Curs 2 Civile (2)

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    Curs nr 2

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    5.Conceptul de sistem in constructii

    Printre diferitele definiii propuse pentru notiunea

    generala de sistem, urmatoarea se pare a fi cea maipotrivita :

    Un sistem reprezint o colecie de obiecte,interacionndunul cu altul, care reacioneaz ntr-unmod specific ipredictibil la oricare schimbare ce are

    loc n ambianalui. Caracteristica fundamentala a conceptu lu i desistem const n validitatea principiului de unitate iinterdependen intre priisi a intregului; ceea ceinseamna ca o entitate complex nu permite izolarea

    niciunui element component i analizarea lui nabsenaaltor componente. O alta caracteristic importanta a teoriei de sistem

    este reprezentata de caracterul eiuniversal, atat prinlimbaj cat si ca domeniu de activitate.

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    5. The System Concept

    Among different definitions proposed for the generalnotion of system, the following one seems the most

    appropriate: A system represents a collection of objects,interacting to each other, which reacts in a specific and

    predictable way to any change occurring in its

    environment.

    A fundamental characteristic of the system conceptconsists in the validity of the principle of uni ty and

    interdependence of parts and o f the whole;this

    means that a complex entity does not allow the isolation

    of any component part and its investigation in theabsence of the other components.

    Another important feature of the theory of systems isrepresented by its un iversal character , in terms of both

    language and instruments used.

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    Aplicarea conceptului de sistem in constructii

    Complexitatea fizica a unei cldiriface obligatorie

    aplicarea conceptulu i de sistem considerandu-se cldirea

    ca un ansamblu de elemente interconectate unul cu celalalt

    icu mediul ambiant si care coopereaza pentru a indeplini

    diferite functiuni.

    Aceasta structurare pe criterii functionale divide fiecaresistemin subsistemece vor avea o functiune proprie ce

    trebuie indeplinita indiferent de rezolvarea constructiv

    tehnologica concreta.

    Fiecare subsistemal sistemului cladire este un sistemin raport cu propria lui structura, si poate fi descompus mai

    departe in subansambluri constructive

    subansamblurilese pot descompune la randul lor in

    elemente constructive si elementele incomponente

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    Applying the Concept to Buildings The extreme physical complexity of a building makes compulsory, the

    application of system concept by considering the building as an ensemble of

    elements interconnected to each other and to the environment, whichcooperate to fullfill certain functions.

    The first step consists in the construction of an adequate model of

    breaking up the building, corresponding to several hierarchic levels.

    Such a model should achieve a functional break-up of the

    bui ld ing systeminto severalsubsystems, each one being characterised by

    a global specific function.

    These subsystemscan be considered as a systemwith respect to its

    own internal structure and functionality, made up of a number of

    subensembles.

    Each subensemble - considered to be organised as a system toois

    composed of elements, interconnected in such a way that they form a

    physical/functional entity. Many elements possess a physical/functional

    structure of enough complexity that can justify their breaking up intocomponents .

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    SISTEMUL CLADIRE

    SUBSISTEME FUNCTIONALE

    SUBANSAMBLURI CONSTRUCTIVEELEMENTE DE CONSTRUCTII

    COMPONENTE

    Daca se elimina subsistemele de instalatii si echipamente

    un astfel de model are cinci subsisteme:

    spatiul inchis=volumul separat de cladire din mediul

    natural inchis si protejat in raport cu acesta

    structura=portiunea din sistemul cladire care ii asigura

    acestuia rezistenta si stabilitatea mecanica

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    anvelopa=portiunea din sistemul cladire care ii asigurainchiderea in raport cu mediul natural

    separatiile interioare= portiunile sistemului cladire neaflate incontact cu exteriorul si care compartimenteaza spatiul inchis

    separatiile exterioare = portiunile adiacente anvelopei si

    aflate in contact numai cu mediul exterior.

    Exemple: structura tip cadru acoperisurile placile de planseu scarile

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    BUILDING SYSTEM

    SUBENSEMBLES

    ELEMENTS

    COMPONENTS

    SUBSYSTEMS

    For current-type civil buildings, at a first hierarchic level of

    break-up, the building system includes the following

    subsystems: indoo r space uni ts created by partitioning the wholebuilding indoor space in accordance with functionalrequirements;

    structure, i.e. that part of the building ensuring its

    mechanical strength and stability;

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    enclosure, i.e. that part of the building separating it fromthe outdoor natural environment;

    inter ior part i t ions , i.e. those parts of the building(without contact with the outdoor environment) dividing

    its whole indoor space into indoor space units

    exter ior part i t ions ,i.e. those parts of the buildingenclosure subsystem that is in continuous contact with

    the outdoor environment

    Here maybe also added the installation and equipmentssubsystems

    EX: frame structure, floors or roofs structures

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    6.Conceptul de performanta in constructii

    Utilizatorul Constructia

    Exigente Performante

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    6.The performance concept

    Users Building

    Exigencies Performances

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    Conceptul de abordare de performanta (performance

    approach) a fost introdus in domeniul industrial inca din anii

    50 de catre cercetatorii americani, pentru a ordona conceptia

    si proiectarea, inovarea tehnica si tehnologica si procedurile

    de control al calitatii conceptiei, proiectarii si executiei

    Mai tarziu, s-a introdus si in constructii teoria conceptului

    de performantaca fiind un instrument destinat sa rationalizezeactivitatile legate de producereaunei constructii, sa stimuleze

    progresul tehnic, orientandu-le spre asigurarea conditiilor si

    criteriilor de satisfacere a cerintelor utilizatorilor.

    Prima etapa in aplicarea teoriei conceptului de performantain constructii este formularea exigentelor utilizatorilor, ceea ce

    nu se poate face decat in termeni calitativi, fara a se referi la o

    solutie concreta.

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    From the viewpoint of its contents, working out and application, the

    perform ance conc ept in bui ld ing construct ion represents a

    systemat ic procedure to establ ish the characteris t ics o f bu i ld ings

    and of their component parts in ord er to get satis factory response

    to all exigenc ies exp ressed by those involv ed in their ut i l isat ion.

    All definitions proposed for the performance concept emphasise

    as a fundamental issue the fact that this kind of approach does not

    start from whata product is and what it represents,but from whata

    product must provide, no matter what the concrete solution would be.

    This concept is defined as aninstrument aiming at rationalisingboth design and execution, stimulating promotion of technical progress

    and innovative solutions oriented towards ensuring conditions and

    specifying criteria able to satisfy as completely as possible users

    requirements.

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    The starting point in a building performance analysisconsists in the identification of its users exigencies(requirements).

    Since the list of usersexigencies must be set up for aspeci f ied fun ct ional type of bui ld ing and not for a

    part icular bui lding, it becomes compulsory that this

    operation have a high degree of generalisation.

    An exigency of building users represents thestatement of one of their necessities related to the

    respective type of building. This statement isexpressed in qualitative terms only, without

    reference to any particular solution.

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    The second step in a performance analysis consists in the

    conversion of usersexigencies (requirements) into

    perform ance exigenciespresently called in Romanian

    documents, techn ical condi t ions of performance-, which

    are qualitativerequirements associated with different physical

    and functional divisions of a building. The list thus worked out

    should be addressed to a potential solution, with no definitespecification of means for its achievement.

    The third step in a performance approach consists in

    establishing perform ance cri ter ia, expressed quantitatively,

    to be used for assessing the degree of fulfilment for each

    performance exigency. More recently, an alternative term has

    been introduced for this notion (which is also presently used in

    Romanian documents), namely perform ance parameters.

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    The perform ance parameters are measurable

    characteristics associated with