# Light, Reflection, and Refraction Chapters 14 and 15 OPTICS

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### Text of Light, Reflection, and Refraction Chapters 14 and 15 OPTICS

• Slide 1
• Light, Reflection, and Refraction Chapters 14 and 15 OPTICS
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• Electromagnetic Waves Magnetic field wave perpendicular to an electric field wave All objects emit EMWs. Temp EMW Electromagnetic spectrum Range of all frequencies of light Visible light is a very small portion of that entire spectrum.
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• c Speed of Light - 3.00 x 10 8 m/s. = (wavelength) x (frequency) c =
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• Example AM Radio waves 5.4 x 10 5 Hz 1.7 x 10 6 Hz = ?
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• Visible Light Part of the EMS humans can see Red - 750nm (x10 -9 m) Purple - 380nm Bees, Birds UV Snakes IR
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• Reflection Light waves usually travel in straight paths Change in substance changes direction Opaque - does not permit light some light reflected some light absorbed as heat
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• Reflection Texture affects reflection Diffuse reflection (rough) reflects light in many different directions, Specular reflection (smooth) reflects light in only one direction Smooth variations in surface
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• Mirrors Light striking a mirror reflects at the same angle that it struck the mirror
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• Flat Mirrors p = q p- objects distance to the mirror q - distance from the mirror to the image Virtual image Does not exist Made by our eyes
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• Ray Diagrams Used to predict the location of the image of an object
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• Concave Spherical Mirrors Reflective surface is on the interior of a curved surface C center of curvature R Radius (distance to C) f Focal Point (1/2 R) Principal axis any line that passes through C usually oriented with an object
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• Mirror Equations 1/object distance + 1/image distance = 1/focal length 1/p + 1/q = 1/f Magnification (M) = Image height/object height (h / h) - (q / p) M = h / h = - (q / p)
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• Sign of Magnification Sign of MOrientation of ImageType of Image + UprightVirtual InvertedReal
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• Concave Spherical Mirror Rules A ray traveling through C will reflect back through C A ray traveling through (f) will reflect parallel to the PA A ray traveling to the intersection of the PA and the mirror will reflect at the same angle below the PA. A ray traveling parallel to PA will reflect through the focal point
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• Ray Diagrams Draw three rays The image forms at the point of intersection Example f = 10.0cm p = 30.0cm h = 3.00cm
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• Convex Spherical Mirrors Reflective surface is on the outside of the curve. The points f and C are located behind the mirror negative
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• Rules A ray parallel to the PA will reflect directly away from f. A ray towards f will reflect parallel to the PA A ray towards C will reflect directly away from C. A ray to the intersection of PA and mirror will reflect at the same angle below the OA. Trace the 3 diverging lines back through the mirror to reveal the location of the image which is always virtual
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• Example f = -8.00cm p= 10.0cm h = 3cm
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• Parabolic Mirrors Rays that hit spherical mirrors far away from the OA often reflect though other points causing fuzzy images, spherical aberration. Telescopes use parabolic mirrors as they ALWAYS focus the rays to a single point.
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• Refraction Substances that are transparent or translucent allow light to pass though them. Changes direction of light Due to the differences in speed of light
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• Analogy A good analogy for refracting light is a lawnmower traveling from the sidewalk onto mud
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• Index of Refraction (n) The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in a medium n - c
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• Snells Law n i (sin i ) = n r (sin r ) r = sin -1 {(n i/ n r )(sin i )} Example i = 30.0 n i = 1.00 n r = 1.52
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• i = 30.0 n i = 1.00 n r = 1.52
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• Total Internal Reflection If the angle of incidence of a ray is greater than a certain critical angle the ray will reflect rather than reflect This principal is responsible for the properties of fiber optic cables. Remember the lawn mower analogylawn mower analogy
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• Critical Angle sin c = n r / n i As long as n r < n i What is the critical angle for light traveling from Diamond to Air?
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• n r = 1.000 n i = 2.419
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• Thin Lenses Converging Diverging f- curve of lens & index of refraction
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• Converging Lens Diagram 1.Ray parallel to PA, refracts through far focal point 2.Ray through center of lens, continues straight line 3.Ray through near focal point, refracts through lens, continues parallel to PA Treat lens as though it were a flat plane.
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• Diverging Lens Diagram Because the rays that enter a diverging lens do not intersect a virtual image is formed by tracing back the refracted rays. Ray 1 - parallel to PA, refracts away from near f, trace back to near f. Ray 2 - ray toward far f, refracts parallel to PA, trace back parallel to PA Ray 3 - ray through center, continues straight, trace back toward object
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• Sign Conventions for Lens SignpqF + Near side of lens Far side of lens Converging Lens Far side of lens Near side of lens Diverging Lens
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• Converging Lens Example p = 30.0cm f = 10.cm
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• Diverging Lens Example p = 12.5cm f = -10.0cm

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