Latin American PoliciesChapter 22 Section 4
PanamaThe country of Panama is an isthmus, a narrow strip of land connecting two larger bodies of land. The Caribbean Sea (Atlantic Ocean) on the east and the Pacific Ocean to the West.The country of Panama was located in a position to connect these two bodies of water by a canal across the country.This would make trade easier and, according to Roosevelt, was vital to Americas national defense.
Panama CanalThe French tried unsuccessfully to build a canal in the late 1800s.In 1901, the U.S. bought the land lease from France for 40 million dollars. Secretary of State John Hay tried to negotiate a treaty with Colombia for a 99 year lease of the land.The Colombians, who controlled the country of Panama did not want to make any deals with the U.S.
Revolution in PanamaWith support from the U.S, the Panamanians finally defeated the Colombians and won their independence in 1903.Less than two weeks later, Sec. of State John Hay signed a treaty with Panama. It gave the U.S. a 10 mile strip of land across the country.
The U.S. and the Panama CanalBy August 15, 1914 the Panama Canal was officially opened by the passing of the SS Ancon. At the time, no single effort in American history had exacted such a price in dollars or in human life. The American expenditures from 1904 to 1914 totaled $352,000,000, far more than the cost of anything built by the United States Government up to that time. Together the French and American expenditures totaled $639,000,000. It took 34 years from the initial effort in 1880 to actually open the Canal in 1914. It is estimated that over 80,000 persons took part in the construction and that over 30,000 lives were lost in both French and American efforts.
Current Photoswww.pancanal.com This website tells about the history and operations of the Panama Canal.
Working on the Panama CanalMany people suffered from yellow fever and malaria in Panama due to the large amounts of mosquitoes.Colonel William Gorgas, born in Mobile, Alabama, devised a plan to rid the canal area of mosquitoes and by 1906 yellow fever and malaria had been eliminated.
Opening the CanalThe Panama Canal opened August 15, 1914. The canal cut about 7000 miles off of a voyage from New York to San Francisco.The canal also enabled the U.S Navy to move freely between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
Roosevelt CorollaryPresident Roosevelt believed that the U.S. had the right to intervene in Latin America whenever those nations seemed unstable. The U.S. used this policy in the Dominican Republic in 1905 and in Cuba in 1906.Roosevelt thought of American power mostly in military terms.
William Howard TaftWhen Taft became President he believed that the U.S. should intervene in Latin America when American business interests were threatened. This policy was known as Dollar Diplomacy.Investments in Latin America brought trade and other benefits to the U.S. and Latin America.
Relations with MexicoThe U.S had invested millions of dollars in Mexican oil wells and other businesses. In 1910, Mexico entered a troubling time that led to military intervention by the U.S.Civil unrest in Mexico led to the instability in the Mexican government.President Wilson referred to the government of Mexico as a government of butchers.
Wilsons Moral DiplomacyWilsons idea of Moral Diplomacy faced serious problems in Mexico. Wilson believed the U.S. had a duty to teach the Latin Americans how to elect good men.After a series of leaders in Mexico, a civil war broke out between Victoriano Huerta and Venustiano Carranza. Wilson sent troops to Mexico and supplied Carranza with weapons. Carranza and his men took over power in Mexico and troops withdrew.
Pancho VillaPancho Villa was a Mexican rebel who did not agree with Carranza being leader of MexicoHe led an uprising against Carranza and killed many Americans in Mexico and New Mexico.Troops were sent to find him.Pancho Villa was assassinated in 1923.