Industrialism (1865-1900)

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Unit 9. Industrialism (1865-1900). Causes. Post Reconstruction Politics (1876-1896). Characterized by: Political corruption led by “bosses” Need for reform Constant debates over tariffs Weak / nonexistent leadership. Presidential Impact on…. Presidential Impact on…. The railroad. 1804 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Industrialism (1865-1900)

  • Unit 9

  • Characterized by:Political corruption led by bossesNeed for reformConstant debates over tariffsWeak / nonexistent leadership

  • PresidentPoliticsIndustrialismGarfieldArthur

  • PresidentPoliticsIndustrialismClevelandHarrison

  • 1804


  • May 10, 1869: Transcontinental railroad completedBy 1890:Almost 200,000 miles of trackMajor companies developed:Union Pacific; Credit Mobilier; Central PacificNumerous government actions taken: Millions of acres given in land grants and financial loans for developmentCreated the Interstate Commerce Commission

  • How did railroads impact the following?Steel

  • How did railroads impact the following?Lumber

  • How did railroads impact the following?Raw materials and agricultural goods

  • Railroads impact onCommunication:




    American living:

  • (1876) Bells telephone

  • (1879) Edisons light bulb

  • (1903) Wright brothers airplane

  • You decide?

  • Scottish immigrant; found Carnegie steel in 1889Secret to Success:Always looked for new techniques to improve productsHire the best employeesVertical integration: buy out suppliersHorizontal consolidation: buy out competition

    Sold the company to Morgan for 480 million

  • 1870: Founded the Standard Oil Company1890: Controlled 90% of the oil businessOffered lower prices to drive out competitionRaised prices after competition quit 1911: Forced to break up the company because it was a monopoly

    Worth 1.4 billion in 1937190 billion today

  • Carnegie , Rockefeller and Morgan all for either trusts or monopolies to control industries

  • Many believed in the Gospel of wealthMany became philanthropistsCarnegie over 350 millionRockefeller over 500 millionMany believed that the poor were just lazy and werent working hard enoughMany made millions at the expense of the poor

    You decide?

  • 1890: Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust ActAny attempt to interfere with free trade by forming a trust would be illegalMade monopolies illegalDifficult to enforcetrust was to vague

  • Poor working conditions16 hour shifts & little payTreated like slavesForced to sign yellow dog contractsRebellious workers were put on black listsDangerous machines that caused injury or deathToxic materials caused many diseasesWomen & children were excellent employees

  • 1870s-1890s: Fewer than 1% of the workforce is a union workerWages do not support standards of living

  • The Gilder Lehrman Institute. Modules on American History clipping taken: 2/7/2011, 4:22 PMRemaining:$116$34 $153

  • 1886:Samuel Gompers helps to form the American Federation of Labor (AFL)1894Eugene V. Debs helps to create the American Railway Union (ARU)1903Teamsters formed as a craft union dedicated to delivery drivers

    What causes people to unionize?

  • Labor Unions in the United States | Economic History Services clipping taken: 2/7/2011, 4:15 PM

  • Unions fight for better wages and working conditionsEmployees look upon employers as the enemyUse strikes to achieve goalsAchieve:a shorter work dayRestrictions on child laborMinimum wage lawsBetter working conditions The Gilder Lehrman Institute. Modules on American History clipping taken: 2/7/2011, 4:32 PMWere they successful?