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DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015 755 CHAPTER 4 Federal Funds for Education and Related Activities This chapter provides information on federal support for education. The tables include detailed data on funding by spe- cific federal agencies, funding for different levels of education and types of education-related activities, and funding for spe- cific programs. Preceding the tables is a brief chronology of federal education legislation enacted since 1787, which pro- vides historical context for the education funding data. The data in this chapter primarily reflect outlays and appropri- ations of federal agencies. The data are compiled from budget information prepared by federal agencies. In contrast, most of the federal revenue data reported in other chapters are compiled by educational institutions or state education agencies and reported to the federal government through standardized survey forms. Tabulations based on institution- or state-reported revenue data differ substantially from federal budget reports because of numerous variations in methodology and definitions. Federal dollars are not necessarily spent by recipient institutions in the same year in which they are appropriated. In some cases, institu- tions cannot identify the source of federal revenues because they flow through state agencies. Some types of revenues, such as tuition and fees, are reported as revenues from students even though they may be supported by federal student aid programs. Some institutions that receive federal education funds (e.g., Department of Defense overseas and domestic schools, state edu- cation agencies, Head Start programs, and federal libraries) are not included in regular surveys, censuses, and administrative data collections conducted by the National Center for Education Sta- tistics (NCES). Thus, the federal programs data tabulated in this chapter are not comparable with figures reported in other chap- ters. Readers should also be careful about comparing the data on obligations shown in table 402.10 with the data on outlays and appropriations appearing in other tables in this chapter. Federal Education Funding Federal on-budget funding (federal appropriations) for educa- tion increased an estimated 413 percent from fiscal year (FY) 1965 to FY 2014, after adjustment for inflation (table D, table 401.10, and figure 20). From FY 1965 to FY 1975, federal on- budget funding for education increased by 152 percent. From FY 1975 to FY 1985, there was a decrease of 16 percent. Thereafter, federal on-budget funding for education generally increased. From FY 1990 to FY 2000, after adjustment for inflation, federal on-budget funding for education increased by 30 percent. From FY 2000 to FY 2014, it increased by 63 percent. Between FY 1990 and FY 2000, after adjustment for infla- tion, federal on-budget funding increased for three of the four major categories reported: elementary and secondary educa- tion (by 56 percent), other education (by 27 percent), and research at educational institutions (by 34 percent) (table D, table 401.10, and figure 20). During the same period, funding for postsecondary education decreased by 14 percent. From FY 2000 to FY 2014, after adjustment for inflation, federal on-budget funding showed a net increase of 34 percent for ele- mentary and secondary education, 241 percent for postsec- ondary education, 27 percent for other education, and 9 percent for research at educational institutions. In FY 2009, federal on-budget funding for elementary and secondary edu- cation was at a record-high level ($189.4 billion in FY 2015 dollars) due to funds from the American Recovery and Rein- vestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) (table 401.10). 1 For FY 2015, federal program funds totaled $77.6 billion for elementary and secondary education, $77.0 billion for postsecondary edu- cation, $9.5 billion for other education programs, and an esti- mated $32.5 billion for research at educational institutions (tables 401.10 and 401.30). Table D. Federal on-budget funding for education, by category: Selected fiscal years, 1965 through 2014 [In billions of constant fiscal year (FY) 2015 dollars] Year Total Elementary/ secondary Post- secondary Other education Research at educational institutions 1965 ............. $37.7 $13.7 $8.5 $2.6 $12.8 1975 ............. 94.8 43.2 31.1 6.5 13.9 1980 ............. 95.7 44.5 30.8 4.3 16.1 1985 ............. 79.7 34.5 22.8 4.3 18.1 1990 ............. 90.8 38.7 24.0 5.9 22.2 1995 ............. 107.6 50.5 26.5 7.1 23.5 2000 ............. 118.3 60.3 20.7 7.5 29.8 2005 ............. 178.6 83.3 46.6 8.3 40.4 2010 ............. 198.6 94.0 54.4 10.1 40.1 2014 ............. 193.0 80.5 70.4 9.6 32.6 NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Budget Service and National Center for Education Statistics, unpublished tabulations. U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the U.S. Government, Appendix, various FYs. National Sci- ence Foundation, Federal Funds for Research and Development, various FYs. 1 Throughout this chapter, all education funds from ARRA are included in FY 2009. Most of these funds had a 2-year availability, meaning that they were available for the U.S. Department of Education to obligate during FY 2009 and FY 2010.

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  • CHAPTER 4Federal Funds for Education and Related Activities

    This chapter provides information on federal support foreducation. The tables include detailed data on funding by spe-cific federal agencies, funding for different levels of educationand types of education-related activities, and funding for spe-cific programs. Preceding the tables is a brief chronology offederal education legislation enacted since 1787, which pro-vides historical context for the education funding data.

    The data in this chapter primarily reflect outlays and appropri-ations of federal agencies. The data are compiled from budgetinformation prepared by federal agencies. In contrast, most of thefederal revenue data reported in other chapters are compiled byeducational institutions or state education agencies and reportedto the federal government through standardized survey forms.Tabulations based on institution- or state-reported revenue datadiffer substantially from federal budget reports because ofnumerous variations in methodology and definitions. Federaldollars are not necessarily spent by recipient institutions in thesame year in which they are appropriated. In some cases, institu-tions cannot identify the source of federal revenues because theyflow through state agencies. Some types of revenues, such astuition and fees, are reported as revenues from students eventhough they may be supported by federal student aid programs.Some institutions that receive federal education funds (e.g.,Department of Defense overseas and domestic schools, state edu-cation agencies, Head Start programs, and federal libraries) arenot included in regular surveys, censuses, and administrative datacollections conducted by the National Center for Education Sta-tistics (NCES). Thus, the federal programs data tabulated in thischapter are not comparable with figures reported in other chap-ters. Readers should also be careful about comparing the data onobligations shown in table 402.10 with the data on outlays andappropriations appearing in other tables in this chapter.

    Federal Education FundingFederal on-budget funding (federal appropriations) for educa-

    tion increased an estimated 413 percent from fiscal year (FY)1965 to FY 2014, after adjustment for inflation (table D, table401.10, and figure 20). From FY 1965 to FY 1975, federal on-budget funding for education increased by 152 percent. From FY1975 to FY 1985, there was a decrease of 16 percent. Thereafter,federal on-budget funding for education generally increased.From FY 1990 to FY 2000, after adjustment for inflation, federalon-budget funding for education increased by 30 percent. FromFY 2000 to FY 2014, it increased by 63 percent.

    Between FY 1990 and FY 2000, after adjustment for infla-tion, federal on-budget funding increased for three of the fourmajor categories reported: elementary and secondary educa-tion (by 56 percent), other education (by 27 percent), andresearch at educational institutions (by 34 percent) (table D,table 401.10, and figure 20). During the same period, fundingfor postsecondary education decreased by 14 percent. FromFY 2000 to FY 2014, after adjustment for inflation, federalon-budget funding showed a net increase of 34 percent for ele-mentary and secondary education, 241 percent for postsec-ondary education, 27 percent for other education, and 9percent for research at educational institutions. In FY 2009,federal on-budget funding for elementary and secondary edu-cation was at a record-high level ($189.4 billion in FY 2015dollars) due to funds from the American Recovery and Rein-vestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) (table 401.10).1 For FY 2015,federal program funds totaled $77.6 billion for elementaryand secondary education, $77.0 billion for postsecondary edu-cation, $9.5 billion for other education programs, and an esti-mated $32.5 billion for research at educational institutions(tables 401.10 and 401.30).

    Table D. Federal on-budget funding for education, by category: Selected fiscal years, 1965 through 2014

    [In billions of constant fiscal year (FY) 2015 dollars]

    Year TotalElementary/

    secondaryPost-

    secondaryOther

    education

    Research ateducationalinstitutions

    1965 ............. $37.7 $13.7 $8.5 $2.6 $12.81975 ............. 94.8 43.2 31.1 6.5 13.91980 ............. 95.7 44.5 30.8 4.3 16.11985 ............. 79.7 34.5 22.8 4.3 18.11990 ............. 90.8 38.7 24.0 5.9 22.21995 ............. 107.6 50.5 26.5 7.1 23.52000 ............. 118.3 60.3 20.7 7.5 29.82005 ............. 178.6 83.3 46.6 8.3 40.42010 ............. 198.6 94.0 54.4 10.1 40.12014 ............. 193.0 80.5 70.4 9.6 32.6

    NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Budget Service and National Centerfor Education Statistics, unpublished tabulations. U.S. Office of Management andBudget, Budget of the U.S. Government, Appendix, various FYs. National Sci-ence Foundation, Federal Funds for Research and Development, various FYs.

    1 Throughout this chapter, all education funds from ARRA are included inFY 2009. Most of these funds had a 2-year availability, meaning that theywere available for the U.S. Department of Education to obligate during FY2009 and FY 2010.DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015 755

  • 756 CHAPTER 4: Federal Funds for Education and Related ActivitiesAfter adjustment for inflation, off-budget support (fed-eral support for education not tied to appropriations) andnonfederal funds generated by federal legislation (e.g., pri-vate loans, grants, and aid) showed an increase of 134 per-cent between FY 1990 ($19.6 billion in FY 2015 dollars)and FY 2000 ($46.0 billion in FY 2015 dollars) (table401.10). In FY 2014, these same funds totaled $101.9 billionin FY 2015 dollars, an increase of 122 percent over FY2000. In FY 2015, these funds totaled $101.5 billion.

    In FY 2014, federal on-budget funds for education totaled$190.5 billion in current dollars (figure 21 and table 401.20).The U.S. Department of Education provided 50 percent($95.7 billion) of this total. Funds exceeding $3 billion alsocame from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Ser-vices ($28.9 billion), the U.S. Department of Agriculture($23.1 billion), the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs($13.1 billion), the U.S. Department of Defense ($7.3 bil-lion), the National Science Foundation ($5.5 billion), theU.S. Department of Labor ($5.5 billion), and the U.S.Department of Energy ($3.3 billion).

    Chronology of Federal Education Legislation

    A capsule view of the history of federal education activi-ties is provided in the following list of selected legislation:

    1787 Northwest Ordinance authorized land grants for theestablishment of educational institutions.

    1802 An Act Fixing the Military Peace Establishment of theUnited States established the U.S. Military Acad-emy. (The U.S. Naval Academy was established in1845 by the Secretary of the Navy.)

    1862 First Morrill Act authorized public land grants to thestates for the establishment and maintenance of agri-cultural and mechanical colleges.

    1867 Department of Education Act authorized the establish-ment of the U.S. Department of Education.2

    1876 Appropriation Act, U.S. Department of the Treasury,established the U.S. Coast Guard Academy.

    1890 Second Morrill Act provided for monetary grants forsupport of instruction in the agricultural and mechan-ical colleges.

    1911 State Marine School Act authorized federal funds to beused for the benefit of any nautical school in any of11 specified seaport cities.

    1917 Smith-Hughes Act provided for grants to states forsupport of vocational education.

    1918 Vocational Rehabilitation Act provided for grantsfor rehabilitation through training of World War Iveterans.

    1920 Smith-Bankhead Act authorized grants to states forvocational rehabilitation programs.

    1935 Bankhead-Jones Act (Public Law 74-182) authorizedgrants to states for agricultural experiment stations.

    Agricultural Adjustment Act (Public Law 74-320)authorized 30 percent of the annual customs receiptsto be used to encourage the exportation and domesticconsumption of agricultural commodities. Commod-ities purchased under this authorization began to beused in school lunch programs in 1936. The NationalSchool Lunch Act of 1946 continued and expandedthis assistance.

    1936 An Act to Further the Development and Maintenanceof an Adequate and Well-Balanced American Mer-chant Marine (Public Law 74-415) established theU.S. Merchant Marine Academy.

    1937 National Cancer Institute Act (Public Law 75-244)established the Public Health Service fellowshipprogram.

    1941 Amendment to Lanham Act of 1940 authorized federalaid for construction, maintenance, and operation ofschools in federally impacted areas. Such assistancewas continued under Public Law 815 and Public Law874, 81st Congress, in 1950.

    1943 Vocational Rehabilitation Act (Public Law 78-16) pro-vided assistance to veterans with disabilities.

    School Lunch Indemnity Plan (Public Law 78-129)provided funds for local lunch food purchases.

    1944 Servicemens Readjustment Act (Public Law 78-346),known as the GI Bill, provided assistance for theeducation of veterans.

    Surplus Property Act (Public Law 78-457) autho-rized transfer of surplus property to educationalinstitutions.

    1946 National School Lunch Act (Public Law 79-396)authorized assistance through grants-in-aid and othermeans to states to assist in providing adequate foodsand facilities for the establishment, maintenance,operation, and expansion of nonprofit school lunchprograms.

    George-Barden Act (Public Law 80-402) expandedfederal support of vocational education.

    1948 United States Information and Educational ExchangeAct (Public Law 80-402) provided for the inter-change of people, knowledge, and skills between theUnited States and other countries.

    1949 Federal Property and Administrative Services Act(Public Law 81-152) provided for donation of sur-plus property to educational institutions and for otherpublic purposes.

    2 The U.S. Department of Education as established in 1867 was later knownas the Office of Education. In 1980, under Public Law 96-88, it became acabinet-level department. Therefore, for purposes of consistency, it isreferred to as the U.S. Department of Education even in those tables cov-ering years when it was officially the Office of Education.DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

  • CHAPTER 4: Federal Funds for Education and Related Activities 7571950 Financial Assistance for Local Educational AgenciesAffected by Federal Activities (Public Law 81-815and Public Law 81-874) provided assistance for con-struction (Public Law 815) and operation (PublicLaw 874) of schools in federally affected areas.

    Housing Act (Public Law 81-475) authorized loans forconstruction of college housing facilities.

    1954 An Act for the Establishment of the United States AirForce Academy and Other Purposes (Public Law 83-325) established the U.S. Air Force Academy.

    Educational Research Act (Public Law 83-531) autho-rized cooperative arrangements with universities,colleges, and state educational agencies for educa-tional research.

    School Milk Program Act (Public Law 83-597) pro-vided funds for purchase of milk for school lunchprograms.

    1956 Library Services Act (Public Law 84-597) providedgrants to states for extension and improvement ofrural public library services.

    1957 Practical Nurse Training Act (Public Law 84-911)provided grants to states for practical nurse training.

    1958 National Defense Education Act (Public Law 85-864)provided assistance to state and local school systemsfor instruction in science, mathematics, modern for-eign languages, and other critical subjects; state statis-tical services; guidance, counseling, and testingservices and training institutes; higher education stu-dent loans and fellowships as well as foreign languagestudy and training; experimentation and disseminationof information on more effective use of television,motion pictures, and related media for educationalpurposes; and vocational education for technical occu-pations necessary to the national defense.

    Education of Mentally Retarded Children Act (PublicLaw 85-926) authorized federal assistance for train-ing teachers of the disabled.

    Captioned Films for the Deaf Act (Public Law 85-905)authorized a loan service of captioned films for thedeaf.

    1961 Area Redevelopment Act (Public Law 87-27) includedprovisions for training or retraining of people inredevelopment areas.

    1962 Manpower Development and Training Act (PublicLaw 87-415) provided training in new and improvedskills for the unemployed and underemployed.

    Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (PublicLaw 87-510) authorized loans, advances, and grantsfor education and training of refugees.

    1963 Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of1963 (Public Law 88-129) provided funds to expandteaching facilities and for loans to students in thehealth professions.

    Vocational Education Act of 1963 (Public Law 88-210, Part A) increased federal support of vocationaleducation schools; vocational work-study programs;and research, training, and demonstrations in voca-tional education.

    Higher Education Facilities Act of 1963 (Public Law88-204) authorized grants and loans for classrooms,libraries, and laboratories in public community col-leges and technical institutes, as well as undergradu-ate and graduate facilities in other higher educationinstitutions.

    1964 Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Public Law 88-352) autho-rized the Commissioner of Education to arrange forsupport for higher education institutions and schooldistricts to provide inservice programs for assistinginstructional staff in dealing with problems causedby desegregation.

    Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 (Public Law 88-452) authorized grants for college work-study pro-grams for students from low-income families; estab-lished a Job Corps program and authorized supportfor work-training programs to provide education andvocational training and work experience opportuni-ties in welfare programs; authorized support of edu-cation and training activities and of communityaction programs, including Head Start, FollowThrough, and Upward Bound; and authorized theestablishment of Volunteers in Service to America(VISTA).

    1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965(Public Law 89-10) authorized grants for elementaryand secondary school programs for children of low-income families; school library resources, textbooks,and other instructional materials for school children;supplementary educational centers and services;strengthening state education agencies; and educa-tional research and research training.

    Health Professions Educational Assistance Amend-ments of 1965 (Public Law 89-290) authorized schol-arships to aid needy students in the healthprofessions.

    Higher Education Act of 1965 (Public Law 89-329)provided grants for university community serviceprograms, college library assistance, library trainingand research, strengthening developing institutions,teacher training programs, and undergraduateinstructional equipment. Authorized insured studentloans, established a National Teacher Corps, andprovided for graduate teacher training fellowships.

    National Foundation on the Arts and the HumanitiesAct (Public Law 89-209) authorized grants and loansfor projects in the creative and performing arts andfor research, training, and scholarly publications inthe humanities.DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

  • 758 CHAPTER 4: Federal Funds for Education and Related ActivitiesNational Technical Institute for the Deaf Act (PublicLaw 89-36) provided for the establishment, con-struction, equipping, and operation of a residentialschool for postsecondary education and technicaltraining of the deaf.

    School Assistance in Disaster Areas Act (Public Law89-313) provided for assistance to local educationagencies to help meet exceptional costs resultingfrom a major disaster.

    1966 International Education Act (Public Law 89-698) pro-vided grants to higher education institutions for theestablishment, strengthening, and operation of cen-ters for research and training in international studiesand the international aspects of other fields of study.

    National Sea Grant College and Program Act (PublicLaw 89-688) authorized the establishment and oper-ation of Sea Grant Colleges and programs by initiat-ing and supporting programs of education andresearch in the various fields relating to the develop-ment of marine resources.

    Adult Education Act (Public Law 89-750) authorizedgrants to states for the encouragement and expansionof educational programs for adults, including train-ing of teachers of adults and demonstrations in adulteducation (previously part of Economic OpportunityAct of 1964).

    Model Secondary School for the Deaf Act (Public Law89-694) authorized the establishment and operation,by Gallaudet College, of a model secondary schoolfor the deaf.

    1967 Education Professions Development Act (Public Law90-35) amended the Higher Education Act of 1965for the purpose of improving the quality of teachingand to help meet critical shortages of adequatelytrained educational personnel.

    Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 (Public Law 90-129)established a Corporation for Public Broadcasting toassume major responsibility in channeling federalfunds to noncommercial radio and television sta-tions, program production groups, and educationaltelevision networks; conduct research, demonstra-tion, or training in matters related to noncommercialbroadcasting; and award grants for construction ofeducational radio and television facilities.

    1968 Elementary and Secondary Education Amendments of1968 (Public Law 90-247) modified existing pro-grams and authorized support of regional centers foreducation of children with disabilities, model centersand services for deaf-blind children, recruitment ofpersonnel and dissemination of information on edu-cation of children with disabilities; technical assis-tance in education to rural areas; support of dropoutprevention projects; and support of bilingual educa-tion programs.

    Handicapped Childrens Early Education AssistanceAct (Public Law 90-538) authorized preschool andearly education programs for children with disabil-ities.

    Vocational Education Amendments of 1968 (PublicLaw 90-576) modified existing programs and pro-vided for a National Advisory Council on VocationalEducation and collection and dissemination of infor-mation for programs administered by the Commis-sioner of Education.

    1970 Elementary and Secondary Education Assistance Pro-grams, Extension (Public Law 91-230) authorizedcomprehensive planning and evaluation grants tostate and local education agencies; provided for theestablishment of a National Commission on SchoolFinance.

    National Commission on Libraries and InformationScience Act (Public Law 91-345) established aNational Commission on Libraries and InformationScience to effectively utilize the nations educationalresources.

    Office of Education Appropriation Act (Public Law91-380) provided emergency school assistance todesegregating local education agencies.

    Environmental Education Act (Public Law 91-516)established an Office of Environmental Education todevelop curriculum and initiate and maintain envi-ronmental education programs at the elementary/sec-ondary levels; disseminate information; providetraining programs for teachers and other educational,public, community, labor, and industrial leaders andemployees; provide community education programs;and distribute material dealing with the environmentand ecology.

    Drug Abuse Education Act of 1970 (Public Law 91-527) provided for development, demonstration,and evaluation of curricula on the problems of drugabuse.

    1971 Comprehensive Health Manpower Training Act of1971 (Public Law 92-257) amended Title VII of thePublic Health Service Act, increasing and expandingprovisions for health manpower training and trainingfacilities.

    1972 Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972 (Pub-lic Law 92-255) established a Special Action Officefor Drug Abuse Prevention to provide overall plan-ning and policy for all federal drug-abuse preven-tion functions; a National Advisory Council forDrug Abuse Prevention; community assistancegrants for community mental health centers fortreatment and rehabilitation of people with drug-abuse problems; and, in December 1974, a NationalInstitute on Drug Abuse.DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

  • CHAPTER 4: Federal Funds for Education and Related Activities 759Education Amendments of 1972 (Public Law 92-318)established the Education Division in the U.S.Department of Health, Education, and Welfare andthe National Institute of Education; general aid forhigher education institutions; federal matchinggrants for state Student Incentive Grants; a NationalCommission on Financing Postsecondary Education;State Advisory Councils on Community Colleges; aBureau of Occupational and Adult Education andState Grants for the design, establishment, and con-duct of postsecondary occupational education; and abureau-level Office of Indian Education. Amendedcurrent U.S. Department of Education programs toincrease their effectiveness and better meet specialneeds. Prohibited sex bias in admission to voca-tional, professional, and graduate schools, and publicinstitutions of undergraduate higher education.

    1973 Older Americans Comprehensive Services Amend-ment of 1973 (Public Law 93-29) made available toolder citizens comprehensive programs of health,education, and social services.

    Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1973(Public Law 93-203) provided for employment andtraining opportunities for unemployed and underem-ployed people. Extended and expanded provisions inthe Manpower Development and Training Act of1962, Title I of the Economic Opportunity Act of1962, Title I of the Economic Opportunity Act of1964, and the Emergency Employment Act of 1971as in effect prior to June 30, 1973.

    1974 Education Amendments of 1974 (Public Law 93-380)provided for the consolidation of certain programs andestablished a National Center for Education Statistics.

    Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of1974 (Public Law 93-415) provided for technicalassistance, staff training, centralized research, andresources to develop and implement programs tokeep students in elementary and secondary schools;and established, in the U.S. Department of Justice, aNational Institute for Juvenile Justice and Delin-quency Prevention.

    1975 Indian Self-Determination and Education AssistanceAct (Public Law 93-638) provided for increased par-ticipation of American Indians/Alaska Natives in theestablishment and conduct of their education pro-grams and services.

    Harry S Truman Memorial Scholarship Act (PublicLaw 93-642) established the Harry S Truman Schol-arship Foundation and created a perpetual educationscholarship fund for young Americans to prepare forand pursue careers in public service.

    Education for All Handicapped Children Act (PublicLaw 94-142) provided that all children with disabili-ties have available to them a free appropriate educa-tion designed to meet their unique needs.

    1976 Educational Broadcasting Facilities and Telecommuni-cations Demonstration Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-309) established a telecommunications demonstrationprogram to promote the development of nonbroadcasttelecommunications facilities and services for thetransmission, distribution, and delivery of health, edu-cation, and public or social service information.

    1977 Youth Employment and Demonstration Projects Act of1977 (Public Law 95-93) established a youth employ-ment training program including, among other activi-ties, promotion of education-to-work transition,literacy training and bilingual training, and attainmentof certificates of high school equivalency.

    Career Education Incentive Act (Public Law 95-207)authorized the establishment of a career educationprogram for elementary and secondary schools.

    1978 Tribally Controlled Community College AssistanceAct of 1978 (Public Law 95-471) provided federalfunds for the operation and improvement of triballycontrolled community colleges for American Indian/Alaska Native students.

    Middle Income Student Assistance Act (Public Law95-566) modified the provisions for student financialassistance programs to allow middle-income as wellas low-income students attending college or otherpostsecondary institutions to qualify for federal edu-cation assistance.

    1979 Department of Education Organization Act (PublicLaw 96-88) established a U.S. Department of Educa-tion containing functions from the Education Divi-sion of the U.S. Department of Health, Education,and Welfare (HEW) along with other selected educa-tion programs from HEW, the U.S. Department ofJustice, U.S. Department of Labor, and the NationalScience Foundation.

    1980 Asbestos School Hazard Detection and Control Act of1980 (Public Law 96-270) established a program forinspection of schools for detection of hazardous asbestosmaterials and provided loans to assist educational agen-cies to contain or remove and replace such materials.

    1981 Education Consolidation and Improvement Act of1981 (Part of Public Law 97-35) consolidated 42programs into 7 programs to be funded under the ele-mentary and secondary block grant authority.

    1983 Student Loan Consolidation and Technical Amend-ments Act of 1983 (Public Law 98-79) established an8 percent interest rate for Guaranteed Student Loansand an extended Family Contribution Schedule.

    Challenge Grant Amendments of 1983 (Public Law 98-95) amended Title III of the Higher Education Act of1965, and added authorization of the Challenge Grantprogram. The Challenge Grant program providesfunds to eligible institutions on a matching basis as anincentive to seek alternative sources of funding.DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

  • 760 CHAPTER 4: Federal Funds for Education and Related ActivitiesEducation of the Handicapped Act Amendments of1983 (Public Law 98-199) added the ArchitecturalBarrier amendment (providing funds for alteringexisting buildings and equipment to make themaccessible to those with physical disabilities) andclarified participation of children with disabilities inprivate schools.

    1984 Education for Economic Security Act (Public Law 98-377) added new science and mathematics programsfor elementary, secondary, and postsecondary educa-tion. The new programs included magnet schools,excellence in education, and equal access.

    Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act (PublicLaw 98-524) continued federal assistance for voca-tional education through FY 1989. The act replacedthe Vocational Education Act of 1963. It providedaid to the states to make vocational education pro-grams accessible to all people, including disabledand disadvantaged, single parents and homemakers,and the incarcerated.

    Human Services Reauthorization Act (Public Law 98-558) created a Carl D. Perkins scholarship program,a National Talented Teachers Fellowship program, aFederal Merit Scholarships program, and a Leader-ship in Educational Administration program.

    1985 Montgomery GI BillActive Duty (Public Law 98-525), brought about a new GI Bill for individualswho initially entered active military duty on or afterJuly 1, 1985.

    Montgomery GI BillSelected Reserve (Public Law98-525), established an education program for mem-bers of the Selected Reserve (which includes theNational Guard) who enlist, reenlist, or extend anenlistment after June 30, 1985, for a 6-year period.

    1986 Handicapped Childrens Protection Act of 1986 (Pub-lic Law 99-372) allowed parents of children with dis-abilities to collect attorneys fees in cases broughtunder the Education of the Handicapped Act andprovided that the Education of the Handicapped Actdoes not preempt other laws, such as Section 504 ofthe Rehabilitation Act.

    Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act of 1986(Part of Public Law 99-570) established programsfor drug abuse education and prevention, coordi-nated with related community efforts and resources,through the use of federal financial assistance.

    1988 Augustus F. Hawkins-Robert T. Stafford Elementaryand Secondary School Improvement Amendments of1988 (Public Law 100-297) reauthorized through1993 major elementary and secondary educationprograms, including Chapter 1, Chapter 2, BilingualEducation, Math-Science Education, MagnetSchools, Impact Aid, Indian Education, Adult Edu-cation, and other smaller education programs.

    Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Amend-ments Act of 1988 (Public Law 100-628) extendedfor 2 additional years programs providing assistanceto the homeless, including literacy training for home-less adults and education for homeless youths.

    Tax Reform Technical Amendments (Public Law 100-647) authorized an Education Savings Bond for thepurpose of postsecondary educational expenses. Thebill grants tax exclusion for interest earned on regu-lar series EE savings bonds.

    1989 Childhood Education and Development Act of 1989(Part of Public Law 101-239) authorized the appropri-ations to expand Head Start programs and programscarried out under the Elementary and Secondary Edu-cation Act of 1965 to include child care services.

    1990 Excellence in Mathematics, Science and EngineeringEducation Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-589) createda national mathematics and science clearinghouseand created several other mathematics, science, andengineering education programs.

    Student Right-To-Know and Campus Security Act (Pub-lic Law 101-542) required higher education institu-tions receiving federal financial assistance to providecertain information about graduation rates of student-athletes and about campus crime statistics and securitypolicies. (The 1990 campus crime and security legisla-tion, along with later acts that amended it, is generallyreferred to as the Clery Act.)

    Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (Public Law101-336) prohibited discrimination against peoplewith disabilities.

    National and Community Service Act of 1990 (PublicLaw 101-610) increased school and college-basedcommunity service opportunities and authorized thePresidents Points of Light Foundation.

    1991 National Literacy Act of 1991 (Public Law 102-73)established the National Institute for Literacy, theNational Institute Board, and the Interagency TaskForce on Literacy. Amended various federal laws toestablish and extend various literacy programs.

    High-Performance Computing Act of 1991 (PublicLaw 102-194) directed the President to implement aNational High-Performance Computing Program.Provided for (1) establishment of a NationalResearch and Education Network; (2) standards andguidelines for high-performance networks; and (3)the responsibility of certain federal departments andagencies with regard to the Network.

    Veterans Educational Assistance Amendments of1991 (Public Law 102-127) restored certain educa-tional benefits available to reserve and active-dutypersonnel under the Montgomery GI Bill to stu-dents whose courses of studies were interrupted bythe Persian Gulf War.DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

  • CHAPTER 4: Federal Funds for Education and Related Activities 761Civil Rights Act of 1991 (Public Law 102-166)amended the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Age Dis-crimination in Employment Act of 1967, and theAmericans with Disabilities Act of 1990, with regardto employment discrimination. Established the Tech-nical Assistance Training Institute.

    1992 Ready-To-Learn Act (Public Law 102-545) amendedthe General Education Provisions Act to establishReady-To-Learn Television programs to supporteducational programming and related materials forpreschool and elementary school children and theirparents, child care providers, and educators.

    1993 Student Loan Reform Act (Public Law 103-66)reformed the student aid process by phasing in a sys-tem of direct lending designed to provide savings fortaxpayers and students. Allows students to chooseamong a variety of repayment options, includingincome contingency.

    National Service Trust Act (Public Law 103-82)amended the National and Community Service Actof 1990 to establish a Corporation for National Ser-vice. In addition, provided education grants up to$4,725 per year for 2 years to people age 17 or olderwho perform community service before, during, orafter postsecondary education.

    1994 Goals 2000: Educate America Act (Public Law 103-227) established a new federal partnership through asystem of grants to states and local communities toreform the nations education system. The Act for-malized the national education goals and establishedthe National Education Goals Panel.

    School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994 (PublicLaw 103-239) established a national frameworkwithin which states and communities can developSchool-to-Work Opportunities systems to prepareyoung people for first jobs and continuing education.The Act also provided money to states and commu-nities to develop a system of programs that includework-based learning, school-based learning, andconnecting activities components.

    Safe Schools Act of 1994 (Part of Public Law 103-227)authorized the award of competitive grants to localeducational agencies with serious crime to imple-ment violence prevention activities such as conflictresolution and peer mediation.

    1996 Contract With America: Unfunded Mandates (PublicLaw 104-4) ended the imposition, in the absence offull consideration by Congress, of federal mandateson state, local, and tribal governments without ade-quate funding, in a manner that may displace otheressential governmental priorities; and ensured thatthe federal government pays the costs incurred bythose governments in complying with certainrequirements under federal statutes and regulations.

    1997 The Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 (Public Law 105-34)enacted the Hope Scholarship and Life-Long Learn-ing Tax Credit provisions into law.

    Emergency Student Loan Consolidation Act of 1997(Public Law 105-78) amended the Higher EducationAct of 1965 to provide for improved student loanconsolidation services.

    1998 Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (Public Law 105-220) enacted the Adult Education and Family Liter-acy Act, and substantially revised and extended,through FY 2003, the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.

    Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policyand Campus Crime Statistics Act (Public Law 105-244) expanded crime categories that must bereported by postsecondary institutions.

    Omnibus Consolidated and Emergency SupplementalAppropriations Act, 1999 (Public Law 105-277)enacted the Reading Excellence Act, to promote theability of children to read independently by the thirdgrade; and earmarked funds to help states and schooldistricts reduce class sizes in the early grades.

    Charter School Expansion Act (Public Law 105-278)amended the charter school program, enacted in1994 as Title X, Part C of the Elementary and Sec-ondary Education Act of 1965.

    Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied TechnologyEducation Amendments of 1998 (Public Law 105-332) revised, in its entirety, the Carl D. PerkinsVocational and Applied Technology Education Act,and reauthorized the Act through FY 2003.

    Assistive Technology Act of 1998 (Public Law 105-394)replaced the Technology-Related Assistance for Indi-viduals with Disabilities Act of 1988 with a new Act,authorized through FY 2004, to address the assistive-technology needs of individuals with disabilities.

    1999 Education Flexibility Partnership Act of 1999 (PublicLaw 106-25) authorized the Secretary of Educationto allow all states to participate in the EducationFlexibility Partnership program.

    District of Columbia College Access Act of 1999 (Pub-lic Law 106-98) established a program to afford highschool graduates from the District of Columbia thebenefits of in-state tuition at state colleges and uni-versities outside the District of Columbia.

    2000 The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year2001 (Public Law 106-398) included, as Title XVIII,the Impact Aid Reauthorization Act of 2000, whichextended the Impact Aid programs through FY 2003.

    College Scholarship Fraud Prevention Act of 2000(Public Law 106-420) enhanced federal penalties foroffenses involving scholarship fraud; required anannual scholarship fraud report by the Attorney Gen-eral, the Secretary of Education, and the FederalTrade Commission (FTC); and required the Secre-tary of Education, in conjunction with the FTC, tomaintain a scholarship fraud awareness website.DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

  • 762 CHAPTER 4: Federal Funds for Education and Related ActivitiesConsolidated Appropriations Act 2001 (Public Law106-554) created a new program of assistance forschool repair and renovation, and amended the Ele-mentary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 toauthorize credit enhancement initiatives to help char-ter schools obtain, construct, or repair facilities;reauthorized the Even Start program; and enacted theChildrens Internet Protection Act.

    2001 50th Anniversary of Brown v. the Board of Education(Public Law 107-41) established a commission for thepurpose of encouraging and providing for the com-memoration of the 50th anniversary of the 1954Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education.

    2002 No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-110)provided for the comprehensive reauthorization of theElementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965,incorporating specific proposals in such areas as test-ing, accountability, parental choice, and early reading.

    Education Sciences Reform Act (Public Law 107-279)established the Institute of Education Scienceswithin the U.S. Department of Education to carry outa coordinated, focused agenda of high-qualityresearch, statistics, and evaluation that is relevant tothe educational challenges of the nation.

    The Higher Education Relief Opportunities for Stu-dents Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-122) provided theSecretary of Education with waiver authority overstudent financial aid programs under Title IV of theHigher Education Act of 1965, to deal with studentand family situations resulting from the September11, 2001, terrorist attacks.

    Public Law 107-139 amended Title IV of the HigherEducation Act to establish fixed interest rates for stu-dent and parent borrowers.

    2003 The Higher Education Relief Opportunities for StudentsAct of 2003 (Public Law 108-76) provided the Secre-tary of Education with waiver authority over studentfinancial aid programs under Title IV of the HigherEducation Act of 1965, to deal with student and familysituations resulting from wars or national emergencies.

    2004 Assistive Technology Act of 2004 (Public Law 108-364) reauthorized the Assistive Technology pro-gram, administered by the Department of Education.

    Taxpayer-Teacher Protection Act of 2004 (Public Law108-409) temporarily stopped excessive specialallowance payments to certain lenders under the Fed-eral Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program andincreased the amount of loans that can be forgivenfor certain borrowers who are highly qualified math-ematics, science, and special education teachers whoserve in high-poverty schools for 5 years.

    Individuals with Disabilities Education ImprovementAct of 2004 (Public Law 108-446) provided a com-prehensive reauthorization of the Individuals withDisabilities Education Act.

    2005 Student Grant Hurricane and Disaster Relief Act(Public Law 109-67) authorized the Secretary ofEducation to waive certain repayment requirementsfor students receiving campus-based federal grantassistance if they were residing in, employed in, orattending an institution of higher education locatedin a major disaster area, or their attendance was inter-rupted because of the disaster.

    Natural Disaster Student Aid Fairness Act (PublicLaw 109-86) authorized the Secretary of Educationduring FY 2006 to reallocate campus-based studentaid funds to institutions of higher learning in Louisi-ana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Texas, or institutionsthat had accepted students displaced by HurricaneKatrina or Rita. The law also waived requirementsfor matching funds that are normally imposed oninstitutions and students.

    Hurricane Education Recovery Act (Public Law 109-148, provision in the Defense Department Appropri-ations Act for FY 2006) provided funds for statesaffected by Hurricane Katrina to restart school oper-ations, provide temporary emergency aid for dis-placed students, and assist homeless youth. The lawalso permitted the Secretary of Education to extenddeadlines under the Individuals with DisabilitiesEducation Act for those affected by Katrina or Rita.

    2006 Higher Education Reconciliation Act of 2005 (PublicLaw 109-171) made various amendments to pro-grams of student financial assistance under Title IVof the Higher Education Act of1965.

    Public Law 109-211 reauthorized the ED-FLEX pro-gram (under the Education Flexibility Partnership Actof1999), under which the Secretary of Education per-mits states to waive certain requirements of federalstatutes and regulations if they meet certain conditions.

    Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical EducationImprovement Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-270)reauthorized the vocational and technical educationprograms under the Perkins Act through 2012.

    2007 America COMPETES Act (or America CreatingOpportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellencein Technology, Education, and Science Act) (PublicLaw 110-69) created new STEM (science, technol-ogy, engineering, and mathematics) education pro-grams in various agencies, including the Departmentof Education.

    College Cost Reduction and Access Act of 2007 (Pub-lic Law 110-84) reduced interest rates on studentloans and made other amendments to the HigherEducation Act of 1965 to make college more acces-sible and affordable.

    Public Law 110-93 made permanent the waiverauthority of the Secretary of Education with respectto student financial assistance during a war or othermilitary operation or national emergency.DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

  • CHAPTER 4: Federal Funds for Education and Related Activities 7632008 Ensuring Continued Access to Student Loans Act of2008 (Public Law 110-227) provided various author-ities to the Department of Education, among otherprovisions, to help ensure that college students andtheir parents continue to have access to loans in thetight credit market.

    Higher Education Opportunity Act (Public Law 110-315) provided a comprehensive reauthorization ofthe Higher Education Act of 1965.

    2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009(Public Law 111-5) provided about $100 billion tostate education systems and supplemental appropria-tions for several Department of Education programs.

    Public Law 111-39 made miscellaneous and technicalamendments to the Higher Education Act of 1965.

    2010 Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of2010 (Public Law 111-152) included, as Title II, theSAFRA Act (also known as the Student Aid andFiscal Responsibility Act). The SAFRA Act endedthe federal governments role in subsidizing finan-cial institutions that make student loans through theFederal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Programunder Part B of Title IV of the Higher Education Actof 1965 (HEA), and correspondingly expanded theFederal Direct Student Loan Program administeredby the Department of Education under Part D of TitleIV of the HEA.

    Public Law 111-226 provided an additional $10 bil-lion to states and school districts, through an Educa-tion Jobs Fund modeled closely on the State FiscalStabilization Fund created by the 2009 RecoveryAct, to hire (or avoid laying off) teachers and othereducators.

    2013 The Bipartisan Student Loan Certainty Act of 2013(Public Law 113-28) amended the Higher EducationAct of 1965 (HEA) to govern the interest rates on thevarious categories of student loans under Title IV ofthe HEA.

    Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013(Public Law 113-4) amended the Clery Act, increas-

    ing the responsibility of postsecondary institutions toprevent, address, and report crimes on campus.

    2014 Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (PublicLaw 113-128) amended the Workforce InvestmentAct of 1998 to strengthen the U.S. workforce devel-opment system through innovation in, and alignmentand improvement of, employment, training, and edu-cation programs in the United States, and to promoteindividual and national economic growth, and forother purposes.

    Public Law 113-174 extended the National AdvisoryCommittee on Institutional Quality and Integrity andthe Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assis-tance for 1 year.

    2015 Need-Based Educational Aid Act of 2015 (Public Law114-44) amended the Improving Americas SchoolsAct of 1994 to extend through FY 2022 the antitrustexemption that allows higher education institutionsthat admit all students on a need-blind basis to enteror attempt to enter into agreements among them-selves regarding the administration of need-basedfinancial aid.

    STEM Education Act of 2015 (Public Law 114-59)defined STEM education to include computer sci-ence, and provided for continued support for existingSTEM education programs at the National ScienceFoundation.

    Every Student Succeeds Act (Public Law 114-95) reau-thorized and amended the Elementary and Second-ary Education Act of 1965, incorporating provisionsto expand state responsibility over schools, providegrants to charter schools, and reduce the federal test-based accountability system of the No Child LeftBehind Act.

    Federal Perkins Loan Program Extension Act of 2015(Public Law 114-105) temporarily extended the Fed-eral Perkins Loan program, allowing continued dis-bursement of loans to current undergraduateborrowers through September 30, 2017.DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

  • 764 CHAPTER 4: Federal Funds for Education and Related ActivitiesFigure 20. Federal on-budget funds for education, by level or other educational purpose: Selected years, 1965 through 2015

    1Other education includes libraries, museums, cultural activities, and miscellaneous research. NOTE: The increase in postsecondary expenditures in 2006 resulted primarily from an accounting adjustment. Amounts for 2009 include funds from the American Recovery and Rein-vestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). Data for research at educational institutions are estimated for 2015. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Budget Service, unpublished tabulations. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, unpublished tabulations.U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the U.S. Government, Appendix, fiscal years 1967 through 2016. National Science Foundation, Federal Funds for Research andDevelopment, fiscal years 1967 through 2015.

    Figure 21. Percentage distribution of federal on-budget funds for education, by agency: Fiscal year 2014

    1In addition to the nine agencies shown in this figure, other agencies provide smaller amounts of funding for education.NOTE: On-budget funds are tied to federal appropriations for education programs. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, unpublished tabulations. U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the U.S. Government, Appen-dix, fiscal year 2015. National Science Foundation, Federal Funds for Research and Development, fiscal year 2014.

    1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 20152010

    Billions of constant fiscal year 2015 dollars

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    120

    140

    160

    180

    200

    220

    240

    260

    280

    $300Total

    Elementaryand secondary

    Postsecondary

    Other education1

    Research at educational institutions

    Fiscal year

    12.1

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    Agency

    Total = $190.5 billion (fiscal year 2014 dollars)

    0

    20

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    80

    100

    3.8

    1.23.1

    2.91.7

    Department of Health and Human Services

    Department of Agriculture

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    National Science Foundation

    Department of EnergyDepartment of Labor

    Department of Education

    Percent

    2.9

    Other1

    Department of Defense DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

  • CHAPTER 4: Federal Funds for Education and Related Activities 765On-Budget and Off-Budget SupportOnTab

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    33,3

    00

    25,0

    0025

    5,90

    047

    ,300

    37,3

    60,0

    00

    2000

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    119,

    367,

    271

    85,9

    44,2

    0343

    ,790

    ,783

    15,0

    08,7

    155,

    484,

    571

    21,6

    60,1

    3433

    ,423

    ,068

    10,3

    47,0

    0022

    ,711

    ,000

    33,3

    00

    50,0

    0027

    6,74

    35,

    025

    39,4

    75,0

    0020

    01...

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    .13

    0,61

    8,22

    494

    ,846

    ,476

    48,5

    30,0

    6114

    ,938

    ,278

    5,88

    0,00

    725

    ,498

    ,130

    35,7

    71,7

    4810

    ,635

    ,000

    24,6

    94,0

    0025

    ,000

    80

    ,000

    316,

    655

    21,0

    9341

    ,460

    ,000

    2002

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    150,

    030,

    786

    109,

    211,

    479

    52,7

    54,1

    1822

    ,964

    ,176

    6,29

    7,69

    727

    ,195

    ,488

    40,8

    19,3

    0711

    ,689

    ,000

    28,6

    06,0

    0025

    ,000

    10

    4,00

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    8,81

    186

    ,496

    20

    03...

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    .17

    0,67

    7,32

    712

    4,37

    4,48

    959

    ,274

    ,219

    29,4

    99,6

    946,

    532,

    502

    29,0

    68,0

    7446

    ,302

    ,838

    11,9

    69,0

    0033

    ,791

    ,000

    33,0

    00

    103,

    000

    304,

    671

    102,

    167

    20

    04...

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    .18

    5,04

    0,37

    113

    2,42

    0,70

    362

    ,653

    ,231

    32,4

    32,9

    746,

    576,

    821

    30,7

    57,6

    7752

    ,619

    ,668

    12,8

    40,0

    0039

    ,266

    ,000

    33,0

    00

    102,

    000

    295,

    143

    83,5

    25

    2005

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    204,

    558,

    951

    147,

    878,

    146

    68,9

    57,7

    1138

    ,587

    ,287

    6,91

    3,45

    133

    ,419

    ,698

    56,6

    80,8

    0512

    ,930

    ,000

    43,2

    84,0

    000

    10

    1,00

    030

    5,64

    460

    ,161

    20

    0611

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    .22

    6,95

    1,15

    116

    6,49

    5,66

    170

    ,948

    ,229

    57,7

    57,7

    387,

    074,

    484

    30,7

    15,2

    1060

    ,455

    ,490

    12,6

    77,0

    0047

    ,307

    ,000

    0

    100,

    000

    309,

    608

    61,8

    82

    2007

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    210,

    509,

    705

    145,

    697,

    988

    70,7

    35,8

    7537

    ,465

    ,287

    7,21

    4,90

    630

    ,281

    ,920

    64,8

    11,7

    1713

    ,022

    ,000

    51,3

    20,0

    000

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    0,00

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    7,12

    682

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    08...

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

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    0,36

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    4,33

    8,88

    971

    ,272

    ,580

    36,3

    86,2

    717,

    882,

    220

    28,7

    97,8

    1776

    ,021

    ,551

    18,2

    13,0

    0057

    ,296

    ,000

    0

    98,0

    0028

    1,81

    213

    2,73

    9

    2009

    12...

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    368,

    486,

    844

    271,

    297,

    568

    172,

    660,

    784

    53,0

    85,4

    018,

    853,

    694

    36,6

    97,6

    8997

    ,189

    ,276

    29,7

    38,0

    0066

    ,778

    ,000

    0

    98,0

    0030

    9,05

    826

    6,21

    8

    2010

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    288,

    081,

    805

    183,

    189,

    989

    86,6

    81,7

    8350

    ,188

    ,459

    9,32

    6,44

    136

    ,993

    ,306

    104,

    891,

    816

    84,7

    03,0

    0019

    ,618

    ,000

    0

    98,0

    0025

    5,10

    821

    7,70

    8

    2011

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    293,

    297,

    670

    183,

    942,

    414

    76,4

    06,3

    1564

    ,422

    ,753

    11,0

    96,2

    3432

    ,017

    ,112

    109,

    355,

    256

    108,

    926,

    300

    00

    0

    231,

    480

    197,

    476

    20

    12...

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    .29

    5,44

    1,14

    919

    0,40

    0,10

    878

    ,529

    ,067

    70,3

    04,3

    479,

    390,

    511

    32,1

    76,1

    8410

    5,04

    1,04

    110

    4,61

    3,00

    80

    0

    024

    3,87

    118

    4,16

    2

    2013

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    284,

    367,

    652

    182,

    297,

    588

    78,9

    65,8

    9963

    ,353

    ,225

    9,63

    8,63

    130

    ,339

    ,833

    102,

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    101,

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    0

    192,

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    146,

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    ......

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    ......

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    69,4

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    619,

    443,

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    32,2

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    0,59

    6,20

    910

    0,15

    6,08

    20

    0

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    4,91

    813

    195,

    209

    13

    2015

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    297,

    974,

    582

    196,

    456,

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    77,5

    65,9

    8976

    ,955

    ,169

    9,46

    7,08

    632

    ,467

    ,878

    1310

    1,51

    8,45

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    0

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    3,38

    313

    186,

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    13

    Con

    stan

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    cal y

    ear 2

    015

    dolla

    rs14

    1965

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    $37,

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    810

    $37,

    656,

    951

    $13,

    721,

    874

    $8,4

    58,9

    15$2

    ,646

    ,447

    $12,

    829,

    715

    -$44

    ,141

    $113

    ,804

    -$

    157,

    945

    19

    70...

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    .77

    ,207

    ,744

    72,3

    62,1

    3533

    ,680

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    19,9

    16,3

    965,

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    91,9

    654,

    845,

    609

    $4

    ,448

    ,078

    121,

    173

    27

    6,35

    9

    1975

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    99,4

    94,1

    0494

    ,759

    ,153

    43,2

    01,2

    7231

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    6,54

    4,88

    313

    ,909

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    4,73

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    1

    5,01

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    5,12

    9

    $81,

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    3,66

    819

    80...

    ......

    ......

    ......

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    5230

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    7,89

    216

    ,098

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    13,3

    66,9

    69

    12,7

    59,9

    4488

    ,187

    21

    3,12

    8

    305,

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    36,9

    64,4

    32

    1985

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    97,2

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    9179

    ,682

    ,821

    34,5

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    ,057

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    70

    17,2

    86,9

    8943

    ,666

    15

    5,16

    8

    129,

    647

    39,0

    06,4

    8619

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    ......

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    525,

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    18,0

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    3416

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    16

    ,278

    ,065

    40,3

    91

    145,

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    12

    4,37

    740

    ,835

    ,110

    1987

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    98,3

    62,1

    3680

    ,068

    ,401

    34,0

    83,3

    9920

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    ,663

    5,48

    1,90

    420

    ,483

    ,435

    18,2

    93,7

    34

    18,0

    21,5

    8840

    ,601

    $1,0

    8114

    7,71

    8

    82,7

    4740

    ,486

    ,375

    1988

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    101,

    457,

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    81,6

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    0734

    ,902

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    5819

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    19

    ,514

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    38,7

    9890

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    6,86

    6

    69,9

    0232

    ,007

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    1989

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    107,

    579,

    697

    87,3

    93,5

    0435

    ,865

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    21,7

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    ,186

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    19

    ,803

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    56

    See

    not

    es a

    t end

    of t

    able

    .

    DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

    -Budge

    t

    a

  • 766 CHAPTER 4: Federal Funds for Education and Related ActivitiesOn-Budget and Off-Budget SupportN

    ot a

    vaila

    ble.

    Not

    app

    licab

    le.

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    budg

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    Dep

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    15. (

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    ble

    was

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    ay 2

    016.

    )

    1990

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    110,

    401,

    306

    90,7

    85,3

    5338

    ,661

    ,180

    24,0

    06,1

    785,

    949,

    319

    22,1

    68,6

    7619

    ,615

    ,953

    19

    ,038

    ,349

    26,4

    0387

    910

    4,07

    422

    4,60

    422

    1,64

    433

    ,483

    ,296

    1991

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    118,

    236,

    526

    96,8

    08,0

    6842

    ,720

    ,362

    24,7

    18,8

    996,

    216,

    306

    23,1

    52,5

    0221

    ,428

    ,457

    20

    ,793

    ,755

    29,1

    5984

    010

    6,77

    622

    0,36

    627

    7,56

    131

    ,925

    ,103

    1992

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    120,

    653,

    244

    97,9

    76,8

    9345

    ,238

    ,918

    23,3

    06,2

    076,

    466,

    590

    22,9

    65,1

    7822

    ,676

    ,351

    21

    ,978

    ,878

    28,0

    7887

    811

    6,63

    328

    4,54

    626

    7,33

    832

    ,317

    ,115

    1993

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    133,

    239,

    749

    106,

    570,

    281

    48,5

    08,9

    0028

    ,072

    ,400

    6,46

    1,48

    123

    ,527

    ,500

    26,6

    69,4

    69

    25,9

    95,7

    3846

    ,024

    11

    3,94

    627

    0,62

    824

    3,13

    233

    ,053

    ,162

    1994

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    143,

    256,

    731

    105,

    457,

    553

    49,9

    12,5

    0524

    ,994

    ,683

    6,92

    7,63

    823

    ,622

    ,727

    37,7

    99,1

    78$1

    ,256

    ,142

    35,8

    67,2

    6581

    ,374

    11

    1,90

    826

    5,75

    221

    6,73

    634

    ,964

    ,944

    1995

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    143,

    769,

    435

    107,

    552,

    420

    50,4

    79,4

    2926

    ,450

    ,111

    7,08

    5,61

    923

    ,537

    ,262

    36,2

    17,0

    147,

    748,

    210

    27,8

    02,5

    7779

    ,069

    95

    ,182

    271,

    735

    220,

    241

    36,9

    31,9

    8319

    96...

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    .14

    2,33

    9,37

    010

    4,88

    7,55

    550

    ,573

    ,025

    23,1

    98,0

    337,

    099,

    675

    24,0

    16,8

    2237

    ,451

    ,815

    12,2

    89,0

    4724

    ,573

    ,682

    45,7

    33

    46,1

    7426

    3,22

    123

    3,95

    838

    ,733

    ,217

    1997

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    148,

    639,

    962

    106,

    258,

    321

    51,1

    30,2

    6622

    ,999

    ,854

    7,23

    6,22

    724

    ,891

    ,973

    42,3

    81,6

    4114

    ,177

    ,990

    27,6

    16,6

    7275

    ,948

    72

    ,057

    328,

    869

    110,

    104

    40,5

    32,2

    1919

    98...

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    .15

    3,82

    5,75

    710

    9,84

    1,72

    553

    ,537

    ,722

    22,5

    64,9

    377,

    353,

    073

    26,3

    85,9

    9243

    ,984

    ,033

    14,8

    53,4

    1728

    ,567

    ,560

    64,2

    69

    35,7

    0534

    4,12

    511

    8,95

    842

    ,189

    ,012

    1999

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    159,

    775,

    972

    116,

    869,

    846

    56,3

    27,9

    6124

    ,895

    ,044

    7,50

    0,47

    328

    ,146

    ,367

    42,9

    06,1

    2714

    ,037

    ,594

    28,3

    58,6

    7746

    ,966

    35

    ,260

    360,

    918

    66,7

    1152

    ,692

    ,106

    2000

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    164,

    277,

    878

    118,

    279,

    752

    60,2

    66,5

    7820

    ,655

    ,577

    7,54

    8,08

    029

    ,809

    ,518

    45,9

    98,1

    2514

    ,239

    ,944

    31,2

    55,7

    6145

    ,829

    68

    ,812

    380,

    864

    6,91

    654

    ,327

    ,029

    2001

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    175,

    083,

    323

    127,

    134,

    145

    65,0

    50,6

    8020

    ,023

    ,572

    7,88

    1,68

    134

    ,178

    ,212

    47,9

    49,1

    7814

    ,255

    ,370

    33,1

    00,3

    4033

    ,511

    10

    7,23

    442

    4,45

    128

    ,273

    55,5

    73,8

    2720

    02...

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    .19

    7,81

    7,03

    414

    3,99

    6,38

    569

    ,556

    ,812

    30,2

    78,4

    878,

    303,

    574

    35,8

    57,5

    1253

    ,820

    ,649

    15,4

    12,0

    5937

    ,717

    ,286

    32,9

    63

    137,

    125

    407,

    170

    114,

    046

    20

    03...

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    .21

    8,85

    8,01

    015

    9,48

    4,29

    576

    ,006

    ,801

    37,8

    27,1

    948,

    376,

    569

    37,2

    73,7

    3159

    ,373

    ,715

    15,3

    47,7

    4243

    ,329

    ,897

    42,3

    16

    132,

    076

    390,

    677

    131,

    008

    20

    04...

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    .23

    1,22

    1,42

    316

    5,46

    9,31

    478

    ,289

    ,776

    40,5

    27,3

    648,

    218,

    217

    38,4

    33,9

    5865

    ,752

    ,108

    16,0

    44,5

    1549

    ,065

    ,727

    41,2

    36

    127,

    456

    368,

    803

    104,

    371

    2005

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    247,

    056,

    225

    178,

    599,

    941

    83,2

    83,7

    2646

    ,603

    ,824

    8,34

    9,72

    540

    ,362

    ,665

    68,4

    56,2

    8415

    ,616

    ,217

    52,2

    76,2

    830

    12

    1,98

    336

    9,14

    272

    ,659

    20

    0611

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    .26

    4,96

    9,57

    519

    4,38

    6,69

    782

    ,833

    ,341

    67,4

    33,2

    048,

    259,

    588

    35,8

    60,5

    6370

    ,582

    ,878

    14,8

    00,6

    2755

    ,231

    ,778

    0

    116,

    752

    361,

    473

    72,2

    48

    2007

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    239,

    453,

    698

    165,

    730,

    706

    80,4

    61,6

    9142

    ,616

    ,570

    8,20

    6,91

    834

    ,445

    ,527

    73,7

    22,9

    9214

    ,812

    ,457

    58,3

    76,2

    340

    11

    3,74

    932

    6,60

    493

    ,947

    20

    08...

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    .24

    2,19

    5,57

    415

    8,64

    1,17

    978

    ,334

    ,857

    39,9

    91,7

    248,

    663,

    256

    31,6

    51,3

    4383

    ,554

    ,395

    20,0

    17,6

    9562

    ,973

    ,361

    0

    107,

    711

    309,

    736

    145,

    892

    20

    0912

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    .40

    4,23

    0,06

    729

    7,61

    3,43

    218

    9,40

    8,88

    058

    ,234

    ,685

    9,71

    2,50

    240

    ,257

    ,365

    106,

    616,

    636

    32,6

    22,5

    8673

    ,255

    ,466

    0

    107,

    506

    339,

    037

    292,

    041

    2010

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    312,

    309,

    260

    198,

    596,

    124

    93,9

    71,6

    5354

    ,409

    ,269

    10,1

    10,7

    8840

    ,104

    ,414

    113,

    713,

    136

    91,8

    26,4

    5621

    ,267

    ,858

    0

    106,

    242

    276,

    562

    236,

    017

    20

    11...

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    .31

    1,83

    1,30

    819

    5,56

    5,83

    581

    ,234

    ,471

    68,4

    93,6

    6211

    ,797

    ,411

    34,0

    40,2

    9111

    6,26

    5,47

    411

    5,80

    9,41

    20

    0

    024

    6,10

    720

    9,95

    5

    2012

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ......

    ....

    308,

    313,

    300

    198,

    695,

    699

    81,9

    50,5

    2073

    ,367

    ,455

    9,79

    9,64

    833

    ,578

    ,077

    109,

    617,

    601

    109,

    170,

    919

    00