservednessHome exteriors: Artistic interests, graciousness, privacy and quietnessShapes InteractionResearch: Work