- 1. 1750-1914:An Age ofRevolutions Latin American Independence Movements
- Indigenous peoples and civilizations
- European Colonization, 1500s
- American Revolution, 1776
- French Revolution and Enlightenment, 1789
- Napoleons conquests within Europe, 1800s
3. Latin American Independence Movements, 18th & 19th C. 4. Results
- Strong military leaders emerge
- Dictatorship and totalitarian systems emerge
- Dependency theory challenges Moderninity theory
- Western European markets determine the product
- South America dependent upon others buying their one crop
- United Fruit Company controlled Central America in late 19 thand early 20 thcentury
- Phrase coined to designate politically unstable, dependent on limited agriculture, and ruled by a small, wealthy and corrupt clique put in power by the United States government in conjunction with the CIA and the US business lobby
5. French colonies:Revolution in Haiti
- Saint Domingue, now known as Haiti
- Western third of island of Hispanola in Caribbean Sea.
- Plantation slavery, sugar
6. Toussaint LOuverture
- Former slave, self-educated.
- Untrained in military and political matters, but became a skilled general and diplomat.
- Allegedly got name (opening in French) from being able to find openings in enemy lines.
- Took leadership of a slave revolt that broke out in 1791.
- 100,000 slaves in revolt.
- By 1801, LOuverture moved into Spanish Santo Domingo (the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispanola), took control of territory and freed slaves.
- In January 1802, French troops landed.
- Toussaint agreed to an end of fighting if the French would end slavery
- French accused him of planning another uprising.
- Sent him to a prison in the French Alps.
- He died 10 months later, April 1803.
8. Jean-Jacques Dessalines
- Jan 1, 1804 - declared an independent country.
- First black colony to free itself from European control.
- He called it Haiti, mountainous land, in the language of the native Arawak inhabitants.
- Became first emperor of Haiti; later assassinated in a revolt.
- 1820: Haiti became an independent republic
9. Spanish ColoniesRevolutions againstSpanish Rule 10. Latin American social classes
- Peninsulares - men born in Spain
- Creoles - Spaniards born in Latin America
- officers in army, but not in government
- often resented power of the peninsulares
- Mestizos - mixed European and Indian
- Mulattos - mixed European and African
11. European Background:Napoleon
- Napoleon invaded Spain in 1808.
- Removed Spains King Ferdinand VII and made Joseph (Naps brother) king of Spain.
- Creoles used it as a reason for revolution.
- 1810 rebellion across Latin America.
- 1814, Napoleon defeated and Ferdinand returned to power, but creoles contd their movement.
12. Francisco Goya,Executions of May 3, 1808 13. Simon Bolivar
- Wealthy Venezuelan creole.
14. Venezuelan Independence, 1821
- Venezuela declared independence, 1811.
- Bolivars armies unsuccessful at first.
- 1819: Bolivar marched armies over Andes into todays Colombia, defeated Spanish army.
- 1821: Venezuelan independence.
- Marched north to Ecuador to meet Jose de San Martin.
- Born in Argentina, spent time in Spain as military officer.
Jose de San Martin 16. Lima, Peru 17.
- Argentina declared independence in 1816.
- San Martin led army across Andes to Chile, joined by Bernardo OHiggins, and freed Chile.
- Ecuador, 1822:San Martin met with Bolivar to decide how to remove remaining Spanish forces in Lima, Peru.
Argentinean Independence 18.
- San Martin sailed for Europe and died on French soil in 1850.
- Dec 9, 1824, Bolivar defeated Spanish at Battle of Ayacucho.
19. Bolivar San Martin 20.
- Bolivars vision of a united South America.
- Present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela and Panama.
- Short-lived due to dissension amongst various factions.
- Bolivar resigned in 1828.
- In 1830, Bolivars Gran Colombia divided into Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela.
- Panama later split from Colombia with US assistance, 1903.
Gran Colombia, 1820-1830 21. Mexico
- Indians and mestizos, not creoles, played the key role in independence movements.
- Creoles sided with Spain to avoid violence of lower-class rebellions (until 1820).
22. Miguel Hidalgo
- A village priest, believed
- 1810, called for revolution.
- Grito de Dolores (call for revolution)
- Hidalgos Indian and mestizo followers marched to Mexico City.
- Spanish army and creoles acted against Hidalgo and defeated him in 1811.
23. Jose Maria Morelos
- Took leadership after Hidalgos defeat.
24. Mexican Independence, 1821
- 1820 revolution in Spain put a liberal government in power.
- Mexican creoles feared loss of influence, so they united against Spain.
- Agustin Iturbide declared himself emperor, but was overthrown.
- 1824: Establishment of the Mexican Republic.
- Mexico's Congress then followed the wishes of the liberals and began to write a constitution for a federal republic. But the criollos still disagreed on how the constitution should be written. Conservatives wanted a strong central government and wanted Roman Catholicism to be the national religion, as it had been under Spanish rule. Liberals wanted the central government to have less power and the states more, and they called for freedom of religion.The groups finally reached a compromise, though many conservative criollos did not support it. In 1824, Mexico became a republic with a president and a two-house Congress heading the national government, and governors and legislatures heading the states. Guadalupe Victoria, a follower of Hidalgo and Morelos, became the first president.
26. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
- A caudillo, strong arm ruler.
- Fought for independence from Spain in 1821 and again in 1829 when Spain tried to reconquer Mexico.
- Between 1833 and 1855, president four times
- switched sides to keep himself in power
- Santa Anna was Emperor of the largest empire in world history, stretching from southern Mexico through Texas, all of what is now the US southwest, California and some of Oregon, a rather large parcel of territory.
- Was Emperor for a short time until Texas defeated Mexico in its War of Independence, but never really had control of his empire
27. Texas Revolt
- 1820s, Mexico invited English-speaking settlers (Anglos) to settle Mexican territory of Texas.
- Cheap land if they supported the Mexican govt.
- Texans soon wanted self-govt, Mexico refused.
- 1835, Stephen Austin encouraged revolt.
- Santa Anna led Mexican troops; defeated, 1836.
- 1845, US annexed Texas; invaded Mexico.
- 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo gave US land.
28. 29. Benito Juarez
- Poor, orphaned Zapotec Indian; law degree and local governor.
- La Reforma:reform movement
- redistribution of land, separation of church and state, education
- Santa Anna sent him into exile.
- Set up a liberal government, but plagued by conservative rebels.
30. French Rule
- Conservative rebels plotted with France to reconquer Mexico.
- Napoleon III sent armies to Mexico.
- Zaragoza won the Battle of Puebla against the French, but the French won the war.