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Ecology

Ecology. Ecology - the study of interactions among organisms and between the organisms and their environment. These interactions occur in the biosphere

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Text of Ecology. Ecology - the study of interactions among organisms and between the organisms and their...

  • Ecology

  • EcologyEcology - the study of interactions among organisms and between the organisms and their environment.These interactions occur in the biosphere - includes everything between 8km above Earth to 11km below the surface of the ocean. This is the largest group/level.

  • The Levels of Organization in the BiosphereBiosphere Biome Ecosystem Community Population IndividualBiome - group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities. Example - Temperate deciduous forest.Ecosystem - all organisms and all physical factors in the environment that live in a particular place at a particular time. Example- All animals, plants, water, and soil.

  • The Levels of Organization in the Biosphere continuesCommunity - groups of populations that live together in an area. Example - Field mice and rats in the forest.Population - groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area. Example - Field mice, ratsSpecies - groups of organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring. Example - Field mice.

  • Interactions Interactions between a community of organisms and the environment are give and take relationships.Take - materials and energy needed for life.Give - materials and energy back to the environment.

  • Feeding Organisms that use the energy of the sun directly though photosynthesis are called producers or autotrophs.

    Organisms that eat other organisms for energy are consumers or heterotrophs.

  • Types of ConsumersPrimary consumers eat producers. (Cow eats grass) aka herbivoresSecondary consumers eat other consumers. (Tiger eats antelope)Carnivores - eat only animals (meat eaters)Herbivores - eat only plantsOmnivores - eat both animals (meat), plants, and/or algae.Decomposers - (also know as detritivores/saprophytes) - obtain energy by breaking down remains of dead plants, animals, and other matter.Scavenger - feed on bodies of dead animals.

  • Food Chains and Food WebsFood Chains and Food Webs show the feeding relationships and the movement of energy from organism to organism.

  • Food ChainsFood Chain - a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten.

  • Food WebFood Web - a network of complex interactions between food chains in an ecosystem.The arrows point to the organism that is doing the eating. This shows the direction of energy flow.

  • Ecological PyramidEach step in a food chain or food web represents a feeding step or trophic level. These levels are represent by a pyramid.As you go up the trophic (feeding) levels:Available energy decreasesBiomass generally decreasesNumbers of organisms decrease90% of the Energy is lost at every step. Only 10% is transferred up each trophic level.

  • Factors That Influence EcosystemsBiotic factors - living factors that are a part of an ecosystem.AnimalsPlantsFungiBacteriaProtistsAbiotic factors - non-living factors that are a part of an ecosystem.Temperature Precipitation Nutrient availability Wind Humidity Soil type

  • Habitat and NicheAn organisms habitat is its address or HOME and its niche is the JOB it holds. (A lily pads habitat is the pond and its niche is a producer)

  • Read pgs 70-75Answer questions 1-4 on page 75

    TopicYour thoughts/ explanationEnergy (pg 72)Food Chains/Energy Pyramids (pg 73-74)Decomposition (pg 74)