EcologyChapter 3: The Biosphere
What Is Ecology?Ecology- is the study of the interactions among organisms and between the organisms and the environments in which they live. (eco means house) .Biotic factors all living thingsEx. Types of plants, animals, bacteria, fungi, etc.
Abiotic factors all non-living thingsEx. Climate, temperature, amount of rainfall, humidity, light, wind, soil type, nutrients available, etc.
Smallest LargestGo to Section: Individual Population Community Ecosystem Biome BiosphereEcological Levels of Organization
Levels of OrganizationSummarySpecies-or individualPopulation- all of one speciesCommunities-all populationsEcosystems- all populations + environmentBiome- large stable ecosystems
Biosphere- Part of Earth where life exists (all biomes)
Species / IndividualA group of similar looking organisms that can breed with one another to produce fertile offspring.
PopulationsGroups of individuals within the same species that live in the same area (habitat).
CommunitiesAll Populations of various species that live together in a defined area.
Ecosystemsall members of a community & the physical environment they live inWhat abiotic factors are present?What biotic factors are present?Habitat: place where an organism lives
Biomelarge, stable groups of ecosystems that share the same biotic and abiotic factorsHighlighted RegionsTropical Rainforest
BiosphereThe part of Earth where life exists.
What term is used to refer to each of the following?
_________________1. Lake Houston (location)_________________2. Mississippi river and all of the forms of life that are sustained by it_________________3. A flock of ducks_________________4. The Sahara desert_________________5. All livable areas on Earth_________________6. All the deer, ducks, shore birds, fish and rabbits in an areaHabitatPopulation/speciesBiomeBiosphereEcosystemCommunity
Practice:Species / Individual
The flow of energy through an ecosystem begins with the SUN, and is passed on through various organisms
Sunlight Producers Consumers Decomposers
Sunlight Producers Consumers DecomposersProducers autotrophic organisms that are able to make own food from a inorganic substances. Ex. Plants, algae (phytoplankton-microscopic marine plant life)
Consumers:Consumers: heterotrophic organisms that get energy by eating producers and other consumers. (ex. Deer, hawk, bear)
Sunlight Producers Consumers Decomposers
Herbivores: eat producers (plants)ex. Deer, grasshopper, cow
Carnivores: eat other consumers (meat)ex. Frog, wolf, hawk
Omnivores: eat producers and consumersex. Grizzly bear, humans
Detritovore: organic wastes and dead bodies of plants and animals. ex. mites, `earthworms, snails, crabs, vultures
Sunlight Producers Consumers Decomposers
Consumers:HerbivoreCarnivoreOmnivore & decomposers Level of Consumers:Primary consumer Secondary consumer3rd, 4th level consumer________________ __________________
_______________________ can be 1st,2nd or higher level consumerSunlight Producers Consumers Decomposers
Decomposers:Obtain energy from eating the remains of other organisms (recyclers) Ex.Earthworms and termites (detritivores) also aid in the breakdown of organic matter, which replenishes nutrients to the soil.Two Principle Decomposers: Bacteria and Fungi
Sunlight Producers Consumers DecomposersBacteriaTermitesWormsFungi
Feeding RelationshipsDecomposersEach step in the food chain or web is called a trophic level, or a feeding relationship between organisms.What is always found at the second trophic level?
Food ChainsFood Chain a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten.The arrows show the flow of energy and matter as one organism is eaten by another.Energy flows toEnergy flows toEnergy flows to
Trophic Levels1st4th3rd2nd5thProducersSecondary consumers Carnivores3rd consumers Carnivores4th consumers Top CarnivoresPrimary consumers Herbivores
Food WebsFood Web: links all the food chains in an ecosystem together.
Any change in a population or trophic level of a food chain can seriously alter all other organisms of the food web!
A healthy ecosystem has a large diversity of life because of the availability of alternative food sources. When studying the overall health of an ecosystem, we study food webs.
What would happen to this food web is the plants were removed? ___________________________Which organism is most vulnerable to changes in populations?______________________________What happens to the owl population if the foxes we killed off by humans?________________________The frog has only one food sourceAll populations would die outThe owl pop. would increasePractice:
We can show what goes on with the help of a Food Web
What would happen if a disease killed off many of the hawks?
There will be nothing to eat the snakes, so their numbers will increase.
All the frogs get eaten
No frogs.More crickets
Most of the cattail gets eaten by the crickets
Now the crickets dont have enough food so their numbers go down
..and so on. Numbers of each species have an effect on the numbers of the other species in the web.
ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS Ecological Pyramids: show relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web.
Energy Pyramid:A pyramid of energy illustrate the loss of usable energy at each feeding level. Of all the energy consumed by one level, 90% of the energy is used in the individuals metabolism. (and lost as heat) Only about 10% of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to organisms at the next trophic level. (locked in body tissues)
1000 Kcal: planktonThere is very little energy transferred to support higher trophic levelsKcal= kilocalorieWhy do most food chains have no more than 4 or 5 trophic levels?1 Kcal: Humans10 Kcal: tuna100 Kcal: zooplankton
Pyramid of Numbersshow how many individuals are required to support the next level of feeding.Why must there be so many more individuals at lower trophic levels?Higher trophic levels have to eat more to get the same amount of energy due to the 10% rule.
Water and Nutrient CyclesEnergy cannot be recycled or used again.
However, nutrients/elements in an ecosystem can be recycled.
When an animal dies, its matter does not disappear; rather, it decomposes and gets used by another organism (through biogeochemical cycles).
This occurs through the water cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, and phosphorous cycle.
The Water Cycle1. According to the diagram, where does evaporation take place from? From Lakes and oceans
2. When water evaporates from the surface of the Earth, what process creates clouds? Condensation
3. Water falls to the earth in a process called precipitation. What are the 4 types of precipitation? Rain, snow, sleet, hail
The Water Cycle4. Plants return excess water to the atmosphere by evaporating water from its leaves in a process called: Transpiration5. Animals return water by urination, perspiration, and respiration.6. Other than plant and animal usage, what are other destinations for the precipitation that falls to the Earth? It can become surface runoff or groundwater 7. What will ultimately happen to the ground water and surface water runoff?It flows back to lakes and rivers to be evaporated again.
The Carbon CycleName and discuss the process that removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere?
In photosynthesis, producers remove CO2 gas from the atmosphere to make organic molecules (sugars).
The Carbon Cycle2. Name and discuss the processes in which carbon dioxide is returned to the atmosphere? Cellular respiration Animals burn the food they eat releasing CO2 gas as a waste product.Combustion: Burning Fossil Fuels. When they are burned, CO2 gas is returned to the atmosphere and increases the amount of CO2 gas in the air.
The Carbon Cycle3. How is carbon dioxide related to the green house affect? Carbon dioxide, methane, and other gases trap heat energy and maintain Earths Temperature range.
The Carbon Cycle4. It is thought that global warming is caused by adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. What activities (by human or natural causes) are thought to speed up global warming? Burning fossil, cutting down forest, and polluting oceans (most photosynthesis occurs in oceans)
The Nitrogen Cycle1. Bacteria living in the roots of the plant help the plant byconvert nitrogen gas to ammonia2. Bacteria living in the soil help plants by converting ammonia and nitrogen gas into nitrates and nitrites.3. What process transforms nitrogen into usable forms that plants can use? Nitrogen fixation4. What do plants use these nitrates and nitrites to make? Proteins Air is 78% nitrogenNitrogen is one of the elements found in plant fertilizersProtein contains nitrogen
The Nitrogen Cycle5. Where do animals ultimately get their proteins from?Plants6. How has farming affected the nitrogen cycle?Fertilizers add nitrogen compounds to soil for plants to use.7. How has industry affected the nitrogen cycle?Burning fossil fuels release nitrogen compounds that fall to the earth as acid rain.Air is 78% nitroge