Text of Goal 5: Ecology. Why Study Ecology interactions between organisms and their environments Ecology is...
Goal 5: Ecology
Why Study Ecology interactions between organisms and their environments Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environments Ecologist ask questions such as: What does a coyote eat How does temperature affect the growth of plants How does day length affect bird migration
Bio= life The sphere of life consists of living and nonliving factors. It supports all life. Biotic= living Abiotic=non-living
Make a Column of Biotic and Abiotic Factors BIOTIC -bacteria -grass -fungus -fish -mushrooms ABIOTIC -air -water -nitrogen -dirt -sun
Name the Abiotic and Biotic Factors
Levels of Organization
Organizing Living Things in Ecology First level (most specific)- Organism Individual living thing 2nd Level - Population Group of organisms all of one species
Organization continued 3rd Level - Biological Community All the living (biotic) populations of species that live in the same place at the same time
Organization cont. 4th level - Ecosystem Both biotic and abiotic things that interact with each other in given area at the same time
Finally The last level Fifth and biggest level - Biosphere Portion of Earth that supports living things
Organisms in Ecosystems Habitat vs. Niche Habitat = the place where an organism lives out its life Where you live One habitat can have many niches Niche = strategies and adaptations a species uses in its environment Organisms role in the habitat More than one species can not occupy the same niche in a location.
Bellringer Relate each one of the characteristics of life to the human body. Example: Genetic Code: My genetic information is contained in DNA and RNA
5.01a Identify and describe symbiotic relationships Symbiosis Symbiosis = "intimate living together" between different species. Refers to the different relationships that can exist between organisms 1. Mutualism (+,+) 2. Commensalism (+, 0) 3. Parasitism (+, -) 4. Predator-Prey cycle
Mutualism clownfish and anemone The clownfish gets protection from the anemone and in return protects the anemone from fish that would eat it (angelfish); the clownfish also keeps the anemone free of dirt and debris http://www.bigfishhooked.com/clown_fish_and_anenome.jpg
Mutualism Lichens and Algae Lichens consist of a fungus with an algae or photosynthetic bacterium living inside the fungus. The alga provides food for both of them and the fungus provides a habitat for the alga. tbnid=7aE_8wrZkK9LJM:&tbnh=111&tbnw=148&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dlichen%26start%3D20%26ndsp%3D2 0%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN
Mutualism Ant and Aphid Aphids provides honeydew sugar for ants. Ants protect the aphids from predators and parasites. http://www.richsoil.com/antsandaphids/ants_aphids_sugar.jpg
Mutualism sea slug with algae The algae lives in the sea slug and makes food for both of them in return it gets a place to live. http://www.calacademy.org/science_now/new_species/melibe_digitata.html
Nitrogen fixing nodules Bacteria in the nodules can take nitrogen gas from the atmosphere and turn it into a form that can be used by the plant; in return, the plant protects the bacteria from harmful oxygen and the bacteria get food from the plant. http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/images/pests/179.jpg
Mutualism - pollination Many plants depend on pollinators for their reproduction. They provide nectar to attract these pollinators. So the pollinator gets fed and the plant gets reproduced! http://www.life.uiuc.edu/help/digitalflowers/picts/Asteraceae/15-Liatris%20pollination.jpg
Protozoans in cows stomach These protozoans along with bacteria help the cow by digesting cellulose; cows dont have the enzymes to do this. http://commtechlab.msu.edu/sites/dlc-me/zoo/zac0278.jpg The protozoans and bacteria get a place to live and a continual food source. This is a valuable mutualistic relationship.
Ants and Acacia Trees http://www.agrotours.com/bio/cr13.jpg Acacia provides ants with a protein rich secretion. Ants protect tree from herbivores.
Cattle Egret - Commensalism The cattle stir up grasshoppers and other insects that the egret likes to eat. There is no apparent benefit to the cow.
Commensalism shark and remora The remora benefits by getting food from the sharks meal. But there is no apparent benefit to the shark. http://www.scubaduba.com/gallery/shark2.jpg
Commensalism whale and barnacle Barnacle larvae attach to the whale. The barnacle has a habitat. Whale is not harmed. http://www.coolantarctica.com/Antarctica%20fact%20file/wildlife/whales/humptail.jpg
Tick feeds on the blood of the host. The host loses blood or is subject to infection/death.
Mistletoe a plant parasite http://www.wcosf.org/other_photos/Mistletoe_1_600.JPG Mistletoe lives off the branches and stems of Other trees. The tree can be very harmed.
Predator-Prey In a predator-prey relationship one organism benefits and the other is killed.
Predator-Prey Cycle Prey Population = Predator Population More predators = more prey eaten Prey Population Goes = Predator Population Goes Less predators = less prey they eat Predator: hunts: wolf Prey: hunted: rabbit
Bubble Map Symbiotic Relationships Benefit Harmed No effect Mutualistic Commensalism Parasitism ** Examples of Each
We will be planting Great Northern Beans to grow plants. In your group, you must decide on an experiment that you want to perform. Brainstorm Ideas. Choose one. What do you want to find out? Can you develop an experiment to answer your question? Does your question make sense? Is it confusing? Step 2: Hypothesis What do you think will happen? BE SPECIFIC! Use complete sentences. Step 3: Start developing a procedure