Motivating Operations. Week 8: Antecedent considerations. Motivation Operations. Also referred to as: Value altering effect: establishing/abolishing Behavior altering effect: Frequency Establishing operation: Evocative effect Abolishing operation: Abative effects. Some clarification. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Overview of Advance Behavior Analysis
Motivating OperationsWeek 8: Antecedent considerationsMotivation OperationsAlso referred to as:Value altering effect: establishing/abolishingBehavior altering effect: FrequencyEstablishing operation: Evocative effectAbolishing operation: Abative effectsSome clarificationNot just Frequency: MagnitudeBehavior altering effect is not just due to encounter with change in reinforcement frequency: Extinction!SD is not = MOSD: Differential availability of reinforcement for a behaviorMO: differential reinforcer effectiveness of an environmental event.
Three types of Motivating OperationsSurrogate: Stimulus paired with anotherNot likely to be important to studyReflexive: Stimulus that preceded some form of worsening improvementThanks and holding doors open for peopleTransitive: Stimulus that alters value of another stimulusMust be just as available (Dr. asking for scalpel)
8 UMOSexTemperaturePainFoodWaterSleepActivityOxygenKey Point: These are not SDs because to have an SD you must have an Sdelta (neutral stimulus) to signal unavailability of reinforcement is a possibleAltered StatesDrugsAnxietyDo not cause behavior! They interact with environment however.Moderation Variables.What about treatment?You will never get rid of the UMO effectsYou will only weaken momentarilyMust development treatment that focuses on acceptable behavior to gain access to the reinforcerUMOs & PunishmentDifficult to know for sureObservation of the abative effect requires the evocative effect of an MO for reinforcement with respect to the punished behavior.Multiple EffectsEvocative effect: Do what you gotta doPunishment effect: Decreases probability you engage in the behavior that preceded the MOSMIRC ModelStimulusMotiviating OperationIndividualResponseConsequenceBehavior Analytic Problem-Solving ModelBeginning to pull it all togetherComponentsContextual Variables:Behavior occurs in some contexts but not othersAntecedent Stimuli: Environmental TriggersIndividual Mediators: Internal TriggersUMO & CMOIndividual Behavior Deficits:Try to reframe all behavior this way (your turn)Behavior:Not enough R+ or too much response effortConsequences:Consider function (careful of response topography and response class).
Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization 3 Types of StimuliDiscriminative Stimulus: Reinforcement is available (SD)
Neutral Stimulus: No reinforcement or punishment is available (S )
Warning Stimulus: Punishments is availableDiscrimination Training Learning when to behave and when not to behave
Reinforcing a response in presence of one stimulus but not anothere. g. ColorsColor DiscriminationWhat about you?When have you engaged in stimulus discrimination today?Stimulus ControlDegree of correlation between stimulus and response
Degree to which a behavior occurs in presence of a specific stimuluse.g. Traffic lightStimulus Generalization Gradient: Probability of response reinforced in one stimulus condition are emitted in the presence of untrained stimuli.Color Discrimination RevisitedWhat about you?What behaviors do you have that are under stimulus control?Lets discriminateLearning an Alien LanguageEffective discrimination training Choose distinct signalsMinimize opportunities for errorMinimize stimulus arrayMaximize Number of learning trialsMake use of rulesStimulus Generalization Responding similarly across two or more stimuli
The more the stimuli are alike the more likely the response to take place
e.g. finding your carWhat about you?What behaviors/responses do you generalize across settings?
Can that response always be generalized?
Should that response always be generalized?Classes of StimuliStimulus Class: Set of stimuli with similar characteristics in commonAKA: Concept
Equivalence Class: Set of stimuli with different characteristics, but represent the same thing
e.g. Written name, verbal name, picture of personInducing Stimuli Classes Explicit training is not necessarily needed to induce stimulus control across stimuli
Symmetry: A = BReflexivity: A = ATransivity: A = B; B = C; A = CDiscriminating discrimination among other discriminative stimuliStimulus discrimination and escapee.g. hailing a taxi out in the cold: Must have no patrons in it.
Stimulus discrimination and punishmente.g. Boiling pan: Do not touch or you get burned.Stimulus Discrimination and Differential Reinforcement
DR- 2 responses (right way and wrong way)and 1 stimuluse.g. Asking mom for money
SD- Two stimuli (Right signal wrong Signal) and 1 responsee.g. Asking mom OR dad for money?Requirements for stimulus controlAttention of the subject
Sensory capabilities of the subject
The stimulus must stand out relative to other stimuli.