Nationalism, Revolution, and Dictatorship: Africa, Asia, and Latin America from 1919 to 1939 23

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)


  • Slide 1
  • Nationalism, Revolution, and Dictatorship: Africa, Asia, and Latin America from 1919 to 1939 23
  • Slide 2
  • The Rise of Nationalism Modern Nationalism New class of Westernized intellectuals Admired Western culture Resented foreigners and their contempt for colonial people Equality in economic opportunity and social class lacking for western educated natives New urban class Religion and Nationalism Independence or modernization? The Nationalist Quandary Gradualist approach if the colonial regime was a source of reform If an impediment to change, independence a priority Incorporation of traditional way of life
  • Slide 3
  • Gandhi and the Indian National Congress First Indian nationalists were upper-class and educated Urban Preferred reform to revolution Efforts won some measure of self-government Indian National Congress, 1885 Sought self-determination for all Indians Religion will be a problem Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948) Returned from South Africa in 1915 Satyagraha, non-violent resistance Mahatma, Great Soul Government of India Act, 1921 Salt March New Leaders and New Problems Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964) The Muslim League
  • Slide 4
  • Nationalist Revolt in the Middle East Mustapha Kemal and the Modernization of Turkey Movement toward reform in Turkey Young Turks T.E. Lawrence Encouraged Arab nationalists during World War I Colonel Mustapha Kemal (1881-1938), Atatrk Create a secular republic Modernize the economy, written language, and education Broke the political power of the Islamic religion in Turkey
  • Slide 5
  • Modernization in Iran Qajar dynasty (1794-1925) Problems with Russian advances to the Caucasus Constitution granted in 1906 Influence of Russia and Great Britain Oil discovered, 1908 Reza Khan (1878-1944) seizes power in 1921 Wanted western style republic Pahlavi dynasty Changed the name of Persia to Iran Western-style education Rugs and oil
  • Slide 6
  • Nation-Building in Iraq Iraq emerged in aftermath of Ottoman collapse Sunnis, Shiites, and Kurds Placed under British control as a mandate of the League of Nations in 1920 Resistance to British rule Discovery of oil Granted formal independence in 1932
  • Slide 7
  • The Rise of Arab Nationalism and the Problem of Palestine Wahhabi revolt Arabs declared their independence from Ottoman rule in 1916 Mandates of the League of Nations Iraq and Jordan assigned to Britain Syria and Lebanon assigned to France Palestine was a separate mandate Balfour Declaration, 1917 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, created 1932 Ibn Saud Discovery of oil Jewish immigration into Palestine
  • Slide 8
  • Nationalism and Revolution in Asia and Africa Marxism Outside of Europe Marxism initially seen as irrelevant in Asia and Africa Marxist view of the colonial world Lenin and anti-colonialism Nationalist leaders did not want egalitarian society Lenins strategy: Agents to spread out beyond Soviet Union; Comintern, 1919 Train agents from around the world in Moscow Rank and file of parties should be alienated workers Adapt to local values and ally with other parties Most colonial communist parties in 1930s failed Appeal of Communism
  • Slide 9
  • 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license. The Northern Expedition
  • Slide 10
  • Revolution in China Revolution in China Chinese Communist party (CCP), 1921 General Yuan Shikai Wanted to return to traditional ways Guomindang (Nationalists) and revolution Mr. Science and Mr. Democracy: The New Culture Movement New Culture Movement Aimed at abolishing the remnants of the old system and introducing Western values and institutions into China Introduce a mix of new ideas Protest against Japanese efforts to expand its influence into the mainland Twenty-one demands by Japan in 1915 China accepted the Versailles Peace Conference decision The Nationalist-Communist Alliance By 1920, central authority had collapsed in China Northern Expedition, 1926-1928 Shanghai massacre, April 1927 Mao Zedong
  • Slide 11
  • Nanjing Republic, 1928 Chiang Kai-Shek formed new republic at Nanjing Attempt to put an end to the communists The Long March Chiang and political and economic reforms Poverty in the countryside Nanjing government preoccupied with bourgeois values with few links with the peasants New Life movement Repressive government Little success in land reform or in industrial development
  • Slide 12
  • Down with Confucius and Sons: Economic, Social, and Cultural Change in Republican China Slow growth in the industrial sector Assault on the old system by 1915, especially the Confucian concepts of the family and filial piety Adoption of western culture Does not penetrate villages and rural life Challenges in culture
  • Slide 13
  • Japan Between the Wars Experiment in Democracy Introduction of democratic ideas Genro (ruling oligarchy) Expanded suffrage Marxist labor movements and ultranationalists Literature A Zaibatsu Economy Manufacturing processes concentrated in a single enterprise Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Sumitomo, Yasuda Shidehara Diplomacy Need for raw materials and markets for goods Washington Conference, 1922 Diplomatic and economic means to achieve objectives Need for resources for heavy industry Growing feeling that the diplomacy of the1920s had failed
  • Slide 14
  • Latin America in the First Half of the Twentieth Century
  • Slide 15
  • The Latin America Economy and the United States Export of foodstuffs and raw materials European investments declined due to World War I The United States investments and political power grew Feelings of hostility Good Neighbor Policy Impact of the Great Depression
  • Slide 16
  • The Move to Authoritarianism Domination by an elite minority Argentina Hiplito Irigoyen (1852-1933) Brazil Military overthrows the monarchy Getulio Vargas (1883-1954) Autocratic Mexico Institutional Revolutionary Party Lzaro Crdenas (1895-1970) Land redistribution Seizes oil industry Latin American Culture Diego Rivera (1886-1957)
  • Slide 17
  • Discussion Questions What segments of colonial society led the challenge to European imperialism? Why? What were the key elements of Gandhis strategy of non- violent resistance to British rule? Compare and contrast the approaches of Chinese Nationalists and Communists to the countrys problems after World War I. What contributed to the entrenchment of authoritarian governments throughout Latin America in the 1930s?