Chapter 23 Respiratory System - Study Guide

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<p>The Respiratory System - Chapter 231. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Identify the organs of the respiratory tract. List the organs in descending order from the nose to the alveoli. Identify the function(s) of each structure in the respiratory system. List and describe the protective mechanisms of the respiratory system. Describe the makeup of the respiratory membrane. Relate the structure of the respiratory membrane to its function. Describe the gross anatomy of the lungs and the pleurae. Be able to state Boyles Law, Daltons Law, Henrys Law, and Charles Law. Define pulmonary ventilation. Relate Boyles Law to inspiration and expiration. Explain the roles of the respiratory muscles and lung elasticity in producing the volume changes that cause air to flow in and out of the lungs.</p> <p>10. List the physical factors that influence pulmonary ventilation. Define compliance. 11. Define the various lung volumes. Define dead space.</p> <p>12. Explain the role of Daltons Law and Henrys Law in the exchange of gases in the body. 13. 14. Define and be able to calculate the partial pressure of a gas. Explain the composition of atmospheric gas and alveolar gas.</p> <p>15. Define external respiration and internal respiration. Identify the factors that cause exchange of gases at the lungs and at body tissues. 16. Identify the transport mechanisms for oxygen and carbon dioxide.</p> <p>17. Identify the factors that affect the association of oxygen with hemoglobin (i.e. hemoglobins affinity to oxygen): include pO2, pCO2, pH, and BPG. 18. Discuss the role of carbon dioxide on body pH, as well as bicarbonate and carbonic acid.</p> <p>19. Describe the nervous systems control of respiration. Include the respiratory centers, the nerves, and respiratory reflexes. Include the receptors involved as well -- where they are located and what they detect. 20. Define hypoxia, hypercapnia, and acidosis. Be able to interrelate them in terms of respiration. 22. Which of the following are function(s) of the mucus-covered nasal passageways: a) warming inspired air b) moistening inspired air c) entrapping small particles d) all of the above e) none of the above Which of the following is least: a) pO2 in expired air b) pO2 in arterial blood c) pO2 in cells/tissue d) pO2 in pulmonary veins e) pO2 in pulmonary arteries Microorganisms removed from incoming air by sticky mucus are most likely destroyed by: a) toxins in the mucus b) the action of cilia c) the digestive action of the gastric juices d) a lack of oxygen e) an abundance of carbon dioxide Which of the following is NOT a function of the respiratory system: a) regulation of pH b) production of sound c) filter and humidify incoming air d) regulation of body temperature e) sense of smell The chemoreceptors in the aortic and carotid sinuses are most sensitive to: a) carbon dioxide concentration b) hydrogen ion concentration c) oxygen concentration d) bicarbonate ion concentration</p> <p>23.</p> <p>24.</p> <p>25.</p> <p>26.</p> <p>27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43.</p> <p>What functions do the respiratory and cardiovascular systems have in common? What structural and functional features are different in the upper and lower respiratory system? Which are the same? Compare the structure and functions of the external nose and internal nose. List the roles of each of the three anatomical regions of the pharynx in respiration. How does the larynx function in respiration and voice production? Describe the location, structure, and function of the trachea. Describe the structure and branching of the bronchial tree. Where are the lungs located? Distinguish the parietal pleura from the visceral pleura. Define each of the following parts of a lung: base, apex, costal surface, medial surface, hilum, root, cardiac notch, lobe, and lobule. What is a bronchopulmonary segment? Describe the histology and function of the respiratory membrane in alveoli. What are the basic differences among pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, and internal respiration? Describe how alveolar surface tension, compliance, and airway resistance affect pulmonary ventilation. How does the partial pressure of oxygen change as altitude changes? What factors affect the rate of diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide? How do temperature, H+, pCO2, pO2, and BPG influence the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen? Why can hemoglobin unload more oxygen as blood flows through capillaries of metabolically active tissues, such as skeletal muscle during exercise, than is unloaded at rest? How does the medullary rhythmicity area regulate respiration?</p> <p>44.</p> <p>45. 46.</p> <p>How are the apneustic and pneumotaxic areas related to the control of respiration? How do the cerebral cortex, levels of O2 and CO2, proprioceptors, inflation reflex, temperature changes, pain, and irritation of the airways modify respiration? The effects of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions on the respiratory center are similar because: a) both cause a reduction in oxygen concentration b) both are positively charged c) hydrogen ions combine with water to form carbon dioxide d) carbon dioxide combines with water to form carbonic acid e) carbonic acid combines with hydrogen ions to form water The amount of air that enters or leaves the lungs during a normal respiratory cycle is the: a) tidal volume b) expiratory reserve volume c) residual volume d) vital capacity e) total lung capacity The portion of the respiratory center that is responsible for establishing the basic pattern of breathing is the: a) apneustic center b) rhythmicity center c) pneumotaxic center d) inspiratory center</p> <p>47.</p> <p>48.</p> <p>49.</p> <p>TRUE OR FALSE (if false, correct it so it is true). _________ 50. The left lung is the larger of the two lungs and has three lobes. _________ 51. Carbon monoxide bonds to hemoglobin more effectively than oxygen. _________ 52. When carbon dioxide binds to hemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin is formed. _________ 53. The location of the rhythmicity center is in the medulla oblongata. _________ 54. The vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves function in transmitting messages to the brain via chemoreceptors in the aortic sinus and carotid sinus. 55. Which structures are part of the conducting portion of the respiratory system? 56. How many lobes and secondary bronchi are present in each lung?</p> <p>57. 58. 59. 60.</p> <p>What type of membrane is the pleural membrane? What type of cells make up the wall of an alveolus? What causes oxygen to enter pulmonary capillaries from alveoli and to enter tissue cells from systemic capillaries? In comparison to the value when you are sitting, is the affinity of your hemoglobin for O2 higher or lower when you are exercising? What is the benefit of this change to you? Is O2 more or less available to tissue cells when you have a fever? Why? Which chemicals stimulate peripheral chemoreceptors? The respiratory system assists the cardiovascular system by: a) regulating blood volume b) regulating blood pressure c) controlling pH d) all of the above Of the following, which structure is a component of BOTH the lower respiratory tract and the conducting portion of the respiratory system? a) oropharynx b) laryngopharynx c) larynx d) alveolar duct</p> <p>61. 62. 63.</p> <p>64.</p> <p> 65. Which of the following does NOT accurately characterize the epithelial lining of the respiratory tract? a) it is mostly pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with numerous goblet cells b) cilia in the larger passageways sweep trapped debris toward the pharynx where it is swallowed c) it changes from simple columnar to simple cuboidal epithelium within progressively smaller bronchioles d) goblet cells and mucous glands in the lamina propria secrete a watery, lubricating fluid</p>

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