LATIN AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS
1750-1914: An Age of Revolutions
Indigenous peoples and civilizations Maya, Aztec, Inca
European Colonization, 1500s Spain, Portugal, France
American Revolution, 1776
French Revolution and Enlightenment, 1789
Napoleons conquests within Europe, 1800s Colonial possessions of Spain and Portugal ignored
LATIN AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS, 18TH & 19TH C.
FRENCH COLONIES: REVOLUTION IN HAITI
Saint Domingue, now known as Haiti
Western third of island of Hispanola in Caribbean Sea.
Plantation slavery, sugar
Former slave, self-educated.
Untrained in military and political matters, but became a skilled general and diplomat.
Allegedly got name (opening in French) from being able to find openings in enemy lines.
Took leadership of a slave revolt that broke out in 1791.
100,000 slaves in revolt.
By 1801, LOuverture moved into Spanish Santo Domingo (the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispanola), took control of territory and freed slaves.
In January 1802, French troops landed.
Toussaint agreed to an end of fighting if the French would end slavery
French accused him of planning another uprising.
Sent him to a prison in the French Alps.
He died 10 months later, April 1803.
Toussaints general; took up the fight.
Jan 1, 1804 - declared an independent country.
First black colony to free itself from European control.
He called it Haiti, mountainous land, in the language of the native Arawak inhabitants.
Became first emperor of Haiti; later assassinated in a revolt.
1820: Haiti became an independent republic
SPANISH COLONIES REVOLUTIONS AGAINST SPANISH RULE
LATIN AMERICAN SOCIAL CLASSES
Peninsulares - men born in Spain held highest offices
Creoles - Spaniards born in Latin America officers in army, but not in government often resented power of the peninsulares
Mestizos - mixed European and Indian
Mulattos - mixed European and African
EUROPEAN BACKGROUND: NAPOLEON
Napoleon invaded Spain in 1808.
Removed Spains King Ferdinand VII and made Joseph (Naps brother) king of Spain.
Creoles used it as a reason for revolution.
1810 rebellion across Latin America.
1814, Napoleon defeated and Ferdinand returned to power, but creoles contd their movement.
Wealthy Venezuelan creole.
VENEZUELAN INDEPENDENCE, 1821
Venezuela declared independence, 1811.
Bolivars armies unsuccessful at first.
1819: Bolivar marched armies over Andes into todays Colombia, defeated Spanish army.
1821: Venezuelan independence.
Marched north to Ecuador to meet Jose de San Martin.
JOSE DE SAN MARTIN
Simple, modest man.
Born in Argentina, spent time in Spain as military officer.
Argentina declared independence in 1816.
San Martin led army across Andes to Chile, joined by Bernardo OHiggins, and freed Chile.
Ecuador, 1822: San Martin met with Bolivar to decide how to remove remaining Spanish forces in Lima, Peru.
GRAN COLOMBIA, 1820-1830
Bolivars vision of a united South America.
Present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela and Panama.
Short-lived due to dissension amongst various factions.
Bolivar resigned in 1828.
In 1830, Bolivars Gran Colombia divided into Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela.
Panama later split from Colombia with US assistance, 1903.
Indians and mestizos, not creoles, played the key role in independence movements.
Creoles sided with Spain to avoid violence of lower-class rebellions (until 1820).
A village priest, believed in Enlightenment ideals.
1810, called for revolution.
Hidalgos Indian and mestizo followers marched to Mexico City.
Spanish army and creoles acted against Hidalgo and defeated him in 1811.
JOSE MARIA MORELOS
Took leadership after Hidalgos defeat.
Defeated by creoles.
MEXICAN INDEPENDENCE, 1821
1820 revolution in Spain put a liberal government in power.
Mexican creoles feared loss of influence, so they united against Spain.
Agustin Iturbide declared himself emperor, but was overthrown.
1824: Establishment of the Mexican Republic. Compromise between conservatives and liberals Presidential system, bicameral legislature
MONROE DOCTRINE, 1823
US watched with interest as new independent countries were forming in Latin America
Concern arose when Britain and France began to try to influence struggling democracies
James Monroe, 5th President, issued doctrine to protect Latin America No new colonies allowed in Western Hemisphere Attempts to recolonized would be seen as an act of war USA would step in to aid Latin American countries
Could the USA interferr????
ANTONIO LOPEZ DE SANTA ANNA
A caudillo, strong military leader.
Fought for independence from Spain in 1821 and again in 1829 when Spain tried to reconquer Mexico.
Between 1833 and 1855, president four times switched sides to keep himself in power
Was Emperor for a short time until Texas defeated Mexico in its War of Independence, but never really had control of his empire
Remember the Alamo
Poor, orphaned Zapotec Indian; law degree and local governor.
La Reforma: reform movement
redistribution of land, separation of church and state, education
Set up a liberal government, but plagued by conservative rebels.
Conservative rebels plotted with France to reconquer Mexico.
Napoleon III sent armies to Mexico.
Cinco de Mayo, 1862: Zaragoza won the Battle of Puebla against the French, but the French won the war.
Napoleon III appointed a relative, Austrian archduke Maximilian, as emperor of Mexico.
Juarez resisted, US sent troops to Mexico - French gave up in 1867.
Juarez continued reforms.Can you say Monroe Doctrine????
Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494 divided the Atlantic between Spain and Portugal.
Portugal was mostly focused on routes to Asia in the 15th and 16th centuries.
In 1807, Napoleon marched on Iberian peninsula, forcing Portuguese royal family of King John VI to escape to Brazil, Portugals largest colony.
From 1807 to 1815, Brazil was center of Portuguese empire.
With defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Portugal wanted Brazil to become a colony again.
By 1822, creoles demanding independence signed a petition asking Portugals prince, Dom Pedro, to rule Brazil.
On Sept 7, 1822, Dom Pedro agreed, and declared Brazils independence Constitutional monarchy
1889, Brazilians overthrew Pedros successor and declared their country a republic.
UNITED PROVINCES OF CENTRAL AMERICA
Several other Central American states declared their independence from both Spain and Mexico to create the United Provinces of Central America.
PERIOD OF CONSOLIDATION, 1825-1850
Breakdown of original nations and groups: Gran Colombia an original union between Bolivia and Peru United Provinces of Central America
Instability of internal politics Bolivia experienced 60 revolts and coups. Venezuela experienced 52 revolts and coups
Liberals - free trade, representative government, federal government system
Conservatives - protect church and upper classes controlled most regimes between 1830 and 1870.
Independence movements and new governments run by Creoles
Spanish administrators had excluded Creoles from political leadership, so few leaders could actually run a government.
RESULTS OF LATIN AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTSPolitical/Social: Continued battles between liberals, conservatives and the military over how to best rule. Tensions between articulate political forces and the separate masses.
Economic: Unable to free itself from dependence on Western-controlled economic patterns. Cash crop economies Banana Republics
Cultural/intelligent: Distinct cultural entity combination of Western styles and values plus its racial diversity, colonial past, and social structure of a semi-colonial economy.