Cellular Respiration(Making ATP from food)crash-course-bio ATP
All living cells are made up of chemical substances
The processes of living involve reactions between the substances
A reaction is an event which produces a change in a substance
For example, a reaction between carbon and oxygen (such as burning coal in air) changes the carbon in the coal, and oxygen in the air into carbon dioxide
3This reaction can be represented by the equationC + O2 CO2carbonoxygencarbon dioxide
Can atom of carbon ca molecule of oxygen O2combine to form a molecule of carbon dioxide CO2plus4
Metabolizing MoleculesMetabolism all the chemical reactions occuring in your cells at one time
Two types of chemical reactions can occur as an organism metabolizes molecules:
Anabolic reactions - this type of reaction builds molecules (specifically, small molecules are combined into large molecules for repair, growth or storage).
Catabolic reactions this type of reaction breaks down molecules to release their stored energy
What do you use to get yourself out of bed in the morning? ENERGY
Where do our cells get energy?6-C sugars are the MAJOR source of energy for cellWhat type of macromolecule are 6-C sugars?CarbohydratesCells break down glucose a 6-C sugar to make ATP energy
What is a molecule of energy? ATPSo, did you eat ATP last night? Or did you eat pizza?Food you eat must be broken down into carbs (sugar), protein, and lipids (fat).
Setting the stageEat! Amylase breaks down starch glucoseDigestionCirculationInto cells (facilitated diffusion)
Phytosynthesis is done by autotrophs to convert solar energy into chemical energy.Cellular respiration is the process of converting chemical energy to ATP.C6H12O6 + 6O2 ATP + 6 CO2 + 6 H2OAt first glance it may appear as if phytosynthesis and cellular respiration are the reverse processBut they occur in different organelles (chloroplasts and mitochondria) and the chemical reactions are very different.
Transferring Energy with ATPCells transfer energy between anabolic and catabolic reactions by using an energy middleman -ATP (adenosine triphosphate)When ATP supplies energy to a process, one of its phosphates gets transferred to another molecule, changing it into ADP (adenosine diphosphate).Cells can recreate ATP by using a catabolic reaction to reacttach a phosphate group to ADP.
Chemical Structure of ATP3 PhosphatesRibose SugarAdenine Base
How Do We Get Energy From ATP?By breaking the high- energy bonds between the last two phosphates in ATP
Define Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is a process where oxygen is used to break down organic compounds (sugars) to produce ATP (energy).
7One of the energy-producing reactions is called respiration(Respiration is not the same thing as breathing)The chemical reactions of respiration take place in all living cellsThe reaction takes place between oxygen and a substance which contains carbon. The reaction produces carbon dioxide and water, and releases energy
The carbon-containing substances come from FOODThe oxygen comes from the AIR (or water)The energy is used to drive other chemical reactions taking place in cellsOne example of this is the release of energy in muscle cells to make them contract and produce movement8
Respiration suppliesthe energy forSome examples of the useof energy in organisms10
Energy use in muscle contraction11
12and pull the lower arm up
5 Carbon dioxideis carried to the lungs by the blood 15
Where does cellular respiration occur?In the cytoplasm and mitochondria of cells.
MitochondriaThe matrix where 3-carbon pieces that came from carbohydrates are broken down to (CO2 and water) The cristae is where ATP is made
Mini Lab1. Open and close your hand as many times as possible for 30 seconds. Have your partner time and record the resultsQUICKLY! After only a 5 second break repeat this step for a total of 5 trials.2. After you have completed the 5 trials. Switch jobs with your partner, and record your partners 5 trials.
Trial 1Trial 2Trial 3Trial 4Trial 5NameName
Observations:How did your hand feel after the 1st trial?
How did the amount of times you could open and close your hand change from the 1st trial to the 5th trial?
Analysis:Can you think of a time where your body got tired from working hard? Give an example.
Why do you think your hand began feeling this way?
Why do you think your muscles get sore after a hard work out?
Cellular RespirationCellular EnergyThe Stages of Cellular Respiration- Cellular respiration has two main stages: Glycolysis The first stage of cellular respiration is called glycolysis.
Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration The second stage of cellular respiration is either aerobic respiration (in the presence of oxygen) or anaerobic respiration (in the absence of oxygen). A large amount of ATP is made during aerobic respiration.
FlowchartGlucose (C6H1206)+Oxygen (02)GlycolysisKrebs CycleElectron Transport ChainCarbon Dioxide(CO2)+Water(H2O)+ATPCellular Respiration
THE BIG PICTURECellular RespirationGlycolysisAerobicAnaerobicKrebsElectron Transport ChainAlcoholFermentationLactic AcidFermentationATPATPATPATPATP
Key Terms:Aerobic occurs with oxygenAnaerobic occurs without oxygen
Cellular Respiration (3-stages when oxygen is present)GlycolysisKrebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)Electron Transport Chain (ETC)GlucoseGlycolysis Krebs cycle Electron transportFermentation (without oxygen)Alcohol or lactic acid
A little help with some important terms we will need:Enzymes are proteins BUT many need a nonprotein partner in order to do their job.Inorganic partners such as iron, potassium, magnesium and zinc are called cofactors.Organic partners are called coenzymes. They are small molecules that can separate from the protein and participate directly in the chemical reaction. Examples of coenzymes include many derivatives of vitamins.
Oxidation is a chemical process that removes electrons from molecules.Reduction is the process that gives electrons to molecules.During cellular respiration enzymes remove electrons from food molecules and transfer the electrons to coenzymes.
Glycolysis (Splitting Sugar)Begins with a 6-carbon molecule, usually glucose, ends with 2, 3 carbon molecules of pyruvate. Produces 2 ATP and occurs in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Will occur with or without oxygen.CCCCCCCCCCCC2 ATPGlucosePyruvate
GlycolysisGlucose (and phosphate from 2 ATP molecules are required to get it started) is broken down into two - 3 carbon and phosphate groups, which is then broken down into pyruvic acid and 4 ATP.Net gain of 2 ATP.
During cellular respiration, enzymes remove electrons from food molecules and then transfer the electrons to the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD).NAD+ and FAD receive the electrons as part of hydrogen (H) atoms, which change them into their reduced forms: NADH and FADH2
NAD+ and FAD act like electron shuttle buses for the cell.
The empty buses NAD+ and FAD collect electron passengers. The H sign goes up to show that the bus is full NADH and FADH2The bus drives over to the reactions that need the electrons, drop off the passengers and go back to the oxidation reaction to collect new passengers.
Glycolysis SummaryWhere? CytoplasmOxygen required? NoInGlucose (6-C)
Out 2 pyruvate (3-C)2 NADH2 ATP (net)
GlucoseTo the electron transport chainFigure 93GlycolysisGlycolysis:Step 12 Pyruvic acid
A Little Krebs Cycle HistoryDiscovered by Hans Krebs in 1937He received the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1953 for his discoveryForced to leave Germany prior to WWII because he was Jewish
Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)Begins with two, 3 carbon molecules of pyruvate which go from the cytoplasm into the mitochondrial matrix. Together two pyruvate molecules produce: 2 ATP, 2 CO2 and then two types of electron carriers: NADH and FADH2CCCATP+Electron Carrier - NADHElectron Carrier FADH2+COOPyruvate
Krebs Cycle SummaryWhere? Mitochondrial matrixOxygen required? YesIn2 PyruvateOut 2 CO2 (as waste) NADH FADH2 2 ATPPyruvate is broken into a two carbon molecule called acetyl-coA. The Krebs cycle breaks down acetyl-coA into carbon dioxide.Cells use the Krebs cycle for breaking down fatty acids and amino acids.
Citric Acid ProductionThe Krebs CycleMitochondrion
Aerobic RespirationAerobicKrebsElectron Transport ChainATPATPGlycolysisATP
In the inner membranes of the mitochondria in your cells, hundreds of little cellular machines are busy working to transfer energy.
The machines are called electron transfer chains. They are made of a team of proteins that sit in the membranes, transferring energy and electrons.
The coenzymes NADH and FADH2 carry energy and electrons from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle to the electron transport chain.The coenzymes transfer the electrons to the proteins of the electron transport chain, which pass the electrons down the chain.
The bucket is the protein, the water the electrons.
Oxygen collects the electrons at the end of the chain. While oxygen accepts