=interactions organisms&environment Ecology = study of interactions between organisms & their environment

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  • Ecology = study of interactions between organisms & their environmenthttp://www.ecology.info/images/rhinos.jpg

  • speciespopulationcommunityecosystembiosphereECOLOGICAL TERMS

  • Carrying Capacity = the maximum size of a population that can still be supported by the environmenthttp://hunter-ed.com/images/graphics/carrying_capacity_bucket.gifhttp://hunter-ed.com/images/graphics/carrying_capacity_chart.gif

  • An ecological niche includes:http://www.shenet.org/high/hsacaddept/science/mkilmartin/mkimages/bluejay.gif

    HabitatNutritionCompetitionReproductionBehavior

    EVERYTHING about the organism

  • Autotrophs synthesize their own glucose (food)CO2 + H2O + energy (light) C6H12O6 + O2http://www.ap.stmarys.ca/~ishort/Images/Earth/Atmos/photosynthesis.jpg

  • The Carbon Cyclehttp://fig.cox.miami.edu/Faculty/Dana/carboncycle.gif

  • The Oxygen Cyclehttp://www.kminot.com/art/charts/cow_main.jpg

  • The Water Cyclehttp://www.coe.ilstu.edu/scienceed/basolo/water/cycle2.JPG

  • Energy Flow in an Ecosystemhttp://www.biol.andrews.edu/fb/spring/ch54/5401.jpgFOOD CHAINS

  • Herbivores, Carnivores & Omnivoreshttp://richmond.k12.va.us/schools/thirteenacres/images/Bison1.jpghttp://richmond.k12.va.us/schools/thirteenacres/sci_images/forest1.jpghttp://richmond.k12.va.us/schools/thirteenacres/images/grizzly_fish.jpg

  • ENERGY PYRAMIDhttp://www.biol.andrews.edu/fb/spring/ch54/5405.jpg

  • SECONDARY CONSUMERS ENERGY PYRAMIDSECONDARY CONSUMERS

  • FOOD WEBhttp://www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_28/40_07.GIF

  • Bacteria & Fungi are the major decomposers (organisms of decay)http://staffwww.fullcoll.edu/tmorris/elements_of_ecology/basic_components_of_life.htmhttp://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/fungi/basidio/mushroomsi.gif

  • Symbiotic Relationshipshttp://eebweb.arizona.edu/Animal_Behavior/lycaenids/lycaen2.htmMutualism: Both species benefitExample: In pollination mutualisms, the pollinator gets food (pollen, nectar) and the plant has its pollen transferred to other flowers for cross-fertilization (reproduction). Parasitism: One species benefits; the other is harmed Example: Tick gains benefit by sucking blood; host is harmed by losing blood. Commensalism: One species benefits; the other is unaffected Example: Mammal dung provides food and shelter to dung beetles. The beetles have no effect on the mammals. http://www.m-w.com/mw/art/tick.gif

  • (Primary) Ecological Successionhttp://owensboro.kctcs.edu/gcaplan/eco/Note/Image694.gif

  • Secondary Ecological Successionhttp://www.michigandnr.com/publications/pdfs/wildlife/viewingguide/eco_succession.htmOriginally, this farm field was a deep forest filled with towering beech and maple trees. Stage 1. Over time the forest was cleared for farming, bringing about major changes to the kinds of plants and wildlife that could live here. Stage 2. After several years of farming, this field was abandoned. For the next few years, annual weeds, grasses, wildflowers, and other plants invaded the bare soil, creating habitat for mice, meadowlarks, and other open-field wildlife.

  • Secondary Ecological Successionhttp://www.michigandnr.com/publications/pdfs/wildlife/viewingguide/eco_succession.htmStage 3. Eventually, shrubs and small trees seeded into the field. As these new plants grew, their leaves and outstretched branches shaded out the smaller plants below, creating a different kind of habitat. Chipmunks and robins were among the animals attracted to this new habitat. Stage 4. Over time, oak and hickory trees grew tall and shaded out most of the shrubs, creating forest habitat once again. Squirrels and wild turkey replaced chipmunks and robins. Beech and maple seedlings grew much faster in the shade, and soon stretched above the others. As the original oak and hickory trees died and fell, the spaces they left in the forest canopy were filled by beeches and maples growing up from below. Stage 5. More than 200 years after this forest was first cleared for farming, it returned to beech-maple forest again through the process of succession. For this location, beech-maple forest is the climax community - the association of plants and animals that will remain stable until disturbed by an outside force - such as fire, wind, disease, or human activity.

  • BIODIVERSITYhttp://www.bioteach.ubc.ca/Biodiversity/biodiversity/Biodiversity.gifBiodiversity, the planets most valuable resource, is on loan to us from our children.

    --- Dr. Edward O. Wilson

  • www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/whatsenergy.html

  • Reduce, Reuse, Recyclehttp://tinypic.com/view.php?pic=aahe0g&s=3

  • Oklahoma Dust Bowls (1930s)http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=79961&rendTypeId=4

  • Japanese Beetleshttp://www.ipm.iastate.edu/ipm/icm/files/images/japanese-beetle-soybean.jpg

  • Gypsy Moth Life Cyclehttp://www.clintoncountypa.com/Gypsy%20Moth%20Website/gypsy%20moth_files/image003.jpg

  • Gypsy Moth Larvahttp://cache.daylife.com/imageserve/09hp9Ii7kL1oR/610x.jpg

  • Nuclear Powerhttp://photoblog.dralzheimer.stylesyndication.de/photo/Nuclear%20Power%20Plant%20Cattenom

  • What does the data below indicate?http://www.crcwater.org/onalaska/datainterp.html

  • Algae Bloomshttp://cache.daylife.com/imageserve/0d1z1l852tdmA/610x.jpg

  • Biological Magnificationhttp://www.cfkeep.org/html/phpThumb.php?src=/uploads/5425ddtinfoodchainl.jpg&aoe=1&w=

  • Acid Precipitationhttp://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/acid-rain-1a.jpg

  • Global Warminghttp://www.koshland-science-museum.org/exhibitgcc/images/causes02.jpg

  • We are protected by ozone (O3)http://www.space.gc.ca/asc/img/atmosphere-couche.jpg

  • Ozone (O3) Depletionhttp://ozone.gi.alaska.edu/images/uv_abc.gifhttp://www.cec.org/ods/images/prn_cecods_ozonedepletion_e.pngHuman Health: Damages DNA which suppresses immune system resulting in increase of infectious diseases, Skin cancer, Eye cataracts

    Plants & Trees: Reduces crop production, damage to seeds; Reduces quality of crops

    Aquatic Ecosystems: Damage to plankton, aquatic plants, fish larvae, shrimp, crabs; Affects marine food chain, damage to fisheries result

    Materials: Paints, rubber, wood and plastic are degraded faster, especially in tropical regions

  • Biological Controlhttp://www.bugsforbugs.com.au/images/C_transversalis3.jpg

  • STEREOMICROSCOPEhttp://www.startracksmedical.com/supplies/stereomicroscope.jpg

  • Compound Light Microscopehttp://www.tissue-cell-culture.com/images/products/related/microscopes/1200cm_mscope.gif

  • Wet-Mount & Staining Techniqueshttp://www.sep.alquds.edu/biology/scripts/Biology_english/part_1_1_files/image004.jpghttp://www.ekcsk12.org/faculty/jbuckley/lelab/microscopeuselab_files/image004.jpg

  • Gel Electrophoresishttp://www.biochem.arizona.edu/classes/bioc471/pages/Lecture2/AMG1.12.gif

  • CHROMATOGRAPHYhttp://www.sciencebuddies.org/mentoring/project_ideas/Chem_img006.gifhttp://www.ndpteachers.org/perit/chromatography2.gif

  • Oil on Pavementhttp://i.pbase.com/u27/crs/upload/765501.OilonPavement.jpg

  • CENTRIFUGATIONhttp://www.djblabcare.co.uk/djb/data/image/14/0/hettich_eba20_portable_centrifuge.jpeg

  • Dichotomous Key (Example)The Living Environment Regents June, 2009