private international law.
Conflict of Laws
LAW325: Conflict of LawsProfessor Joost BlomJennifer LauFall 2007Full CAN (includes commentary & case briefs)
Introduction to Conflict of Laws (a.k.a. Private International Law)4My Conflicts Glossary4What is Private International Law?5So what happens when these different legal systems clash?53 Standard Conflicts of Law Problems6(Judicial) Jurisdiction6Choice of Laws6Enforcement of Foreign (extra-provincial) Judgments6So a BC court can apply Quebec law to a BC lawsuit? Wacky!7How have we approached Conflicts of Law jurisprudence?7So what the heck is Public International Law?7R. v. Hape (2007) SCC 268Air India v. Wiggins  1 WLR 815 (HL) (the "budgie" version of R. v. Hape)8What happens where individuals seek to enforce foreign Public laws?8Theories of Conflicts of Law9Principles governing Conflicts of Laws9Allegiance9Connection9Discretion to take jurisdiction9Enforcement10Substantive rules governing enforcement10Procedure10Choice of Law10Part I: Commencing a Proceeding in a Case Involving Extra-Provincial Elements10Existence of Jurisdiction In Personam10Introduction11Legal Capacity of the Parties ("Legal Personality")11Individuals11Corporations12Non-Corporations12International Assn of Science & Technology for Development v. Hamza (Alta CA 1995)12Practically Speaking: Asserting Jurisdiction simpliciter13Constitutional Standard14Traditional Tests of Determining Jurisdiction15Provincial Legislation15Forum Non Conveniens15Constitutional Dimensions of the Territorial Authority of Canadian Courts16Comity16Federalism17Full Faith and Credit17Real and Substantial Connection (R&SC)17Morguard applies to non-Canadian foreign judgments too18What did this mean for Default Judgments?18Morguard Investments Ltd. v. De Savoye (1990) SCC19Hunt v. T&N PLC (1993) SCC22Spar Aerospace Ltd. v. American Mobile Satellite Corp (SCC) 200223Statutes governing the assertion of Jurisdiction24Court Jurisdiction & Proceedings Transfer Act, BC24Consent (counterclaim, submission, consent)25Ordinarily Resident25Real and Substantial Connection25BC Civil Rules of Court26Rule 1326Rule 1426Common Law Rule: Defendant's Submission (Attornment) to the Jurisdiction26Teja v. Rai (2002) BCCA26Common Law Rule: Persons connected to the jurisdiction by presence or residence28Natural Persons28Maharanee of Baroda v. Wildenstein (1972) CA28Artificial Persons29Common Law Rule: Persons connected to the jurisdiction by what they did29General Rule re Product Liability Actions (Moran v. Pyle)29Moran v. Pyle National (Canada) Ltd (1973) SCC29Determining Jurisdiction on the Basis of Pleadings or Evidence31Good Arguable Case31Exceptions (when a plaintiff must submit affidavit evidence)31Jurisdictional Facts31Tenuous Claim31Furlan v. Shell Oil Co. (2000) BCCA32AG Armeno Mines & Minerals v. Newmont Gold Co. (2000) BCCA33Factors to use in determining whether there is a Real and Substantial Connection between a foreign defendant and the forum34Comparing the BC approach (Furlan) to the Ontario approach (Muscutt)34BC34Ontario34Duncan (Litigation Guardian of) v. Neptunia Corp. (Ont. S.C.J. 2001)35Strukoff v. Syncrude Canada (2000) BCCA36Muscutt v. Coucelles (2002) OntCA37Determining Jurisdiction Simpliciter in Class Actions39Harrington v. Dow Corning Corp (2000) BCCA39Currie v. McDonalds (2005) OntCA40Declining Jurisdiction or Enjoining Foreign Legal Proceedings41Introduction to Discretion41Airbus Industrie GIE v. Patel (1999) H.L.41Forum Non Conveniens: the more appropriate forum42Basic Principle42The Test: Is there a clearly more appropriate forum elsewhere?43Legitimate Advantages43Who bears the Onus?44Contrasting the R&SC Jurisidictional Simpliciter test from the FNC test for declining jurisdiction44Spiliada Maritime Corp. v. Cansulex Ltd (1987) H.L.45Anti-Suit Injunctions46Basic Principle46The Test47Must you seek a stay for FNC first before seeking an anti-suit injunction?47Amchem Products Inc. v. BC (Workers Compensation Board) (1993) SCC47Hudon v. Geos Language Corp. (Ont. Div. Ct. 1997)49Statutory Discretion to Decline Jurisdiction49CJPTA, s.11: the discretion clause49Parallel Proceedings: No automatic deference to the "first court to assume jurisdiction"50What about parallel judgments?50Lloyd's Underwriters v. Teck Cominco Ltd.  BCCA51Jurisdiction-Selecting and Arbitration Clauses55Jurisdiction-Selecting Clauses56The General Rule56Z.I. Pompey Industrie v. Ecu-Line NV (S.C.C. 2003)56Marine Liability Cases57Magic Sportswear Corp. v. OT Africa Line Ltd. (F.C.A. 2006)58Jurisdiction-Selecting Clauses and the Hague Convention58Arbitration Clauses59Common law59Statutory Modification59PART II: Choice of Law60Methodology61Structure of Choice of Law Rules61Applying Choice of Law Rules62Pleading and Proving Foreign Law63Failure to Plead and Prove Foreign Law: Lex Fori is used63Fernandez v. The Mercury Bell (F.C.A. 1986)64Procedure64General Rule: Governed by lex fori64Determining Matters of Substance versus Matters of Procedure64Matters of Procedure (Remedy)65Matters of Substance (Right)65Tolofson v. Jensen (S.C.C. 1994)66Torts67The Old Rule67Phillips v. Eyre (Ex. Ch. 1870)67McLean v. Pettigrew (S.C.C. 1945)67The Rigid Canadian Lex Loci Delicti Rule (Place of the Tort)68Tolofson v. Jensen; Lucas v. Gagnon (S.C.C. 1994)69Somers v. Fournier (Ont. C.A. 2002)70What goes on in the United States?72Babcock v. Jackson (N.Y. Ct. Apps. 1963)73Defamation: Law of the Victim's Home73Australian Broadcasting Corp. v. Waterhouse (New South Wales CA, 1991)74Burke v. New York Post (BCSC)74Contracts and Restitution75Proper law75Proper Law is determined by the Agreement of the Parties75Vita Food Products Inc. v. Unus Shipping Co. (P.C. 1939)76Exceptions to the Proper Law Approach79Problems with the Proper Law Approach80Implied Proper Law81The Star Texas (C.A. 1993)81No Agreement as to Proper Law: "Closest and Most Real Connection Test"82Imperial Life Assurance Co. of Canada v. Colmenares (SCC 1967)83Amin Rasheed Shipping Corp. v. Kuwait Ins. Co. (H.L. 1984)84Issues that may be referable to a law other than the proper law85Restitution89Marriage, Divorce and Matrimonial Property89Marriage89Formal Validity90Essential Validity90Questions of Capacity: Same-Sex Marriage91Questions of Capacity: Polygamy91Brook v. Brook (H.L. 1861)92Canada (Minister of Employment & Immigration) v. Narwal (F.C.A. 1990)92Re Hassan and Hassan (Ont. H.C. 1976)93Divorce93Canadian divorce93MacPherson v. MacPherson (Ont. C.A. 1976)94Recognition of Foreign Divorces94Re Edward and Edward (Sask. C.A. 1987)95PART III: Recognizing and Enforcing Foreign Judgments and Arbitral Awards95Practical Matters re Recognition/Enforcement of Foreign Judgments96Constitutional Standard96Procedural Routes to Enforcing an Extra-Provincial Judgment97Common Law97Registration under the ECJDA97Registration under BC Court Order Enforcement Act, Part 2 (a.k.a. REJA in most other provinces)97Registration under the Canada-UK Convention97Registration under the Uniform Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Act98Judgments Entitled to Recognition or Enforcement98Finality98Common Law98Statutory Modification98Jurisdiction of the Foreign Court99Connected to the foreign jurisdiction by presence or residence99Submission (attornment) to the foreign court's jurisdiction99Mid-Ohio Imported Car Co. v. Tri-K Investments Ltd. (B.C.C.A. 1995)100Batavia Times Publishing Co. v. Davis (1977) OntHC100Real and Substantial Connection with the Foreign Jurisdiction101Moses v. Shore Boat Builders Ltd. (1993) BCCA102Braintech Inc. v. Kostiuk (B.C.C.A. 1999)102Beals v. Saldanha (S.C.C. 2003)103Non-Monetary Judgments109What exactly are non-monetary judgments?109Basic Principles re Enforcement of Non-Monetary Judgments109Enforcing Canadian non-monetary judgments109Enforcing Non-Canadian non-monetary judgments109Enforcing Non-Canadian Declaratory Judgments110Pro Swing Inc. v. Elta Golf Inc. (S.C.C. 2006)110Defences112Introduction112Will these defences ever be expanded?113Cannot challenge a foreign judgment on its merits113Penal, revenue and other laws of a public nature113Tax Laws113United States v. Harden114Criminal and Penal Laws114Huntington v. Attrill (P.C. 1893)115Old North State Brewing Co. v. Newlands Services Inc. (B.C.C.A. 1999)116Public policy117Successful Public Policy Defences117Unsuccessful Public Policy Defences118Kuwait Airways Corp. v. Iraqi Airways Co. (Nos. 4 & 5) (H.L. 2002)118Society of Lloyds v. Meinzer (Ont. C.A. 2001)119Error by the foreign court121Fraud121Fraud on Jurisdiction (previously "extrinsic fraud")121Fraud on the Merits (previously "intrinsic fraud")122Natural justice122Notice122Registration Statutes122Reciprocal Enforcement of Judgments Act / Court Order Enforcement Act123Canada-United Kingdom Convention123ECJDA: Enforcement of Canadian Judgments and Degrees Act124Enforcing Foreign Arbitral Awards124
Introduction to Conflict of Laws (a.k.a. Private International Law)
My Conflicts GlossaryDeclaratory Judgment: where the court order takes the form of a "declaration of rights". The court does not order anyone to "do anything". It's a way of enforcing your rights before the extent of your rights are determined
Jurisdiction In Personam: Jurisdiction exercised against a person. When a court exercises jurisdiction in personam, the court decides the legal position of a person that is, are they liable or not? The order of the court is an order that a person must follow
Jurisdiction In Rem: Jurisdiction exercised against a thing This is usually exercised in Admiralty Law (where you can sue a ship). When a court exercises jurisdiction in rem, the court decides the legal position of a thing that is, is the thing liable or not?
Lex domicilii: the law of the domicile
Lex causae: the law governing the cause
Lex fori: the law of the forum
Res Judicata: Decides cause of action [note that a specific legal issue can be res judi