Mnemonic StrategiesChunking Method of Loci Peg Word Mnemonic
ChunkingGrouping elements into chunks Chase and Ericcsons subjectsChunked digits into running timesRemembered up to 82 digits! Not as effective as more elaborative strategies
Method of LociBased upon visual imagery Imagine a grocery list (eggs, milk, cheese, bread, butter)
Imaging items placed in a common scene
To recall, mentally stroll through scene
Bizarreness / distinctiveness
Peg Word MnemonicUses prememorized list (e.g., rhyme)
One is a bun ==>
Two is a shoe ==>
Three is a tree ==>
Four is a door ==>
AcronymsCreate word from beginning letters
Create a limerick from beginning letters OOOTTAFAGVAH 12 Cranial nerves
Why Do Mnemonics Devices Work?Provide structure for learning Provide durable trace (less interference) Provide retrieval structure
Which Mnemonic is the Best?Roediger (1980)
Interaction of Encoding and Retrieval ProcessesAnderson & Pichert (1978)Participants read a story about the activities of two boys at home either from the point of view of a burglar or a homebuyerLater the participants were asked to remember as much as possible about the story they readThe point of view affected what participants recalledHomebuyers were more likely to remember that the basement was mustyBurglars were more likely to remember the coin collection and color TV
To Understand Memory ProcessesNeed to understand encoding processes, retrieval processes, and how they function together for short term storage (STM) and long term storage (LTM)
Encoding ProcessesCreating an acoustic codeWhat it sounds likeCreating a semantic codeWhat it meansCreating a visual codeWhat it looks like
Encoding Types and STMType of code may rely on type of task STM refers to memory that needs to be held temporarilyEvidence exists for a variety of encoding types for STM
Evidence for Acoustic Encoding in STMConrad (1964)Visually present a series of lettersAsk participants to write the order letters are presentedWhat types of errors are made?
Conrad (1964)Found evidence for the use of an acoustic code in STM Participants made acoustic errorsF for S, B for V, P for BNot visual errors E for F, O for Q, R for PParticipants encoded items acoustically even though stimuli were presented visually
Shulman (1970)Evidence for semantic encoding in STMParticipants viewed 10-word listsGiven a recognition test using visually represented "probe words" which were either: Homonyms - e.g. "bawl" for "ball" Synonyms - e.g. "talk" for "speak" Identical to the original word
Shulman (1970) ResultsThe Homonym and Synonym probes produced similar error rates - this suggests that an equal amount of acoustic and semantic processing must be taking placeHomonyms - e.g. "bawl" for "ball"
Synonyms - e.g. "talk" for "speak"
Identical to the original word
Posner & Keele (1967)Evidence for visual encoding in STMLetter matching taskTwo letters separated by brief intervalParticipant had to indicate if same letterA-aYesA-AYesA-M NoMeasure reaction time
Posner & Keele (1967) ResultsIf letters were the same visually (a-a) participants were faster than if the letters were not the same visually (A-a)Results indicate that visual code was also present for STM
Encoding Types & LTMType of code may rely on type of task LTM refers to memory that may be held permanently Evidence exists for a variety of encoding types for LTM
Semantic Encoding in LTMGrossman & Eagle (1970)Study 41 different wordsGiven recognition test after delay9 of the distractors were semantically related to words on list9 of the distractors were not False alarms for each type: 1.83 of synonyms, but only 1.05 of unrelated
Visual Encoding in LTMFrost (1972)Participants studied 16 drawingsManipulated visual orientation and semantic categoryAfter a delay, participants were asked if they had studied an object with the same name as the test object Reaction time was measuredParticipants responded faster to identical drawings than drawings in a different orientationThis result indicates visual encoding occurred
Acoustic Encoding in LTMEvidence of very long-term memory for songs Rubin (1977) Participants recall more of the text when provided with the melody of a well-learned song ("Star Spangled Banner") than when given no cue
Transfer from STM to LTMConsolidationIntegrating new information into stored informationDisruption of consolidation is studied in amnesiacsECT patients (Squire)
Principles to Strengthen MemoryElaborative rehearsal is better than maintenance rehearsalDistributed practice is better than massed practice Spacing effectOrganizing information to enhance memory
Why Does Distributed Practice Work?REM TheoryThe more REM sessions following study sessions, the more consolidation that occursMultiple encoding contexts theoryMultiple study sessions lead to multiple types of encoding, thus more possibility of matching during test conditions
Prospective MemoryThe ability to remember a future intentionBuying bread on your way home from workGoing to the dentist on WednesdayRetrospective memory is memory of the past
Retrieval ProcessesGetting information back out Multiple processes can be used to enhance retrievalDifferent strategies are used for short term storage and long term storageMatching the type of processes done during encoding with the type of processes done at retrieval increases success
Retrieval from STMIs the search serial or parallel?Serial indicates one by one searchParallel means all items are processed at onceIs the search exhaustive or self-terminating?Exhaustive indicates that all items in the set are examinedSelf-terminating means that after target is found the search stops
Studying Searching in STMSaul Sternberg (1967) Memorize a set of numbers (6,3,8,2,7) Shown a probe digitParticipant must indicate if the probe was in the setReaction time to respond is measured
Sternberg (1967)3 critical factors manipulatedHow many items were in the set the participants had to memorizeWhether the probe was in the listThe probes location in the set
Sternberg (1967)Possible Result Patterns A represents parallel processingB illustrates serial processingC illustrates exhaustive serial processingD illustrates self-terminating serial processing
Sternbergs ConclusionA serial exhaustive modelBut.Corcoran (1971) proposed that a parallel model could also explain the pattern foundTownsend (1971) stated it was mathematically impossible to distinguish parallel from serialThus, both models still exist
If You Do Not Retrieve from LTMHas the memory disappeared? orIs the memory still there but cannot retrieve it (available, but not accessible)?
Evidence Supporting Still There Theory Nelson (1971)Paired associate List43-house67-dog38-dress77-sissors
Cued recall test43- ________67- ________
Two week delay
Subjects recalled 75% of items on list
But focus was on 25% they forgot.
Nelson (1971) Critical ManipulationIf participants forgot 38-dress and 77-sissors then participants relearned either same pairs or changed pairsThe better performance of participants in the same condition indicate that there was some memory left for forgotten items. Otherwise both groups would remember the same amount.
What Contributes to Forgetting? Decay theoryMemory is weakened with disuseInterference theory Proactive: old memories interfere with recall of new informationRetroactive: new memories interfere with recall of old information
Retroactive Interference from LTMThe experimental group will remembers less material from the tested list A compared to the control group
Information learned afterwards interferes with retrieval of List A.0
Experimental groupLearn List ALearn List BDelayTest for Memory AControl groupLearn List A------------DelayTest for Memory A
Proactive Interference from LTMThe experimental group remembers less material from the tested list B than the control group
Information previously learned (list A) interferes with retrieval of List B
Experimental groupLearn List ALearn List BDelayTest for Memory BControl groupNo studyLearn List BDelayTest for Memory B
Your Cheatin Heart
Damn that Proactive interference!
Using a similar scenario, what would retroactive interference look like?Melissa?! Whos Melissa?!
Flashbulb MemoriesSome researchers propose that events that are particularly surprising or arousing will yield flashbulb memoriesWhere were you when theChallenger explosion occurred?OJ verdict was read?JFK was assassinated?Bombing of the twin towers?
Flashbulb MemoriesSome research proposes good memory forPlace where you learned of informationWhat you were doing when you heard itWhere you heard the information fromEmotions in self and othersThe aftermath
Emotion and MemoryThere is a strong relationship (.90) between the emotionality and vividness of memory This does not mean that the memory is accurate Emotional events seem to be less resistant to forgetting over time Perhaps they are perceived betterPerhaps we think about them more
Flashbulb Memory ResultsNeisser and Harsch (1992)Tested immediate memory for Shuttle Explosion, and then tested it again 3 years laterThere was little agreement with the two memories despite the confidence of the participants